Genesis 34

Genesis 34


Now DinahI the daughterII of Leah,III whom she had borneIV to Jacob,V

Notes on verse 1a

I “Dinah” = Dinah. 8x in OT. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dinah, one of Jacob’s daughters. Her name means “justice” or “judgment.”
II “daughter” = bat. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
III “Leah” = Leah. From laah (to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired; to be impatient or have a hard time; figuratively, being grieved or disgusted). This is Leah, meaning “weary” or “wild cow.” See
IV “borne” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
V “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

went outVI to visitVII the womenVIII of the region.IX 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “went out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
VII “visit” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
VIII “women” = bat. Same as “daughter” in v1. See note II above.
IX “region” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

2 When ShechemX sonXI of HamorXII the Hivite,XIII princeXIV of the region,

Notes on verse 2a

X “Shechem” = Shekem. From the same as shekem (shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens; figuratively, the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion); from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is Shechem, meaning “ridge.”
XI “son” = ben. Related to “daughter” in v1. See note II above.
XII “Hamor” = Chamor. 13x in OT. From the same as chamor (male donkey); from chamar (to be red, blush; to boil or foam, to glow red). This is Hamor or Chamor. It may mean “red one,” “male donkey,” or “rudiment.” See
XIII “Hivite” = Chivvi. Probably from the same as chavyah (life-giving, which implies the place where one lives like a village or place where one camps); probably from the same as Chavvah (Eve, life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare). This is Hivite, perhaps meaning villagers or tent villagers.
XIV “prince” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.

sawXV her, he seizedXVI her and layXVII with her by force.XVIII 

Notes on verse 2b

XV “saw” = raah. Same as “visit” in v1. See note VII above.
XVI “seized” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XVII “lay” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
XVIII “by force” = anah. Literally “and violated her.” This is to be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.

And his soulXIX was drawnXX to Dinah daughter of Jacob; he lovedXXI the girl,XXII and spokeXXIII tenderlyXXIV to her. 

Notes on verse 3

XIX “soul” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XX “drawn” = dabaq. This is to follow closely or abide fast, to cling or be joined together. Figuratively, it can mean to catch something by chasing after it, to overtake, or to stick. A man clings to his wife in Genesis 2:24, Shechem was deeply attracted to Dinah in Genesis 34:3, Ruth clung to Naomi in Ruth 1:14, Solomon clung to his foreign wives and concubines in 1 Kings 11:2. It is also used of a tongue sticking to the mouth, pursuing or overtaking as in battle, and also clinging to God.
XXI “loved” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
XXII “girl” = naarah. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.
XXIII “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXIV “tenderly to her” = al + leb + naarah. Literally “to the heart of the girl.” Lebab may be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments. Naarah is the same as “girl” in v3. See note XXII above.

So Shechem spoke to his fatherXXV Hamor, saying, “GetXXVI me this girlXXVII to be my wife.”XXVIII

Notes on verse 4

XXV “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “get” = laqach. Same as “seized” in v2. See note XVI above.
XXVII “girl” = yaldah. Related to “borne” in v1. 3x in OT. From yeled (something born –offspring, youth, fruit); from yalad (see note IV above). This is girl or lass.
XXVIII “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.

Now Jacob heardXXIX that Shechem had defiledXXX his daughter Dinah; but his sons wereXXXI with his cattleXXXII in the field,XXXIII so Jacob held his peaceXXXIV until they came.XXXV 

Notes on verse 5

XXIX “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXX “defiled” = tame. From tame (to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense). This is unclean, ill, or ritually impure.
XXXI “were” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XXXII “cattle” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
XXXIII “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XXXIV “held his peace” = charash. This is to scratch, which implies etching or plowing. It can mean to manufacture regardless of materials used. Figuratively, it can be to devise or conceal. It can also have a sense of secrecy. Hence, being silent or left alone. It can also be speechless.
XXXV “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

