Genesis 41

Genesis 41


IAfter two whole years,II PharaohIII

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “two whole years” = shenayim + shanah + yom. Literally “two years of days.” Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Yom is root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
III “Pharaoh” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See

dreamedIV thatV he was standingVI by the Nile,VII 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “dreamed” = chalam. Properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump. This is to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream.
V {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
VI “standing” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
VII “Nile” = Yeor. From Egyptian yeor (river). This is the Nile as the main river in Egypt. It is also used for the Tigris for its similar status in Assyria. It can also more generally mean river, steam, channel, or flood.

andVIII there came upIX out of the Nile sevenX sleekXI

Notes on verse 2a

VIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
IX “came up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
X “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
XI “sleek” = yapheh + mareh. Yapheh is from yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is beautiful in a literal or figurative sense – appropriate, handsome, godly, pleasant. Mareh is from raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is sight, appearance, or vision. It can be a view, seeing itself, that which is seen, something real, or a vision one sees

and fatXII cows,XIII and they grazedXIV in the reed grass.XV 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “fat” = bari + basar. Bari is 14x in OT. From bara (to be fat); related to barah (to eat, choose, make clear). This is fat, firm, plenteous. Basar is from basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
XIII “cows” = parah. From the same as par (a young bull or ox); from parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a heifer or cow.
XIV “grazed” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
XV “reed grass” = achu. 3x in OT. This is likely an Egyptian word for the grass of reeds or bulrush.

ThenXVI seven otherXVII cows, uglyXVIII and thin,XIX came up out of the Nile afterXX them, and stood by the other cows on the bankXXI of the Nile. 

Notes on verse 3

XVI {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
XVII “other” = acher. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.
XVIII “ugly” = ra’ + mareh. Literally “bad looking.” Ra’ is from ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin. Mareh is the same as “sleek” in v2. See note XI above.
XIX “thin” = daq + basar. Daq is 15x in OT. From daqaq (to crush, crumble, make dust, be very small). This is thin, crushed, small, very little. Basar is the same as “fat” in v2. See note XII above.
XX “after” = achar. Related to “other” in v3. From achar (see note XVII above). This is following, after.
XXI “bank” = saphah. This is lip, edge, border, bank – used for a boundary. It can also be speech or language.

The ugly and thin cows ate upXXII the seven sleek and fat cows. And Pharaoh awoke. Then he fell asleepXXIII and dreamed a second time;XXIV, XXV

Notes on verses 4-5a

XXII “ate up” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIII “fell asleep” = yashen. This is to be languid or go slack. By implication it can mean to sleep, become old or stale, or die.
XXIV “second time” = sheni. Related to “two” in v1. See note II above.
XXV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.

seven ears of grain,XXVI plumpXXVII and good,XXVIII

Notes on verse 5b

XXVI “ears of grain” = shibbol. 19x in OT. From the same as shobel (the train of a skirt that flows after a woman). This is an ear of grain or corn, a branch, a stream or flood. It was also a word the Gileadites used to test the fugitives in Judges 12:6.
XXVII “plump” = bari. Same as “fat” in v2. See note XII above.
XXVIII “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

were growingXXIX on oneXXX stalk.XXXI 

Notes on verse 5c

XXIX “growing” = alah. Same as “came up” in v2. See note IX above.
XXX “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XXXI “stalk” = qaneh. Perhaps from qanah (to get, buy, redeem, create, possess). This is reed, branch, stalk, beam, or measuring rod.

6 ThenXXXII seven ears, thin and blightedXXXIII by the east wind,XXXIV sproutedXXXV after them. 

Notes on verse 6

XXXII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
XXXIII “blighted” = shadaph. 3x in OT – all in Genesis 41. This is to scorch or blight.
XXXIV “east wind” = qadim. From the same as qedem (front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity). This is the front part and so eastward. Sometimes used as a shorthand for the east wind.
XXXV “sprouted” = tsamach. This is to sprout, grow, or spring up – literal or figurative.

The thin ears swallowed upXXXVI the seven plump and fullXXXVII ears. Pharaoh awoke, andXXXVIII it was a dream.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVI “swallowed up” = bala. This is to swallow, engulf, cover, or destroy.
XXXVII “full” = male. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is full in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean filling or pregnant.
XXXVIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
XXXIX “dream” = chalom. Related to “dreamed” in v1. From chalam (see note IV above). This is a dream or dreamer.

8 XLIn the morningXLI his spiritXLII was troubled;XLIII

Notes on verse 8a

XL {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XLI “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XLII “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
XLIII “was troubled” = paam. 5x in OT – including Pharaoh’s reaction to his dream in Genesis 41 & Nebuchadnezzar’s reaction to his dream in Daniel 2. This is to move, trouble, to tap in a regular rhythm, to agitate.

so he sentXLIV and called forXLV all the magiciansXLVI of EgyptXLVII

Notes on verse 8b

XLIV “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XLV “called for” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XLVI “magicians” = chartom. 11x in OT. From the same as cheret (any kind of tool used for engraving – a stylus, chisel, or pen). This is an engraver or magician. It is someone who knows how to do occult things, so it could be a diviner or someone who does horoscopes. In the Bible, magicians interpret dreams (in Genesis and Daniel) and are also called on in Exodus to disprove or duplicate the miracles of God.
XLVII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

and all its wise men.XLVIII Pharaoh toldXLIX them his dreams, but there was no one who could interpretL them to Pharaoh.

Notes on verse 8c

XLVIII “wise men” = chakam. From chakam (to be wise or teach wisdom; this is wisdom in thought, word, or action). This is wise, skillful, cunning, or artful.
XLIX “told” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
L “interpret” = pathar. 9x in OT – all in Genesis 40 and 41. This is to open up, which is to say to interpret.

Then the chiefLI cupbearerLII saidLIII to Pharaoh, “I rememberLIV my faultsLV today.LVI 

Notes on verse 9

LI “chief” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
LII “cupbearer” = mashqeh. 19x in OT. From shaqah (to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown; watering plants or giving water to flocks). This is drinking, a drink, cupbearer, or a place that is well irrigated.
LIII “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LIV “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
LV “faults” = chet. From chata (to miss, sin, bear blame, to forfeit, lack). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.
LVI “today” = yom. Same as “two whole years” in v1. See note II above.

10 Once Pharaoh was angryLVII with his servants,LVIII and putLIX me

Notes on verse 10a

LVII “was angry” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
LVIII “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
LIX “put” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

and the chief bakerLX in custodyLXI in the houseLXII of the captainLXIII of the guard.LXIV 

Notes on verse 10b

LX “baker” = aphah. This is one who cooks or bakes – particularly one who cooks meat.
LXI “custody” = mishmar. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is jail, guard, watch, guard post.
LXII “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LXIII “captain” = sar. Same as “chief” in v9. See note LI above.
LXIV “guard” = tabbach. From tabach (to slaughter or butcher; of animals or people). This is cook or guardsman.

11 We dreamedLXV on the sameLXVI night,LXVII

Notes on verse 11a

LXV “dreamed” = chalam + chalom. Literally “dreamed a dream.” Chalam is the same as “dreamed” in v1. See note IV above. Chalom is the same as “dream” in v7. See note XXXIX above.
LXVI “same” = echad. Same as “one” in v5. See note XXX above.
LXVII “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.

he and I, eachLXVIII having a dreamLXIX with its own meaning.LXX 

Notes on verse 11b

LXVIII “each” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LXIX “having a dream” = chalom + chalom. Literally “dream that we dreamed.” See note LXV above.
LXX “meaning” = pithron. Related to “interpret” in v8. 5x in OT – only in Genesis 40 & 41. From pathar (see note L above). This is an interpretation.