And Hamor the father of Shechem went out to Jacob to speak with him, 7 just as the sons of Jacob came in from the field. When they heard of it, the menXXXVI were indignantXXXVII and very angry,XXXVIII

Notes on verses 6-7a

XXXVI “men” = ish. Related to “wife” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
XXXVII “were indignant” = atsab. 17x in OT– 4x of humanity grieving God including Genesis 6:6 prior to the Flood. This is properly to carve. So it can mean to create or fashion. Figuratively, it means to hurt, grieve, worry, anger, or displease.
XXXVIII “angry” = charah. Perhaps related to charar (to be hot, burn, glow, melt, be scorched; figuratively, to incite passion, be angry). This is to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn. Figuratively it is a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy.

because he had committedXXXIX an outrageXL in IsraelXLI by lying with Jacob’s daughter, for such a thingXLII ought not to be done.XLIII

Notes on verse 7b

XXXIX “committed” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XL “outrage” = nebalah. 13x in OT. From nabal (to be foolish, senseless, fall away, faint, wither, to be wicked, disgrace). This is foolishness, disgrace, folly, outrage, villainy, a crime or punishment. Used frequently of sexual sin, but not always.
XLI “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XLII “such a thing” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
XLIII “done” = asah. Same as “committed” in v7. See note XXXIX above.

But Hamor spoke with them, saying, “The heartXLIV of my son Shechem longsXLV for your daughter; pleaseXLVI giveXLVII her to him in marriage.XLVIII 

Notes on verse 8

XLIV “heart” = nephesh. Same as “soul” in v3. See note XIX above.
XLV “longs” = chashaq. 11x in OT. This is to cling, have a desire, love, join, deliver.
XLVI “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XLVII “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XLVIII “marriage” = ishshah. Same as “wife” in v4. See note XXVIII above.

Make marriagesXLIX with us; give your daughters to us, and takeL our daughters for yourselves. 10 You shall liveLI with us;

Notes on verses 9-10a

XLIX “make marriages” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
L “take” = laqach. Same as “seized” in v2. See note XVI above.
LI “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

 and the landLII shall be openLIII to you; live and tradeLIV in it, and get propertyLV in it.” 

Notes on verse 10b

LII “land” = erets. Same as “region” in v1. See note IX above.
LIII “open” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LIV “trade” = sachar. To travel, go around. So, it is to travel like a peddler, to trade, to be a merchant. It can also mean to palpitate.
LV “get property” = achaz. This is to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession. It can also be to be afraid or hold back.

11 Shechem also said to her father and to her brothers,LVI “Let me findLVII favorLVIII with you,LIX and whatever you say to me I will give. 

Notes on verse 11

LVI “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
LVII “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LVIII “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
LIX “with you” = ayin. Literally “in your eyes.” This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

12 PutLX the marriage presentLXI and giftLXII as high as you like, and I will give whatever you ask me; only give me the girlLXIII to be my wife.”

Notes on verse 12

LX “put” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
LXI “marriage present” = mohar. 3x in OT. Perhaps from mahar (to barter, purchase, endow; to give dowry to marry). This is a purchase price or dowry.
LXII “gift” = mattan. Related to “give” in v8. 5x in OT. From natan (see note XLVII above). This is a gift or reward.
LXIII “girl” = naarah. Same as “girl” in v3. See note XXII above.

13 The sons of Jacob answered Shechem and his father Hamor deceitfully,LXIV because he had defiled their sisterLXV Dinah. 14 They said to them, “We cannotLXVI do this thing,LXVII to give our sister to oneLXVIII who is uncircumcised,LXIX for that would be a disgraceLXX to us. 

Notes on verses 13-14

LXIV “deceitfully” = mirmah. From ramah (to betray, deceive, beguile). This is deceit, treachery, guile, or fraud.
LXV “sister” = achot. Related to “brothers” in v11. From the same as ach (see note LVI above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean another or together.
LXVI “cannot” = lo + yakol. Yakol is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
LXVII “thing” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v3. From dabar (see note XXIII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXVIII “one” = enosh. Related to “wife” in v4 & “men” in v7. See note XXVIII above.
LXIX “uncircumcised” = orlah. 16x in OT. Perhaps from arel (uncircumcised, unskilled, exposed, forbidden); from arel (to strip or expose, restrain; to remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is foreskin or uncircumcised. It can also mean forbidden.
LXX “disgrace” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.