12 A youngLXXI HebrewLXXII was there with us, a servant of the captain of the guard. When we told him, he interpreted our dreams to us, giving an interpretation to eachLXXIII according to his dream. 

Notes on verse 12

LXXI “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
LXXII “Hebrew” = Ibri. From Eber (the region beyond; Eber, the name of several Israelites including a descendant of Shem); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is Hebrew, perhaps meaning a descendant of Eber.
LXXIII “each” = enosh. Related to “each” in v11. See note LXVIII above.

13 LXXIVAs he interpreted to us, so it turned out;LXXV I was restoredLXXVI to my office,LXXVII and the baker was hanged.”LXXVIII

Notes on verse 13

LXXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXV “turned out” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
LXXVI “restored” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXXVII “office” = ken. 16x in OT. From the same as ken (to set upright; generally used figuratively for thus, so, afterwards, rightly so); perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a stand, place, right, honest, office.
LXXVIII “hanged” = talah. This is to hang or suspend. It can also be used for hanging someone on gallows.

14 Then Pharaoh sentLXXIX for Joseph,LXXX and he was hurriedly broughtLXXXI out of the dungeon.LXXXII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXIX {untranslated} = qara. Literally “and called for.” Same as “called for” in v8. See note XLV above.
LXXX “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
LXXXI “hurriedly brought” = ruts. This is to run or rush, divide quickly, bring swiftly. It can also refer to a footman or guard.
LXXXII “dungeon” = bor. From bur (to bore; figuratively, to explain, examine, or clear up). This is a pit – generally a cistern or dungeon. It could also be a well or fountain.

When he had shavedLXXXIII himself and changedLXXXIV his clothes,LXXXV he came inLXXXVI before Pharaoh. 15 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I have had a dream, and there is no one who can interpret it. I have heardLXXXVII it said of you that when you hear a dream you can interpret it.” 

Notes on verses 14b-15

LXXXIII “shaved” = galach. This is to shave, be bald, or figuratively to lay waste.
LXXXIV “changed” = chalaph. This is to slide by or rush like a flood. It can mean to pass through, change, sprout, renew, break a promise, pierce, or violate.
LXXXV “clothes” = simlah. Perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is mantle, clothes, wrapper.
LXXXVI “came in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXXVII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

16 Joseph answeredLXXXVIII Pharaoh, “It is not I; GodLXXXIX will give Pharaoh a favorableXC answer.” 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXVIII “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
LXXXIX “God” = Elohim.
XC “favorable” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

17 Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “In my dreamXCI I was standing on the banks of the Nile; 18 andXCII seven cows, fat and sleek,XCIII came up out of the Nile and fedXCIV in the reed grass. 

Notes on verses 17-18

XCI {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
XCII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
XCIII {untranslated} = toar. 15x in OT. From taar (to incline, extend, mark out). This is an outline and so a form or figure or appearance.
XCIV “fed” = ra’ah. Same as “grazed” in v2. See note XIV above.

19 ThenXCV seven other cows came up after them, poor,XCVI very ugly,XCVII and thin.XCVIII

Notes on verse 19a

XCV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
XCVI “poor” = dallah. 8x in OT. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that dangles, so it could refer to a thread or a hair. It could also mean poor, indigent, or a wasting illness.
XCVII {untranslated} = toar. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note XCIII above.
XCVIII “thin” = raq + basar. 3x in OT. Raq is perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is thin, surely, only. Basar is the same as “fat” in v2. See note XII above.

Never had I seenXCIX such uglyC ones in all the landCI of Egypt. 

Notes on verse 19b

XCIX “seen” = raah. Related to “sleek” in v2. See note XI above.
C “ugly” = roa. Related to “ugly” in v3. 19x in OT. From ra’a’ (see note XVIII above). This is badness, sorrow, or wickedness. It Is something negative that affects one bodily or ethically.
CI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

20 The thinCII and uglyCIII cows ate up the firstCIV seven fat cows, 

Notes on verse 20

CII “thin” = raq. Same as “thin” in v19. See note XCVIII above.
CIII “ugly” = ra’. Same as “ugly” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CIV “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.

21 but when they had eatenCV them no one would have knownCVI that they had doneCVII so, for they were still as ugly as before.CVIII Then I awoke. 

Notes on verse 21

CV “eaten” = bo + el+ qereb. Bo is the same as “came in” in v14. See note LXXXVI above. Qereb is perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CVI “known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CVII “done” = bo + el + qereb. Same as “eaten” in v21. See note CV above.
CVIII “before” = techillah. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is beginning, first, previously.

22 I fell asleep a second time and I saw in my dreamCIX seven ears of grain, full and good, growing on one stalk, 23 andCX seven ears, withered,CXI thin,CXII and blighted by the east wind, sprouting after them; 24 and the thinCXIII ears swallowed up the seven good ears. But when I told it to the magicians, there was no one who could explainCXIV it to me.”

Notes on verses 22-24

CIX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
CX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
CXI “withered” = tsanam. 1x in OT. This is to dry up, shrink, harden, or wither.
CXII “thin” = daq. Same as “thin” in v3. See note XIX above.
CXIII “thin” = daq. Same as “thin” in v3. See note XIX above.
CXIV “explain” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.

25 Then Joseph said to Pharaoh, “Pharaoh’s dreams are one and the same; God has revealedCXV to Pharaoh what he is about to do.CXVI 26 The seven good cows are seven years, and the seven good ears are seven years; the dreams are one. 27 The seven leanCXVII and uglyCXVIII cows that came up after them are seven years, as areCXIX the seven emptyCXX ears blighted by the east wind. They are seven years of famine.CXXI 

Notes on verses 25-27

CXV “revealed” = nagad. Same as “explain” in v24. See note CXIV above.
CXVI “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CXVII “lean” = raq. Same as “thin” in v19. See note XCVIII above.
CXVIII “ugly” = ra’. Same as “ugly” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXIX “are” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXX “empty” = req. 14x in OT. From riq (to be empty or to make empty; also vanity, emptiness, something worthless, in vain); from ruq (to pour out in a literal or figurative sense, hence, to be or make empty). This is empty, vain, or worthless.
CXXI “famine” = raab. From raeb (to be hungry). This is hunger, death, or hunger from famine.

28 ItCXXII is as I told Pharaoh; God has shown to Pharaoh what he is about to do. 29 CXXIIIThere will comeCXXIV seven years of greatCXXV plentyCXXVI throughout all the land of Egypt. 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXXII {untranslated} = dabar. Related to “said” in v9. From dabar (see note LIII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CXXIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note V above.
CXXIV “come” = bo. Same as “came in” in v14. See note LXXXVI above.
CXXV “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
CXXVI “plenty” = saba. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is plenty, abundance, or full (as in full of food).

30 After them there will ariseCXXVII seven years of famine, and all the plenty will be forgottenCXXVIII in the land of Egypt; the famine will consumeCXXIX the land. 

Notes on verse 30

CXXVII “arise” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXXVIII “forgotten” = sakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
CXXIX “consume” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.

31 The plenty will no longer be known in the land because ofCXXX the famine that will follow,CXXXI for it will be very grievous.CXXXII 

Notes on verse 31

CXXX “because of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXXXI “follow” = achar. Same as “after” in v3. See note XX above.
CXXXII “grievous” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).

32 And the doublingCXXXIII of Pharaoh’s dream means that the thingCXXXIV is fixedCXXXV by God, and God will shortlyCXXXVI bring it about.CXXXVII 

Notes on verse 32

CXXXIII “doubling” = shanahpaam. Shanah is related to “two whole years” in v1 & “second time” in v5. See note II above. Paam is related to “troubled” in v8. From paam (see note XLIII above). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CXXXIV “thing” = dabar. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note CXXII above.
CXXXV “is fixed” = kun. Related to “office” in v13. See note LXXVII above.
CXXXVI “shortly” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
CXXXVII “bring…about” = asah. Same as “do” in v25. See note CXVI above.