15 Only on this condition will we consentLXXI to you: that you will become as we are and every maleLXXII among you be circumcised.LXXIII 16 Then we will give our daughters to you, and we will take your daughters for ourselves, and we will live among you and become oneLXXIV people.LXXV 17 But if you will not listen to us and be circumcised, then we will take our daughter and be gone.”LXXVI

Notes on verses 15-17

LXXI “will…consent” = uth. 4x in OT. This is to consent or agree.
LXXII “male” = zakar. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is male. Properly, perhaps, it means one who is remembered, which is to say a male.
LXXIII “be circumcised” = mul. This is to cut off, cut in pieces, or destroy. It is used for to circumcise. It can also mean to blunt.
LXXIV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LXXV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LXXVI “be gone” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

18 Their wordsLXXVII pleasedLXXVIII, LXXIX Hamor andLXXX Hamor’s son Shechem. 

Notes on verse 18

LXXVII “words” = dabar. Same as “thing” in v14. See note LXVII above.
LXXVIII “pleased” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
LXXIX {untranslated} = ayin. Literally “in the eyes of.” Same as “with you” in v11. See note LIX above.
LXXX {untranslated} = ayin. Literally “in the eyes of.” Same as “with you” in v11. See note LIX above.

19 And the young manLXXXI did not delayLXXXII to do the thing, because he was delightedLXXXIII with Jacob’s daughter. Now he was the most honoredLXXXIV of all his family.LXXXV 

Notes on verse 19

LXXXI “young man” = naar. Related to “girl” in v3. See note XXII above.
LXXXII “delay” = achar. 17x in OT. This is to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay. It can also imply procrastination.
LXXXIII “delighted” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.
LXXXIV “was the most honored” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
LXXXV “family” = bayit + ab. Literally “his father’s house.” Bayit is related to “daughter” in v1 & “son” in v2. From banah (see note II above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple. Ab is the same as “father” in v4. See note XXV above.

20 So Hamor and his son Shechem came to the gateLXXXVI of their cityLXXXVII and spoke to the menLXXXVIII of their city, saying, 

Notes on verse 20

LXXXVI “gate” = shaar. May be related to sha’ar (to calculate or reckon; may come from a root that means to open up or split). This is a gate, door, or other opening like a port.
LXXXVII “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
LXXXVIII “men” = enosh. Same as “one” in v14. See note LXVIII above.

21 “These peopleLXXXIX are friendlyXC with us; let them live in the land and trade in it, for the landXCI is largeXCII enoughXCIII forXCIV them; let us take their daughters in marriage, and let us give them our daughters. 

Notes on verse 21

LXXXIX “people” = ish. Same as “men” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
XC “friendly” = shalem. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is safe, blameless, perfect, at peace, whole, friendly. It is complete in a literal or a figurative sense.
XCI {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XCII “large” = rachab. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is wide, extensive, spacious, or vast. It is roomy in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean liberty or proud.
XCIII “enough” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XCIV “for” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

22 Only on this condition will theyXCV agreeXCVI to live among us, to become one people: that every male among us be circumcised as they are circumcised. 23 Will not their livestock,XCVII their property,XCVIII and all their animalsXCIX be ours? Only let us agree with them, and they will live among us.” 24 And all who went out of the city gate heededC Hamor and his son Shechem; and every male was circumcised, all who went out of the gate of his city.

Notes on verses 22-24

XCV “they” = ish. Same as “men” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
XCVI “agree” = uth. Same as “will…consent” in v15. See note LXXI above.
XCVII “livestock” = miqneh. Same as “cattle” in v5. See note XXXII above.
XCVIII “property” = qinyan. Related to “cattle” in v5. 10x in OT. From qanah (see note XXXII above). This is property, riches, creation, property.
XCIX “animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
C “heeded” = shama. Same as “heard” in v5. See note XXIX above.