33 Now therefore let Pharaoh selectCXXXVIII a manCXXXIX who is discerningCXL and wise,CXLI and setCXLII him over the land of Egypt. 

Notes on verse 33

CXXXVIII “select” = raah. Same as “seen” in v19. See note XCIX above.
CXXXIX “man” = ish. Same as “each” in v11. See note LXVIII above.
CXL “discerning” = bin. This is to discern, consider, attend to. It refers to distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand.
CXLI “wise” = chakam. Same as “wise men” in v8. See note XLVIII above.
CXLII “set” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.

34 Let Pharaoh proceedCXLIII to appointCXLIV overseersCXLV over the land, and take one-fifth of the produce of the land of Egypt during the seven plenteousCXLVI years. 

Notes on verse 34

CXLIII “proceed” = asah. Same as “do” in v25. See note CXVI above.
CXLIV “appoint” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
CXLV “overseers” = paqid. Related to “appoint” in v34. 13x in OT. From paqad (see note CXLIV above). This is a superintendent or commissioner, whether in a civil setting, as a rank in the military, or in a religious sphere.
CXLVI “plenteous” = saba. Same as “plenty” in v29. See note CXXVI above.

35 Let them gatherCXLVII all the foodCXLVIII of these good years that are coming, and lay upCXLIX grainCL

Notes on verse 35a

CXLVII “gather” = qabats. This is to collect, assemble, heap, grasp, or gather.
CXLVIII “food” = okel. Related to “ate up” in v4. From akal (see note XXII above). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.
CXLIX “lay up” = tsabar. 7x in OT.  This is to gather, store, or heap up.
CL “grain” = bar. 14x in OT. From barar (to select, polish, cleanse, brighten, purify). This is something that is winnowed so any kind of grain, whether in the field or harvested. It can be corn, wheat, or other grains. This can also refer to a field or the open country.

under the authorityCLI of Pharaoh for food in the cities,CLII and let them keepCLIII it. 

Notes on verse 35b

CLI “authority” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CLII “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CLIII “keep” = shamar. Related to “custody” in v10. See note LXI above.

36 That food shall be a reserveCLIV for the land against the seven years of famine that are to befallCLV the land of Egypt, so that the land may not perishCLVI through the famine.”

Notes on verse 36

CLIV “reserve” = piqqadon. Related to “appoint” and “overseers” in v34. 4x in OT. From paqad (see note CXLIV above). This is a deposit or store.
CLV “befall” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CLVI “perish” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

37 The proposalCLVII pleasedCLVIII Pharaoh and all his servants.CLIX 38 Pharaoh said to his servants, “Can we findCLX anyone else like this—one in whom is the spirit of God?” 

Notes on verses 37-38

CLVII “proposal” = dabar. Same as {untranslated} in v28. See note CXXII above.
CLVIII “pleased” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CLIX Literally, “the proposal was pleasing in the eyes of Pharaoh and in the eyes of all his servants.” “Eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CLX “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.

39 So Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has shownCLXI you all this, there is no one so discerning and wise as you. 40 You shall be over my house, and all my peopleCLXII shall orderCLXIII themselves as you command;CLXIV

Notes on verses 39-40a

CLXI “shown” = yada. Same as “known” in v21. See note CVI above.
CLXII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CLXIII “order” = nashaq. This is to kiss in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to touch, rule, or equip with weapons.
CLXIV “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

only with regard toCLXV the throneCLXVI will I be greaterCLXVII than you.” 

Notes on verse 40b

CLXV “with regard to” = raq. Related to “thin” in v19. From the same as raq (see note XCVIII above). This is leanness literally. It is but, nevertheless, except, or some other limitation.
CLXVI “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.
CLXVII “be greater” = gadal. Related to “great” in v29. See note CXXV above.