25 CIOn the thirdCII day, when they were still in pain,CIII twoCIV of the sons of Jacob, SimeonCV and Levi,CVI

Notes on verse 25a

CI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “were” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CII “third” = shelishi. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or one-third of something.
CIII “pain” = kaab. 8x in OT. This is being in pain, to be sad, grieve, spoil, or mar.
CIV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
CV “Simeon” = Shimon. Related to “heard” in v5. From shama (see note C above). This is Simeon, one of Jacob’s sons, his descendants, and their tribe. It means “hearing.”
CVI “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.

Dinah’s brothers,CVII took their swordsCVIII and came against the city unawares,CIX and killedCX all the males. 26 They killed Hamor and his son Shechem with theCXI sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house, and went away. 

Notes on verses 25b-26

CVII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “men” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
CVIII “swords” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CIX “unawares” = betach. From batach (to hide for refuge, be secure or sure; figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping). This is a place of refuge. So, abstractly, it can be confidence, security, hope, trust, or assurance.
CX “killed” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
CXI {untranslated} = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

27 And the other sons of Jacob came upon the slain,CXII and plunderedCXIII the city, because their sister had been defiled. 28 They took their flocksCXIV and their herds,CXV their donkeys,CXVI and whatever was in the city and in the field. 

Notes on verses 27-28

CXII “slain” = chalal. From chalal (to pierce, to wound; figuratively, making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is to pierce, profane or pollute. It can also refer to slain or deadly.
CXIII “plundered” = bazaz. This is to spoil, loot, pillage.
CXIV “flocks” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXV “herds” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
CXVI “donkeys” = chamor. Related to “Hamor” in v2. See note XII above.

29 All their wealth,CXVII all their little onesCXVIII and their wives, all that was in the houses, they capturedCXIX and made their prey.CXX 

Notes on verse 29

CXVII “wealth” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
CXVIII “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
CXIX “captured” = shabah. This is to carry away into captivity, bring away, capture, lead away.
CXX “made…prey” = bazaz. Same as “plundered” in v27. See note CXIII above.

30 Then Jacob said to Simeon and Levi, “You have brought troubleCXXI on me by making me odiousCXXII to the inhabitantsCXXIII of the land, the CanaanitesCXXIV and the Perizzites;CXXV

Notes on verse 30a

CXXI “brought trouble” = akar. 14x in OT. This is properly to stir water – figuratively it can be to trouble, harm, afflict, or worsen.
CXXII “making…odious” = baash. 18x in OT. This is to stink or be foul. Figuratively, it can refer to offensive behavior – morally odious or loathsome.
CXXIII “inhabitants” = yashab. Same as “live” in v10. See note LI above.
CXXIV “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
CXXV “Perizzites” = Perizzi. Perhaps from perazi (rural area, unwalled land); from the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftan, or throng). This is Perizzite, perhaps meaning rural or wild one.

my numbersCXXVI are few,CXXVII and if they gatherCXXVIII themselves against me and attackCXXIX me, I shall be destroyed,CXXX both I and my household.” 

31 But they said, “Should our sister be treatedCXXXI like a whore?”CXXXII

Notes on verses 30b-31

CXXVI “numbers” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.
CXXVII “few” = math. Perhaps from the same as mathay (when, how, length of time). This is a man, associate, friend, number. It is an adult or mortal.
CXXVIII “gather” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
CXXIX “attack” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CXXX “destroyed” = shamad. This is to demolish, destroy, perish, overthrow, pluck down.
CXXXI “be treated” = asah. Literally “he treat.” Asah is the same as “committed” in v7. See note XXXIX above.
CXXXII “whore” = zanah. This is being or playing a prostitute. Figuratively, it can also mean fornicating.

Image credit: “The Seduction of Dinah, Daughter of Leah” by James Tissot.

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