41 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, “See, I have setCLXVIII you over all the land of Egypt.” 42 RemovingCLXIX his signet ringCLXX from his hand,CLXXI

Notes on verses 41-42a

CLXVIII “set” = natan. Same as “put” in v10. See note LIX above.
CLXIX “removing” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CLXX “signet ring” = tabbaath. From taba (to sink, drown, settle, or fasten). This is a signet ring or seal. It can also be used more broadly for rings in general.
CLXXI “hand” = yad. Same as “authority” in v35. See note CLI above.

Pharaoh put it on Joseph’s hand; he arrayedCLXXII him in garmentsCLXXIII of fine linen,CLXXIV

Notes on verse 42b

CLXXII “arrayed” = labash. This is to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else. This is wrapping around in a literal or figurative way.
CLXXIII “garments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
CLXXIV “fine linen” = shesh. This refers to byssus flax, a bleached fabric – white linen. It can also figuratively refer to marble.

and putCLXXV a goldCLXXVI chainCLXXVII around his neck.CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 42c

CLXXV “put” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CLXXVI “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
CLXXVII “chain” = rabid. 2x in OT. Perhaps from rabad (to spread over). This is a chain or necklace.
CLXXVIII “neck” = tsavvar. Related to “Egypt” in v8. Perhaps from tsur (see note XLVII above). This is the neck or the back of the neck.

43 He had him rideCLXXIX in the chariotCLXXX of his secondCLXXXI-in-command;

Notes on verse 43a

CLXXIX “ride” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
CLXXX “chariot” = merkabah. Related to “ride” in v43. From merkab (chariot, saddle, covering; any seat in a vehicle); from rakab (see note CLXXIX above). This is a chariot.
CLXXXI “second” = mishneh. Related to “two whole years” in v1 & “second time” in v5 & “doubling” in v32. From shanah (see note II above). This is double, second, next. It can be second in line, having the rank of second, or a reference to quality.

and they cried outCLXXXII in front ofCLXXXIII him, “Bow the knee!”CLXXXIV Thus he set him over all the land of Egypt. 

Notes on verse 43b

CLXXXII “cried out” = qara. Same as “called for” in v8. See note XLV above.
CLXXXIII “in front of” = paneh. Literally “before his face.” Same as “because of” in v31. See note CXXX above.
CLXXXIV “bow the knee” = abrek. 1x in OT. This may come from Egyptian. It is to kneel.

44 Moreover Pharaoh said to Joseph, “I am Pharaoh, and without your consent no one shall lift upCLXXXV hand or footCLXXXVI in all the land of Egypt.” 45 Pharaoh gaveCLXXXVII Joseph the nameCLXXXVIII Zaphenath-paneah;CLXXXIX

Notes on verses 44-45a

CLXXXV “lift up” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
CLXXXVI “foot” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
CLXXXVII “gave” = qara. Same as “called for” in v8. See note XLV above.
CLXXXVIII “name” = shem. Related to “put” in v42. May be from sim (see note CLXXV above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CLXXXIX “Zaphenath-paneah” = Tsaphenath-paneach. 1x in OT. Perhaps from Egyptian OR from tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk) + nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense) + yapha (to be beautiful, shine). This is Zaphenath-paneh, meaning “the god speaks and he lives,” “stored beautiful rest,” “savior of the age,” “revealer of a secret.” See

and he gave him AsenathCXC daughterCXCI of Potiphera,CXCII

Notes on verse 45b

CXC “Asenath” = Asenath. 3x in OT. Perhaps from asah (to be hurt) OR from asna (thorn bush) OR from Egyptian (referring to Neith, a creator goddess and mother of the gods, also a goddess of war and weaving) This is Asenath. It may mean “belonging to Neith,” “belonging to Neir,” “harms,” “evils,” or thorn bush.” See &
CXCI “daughter” = bat. Related to “house” in v10. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (see note LXII above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCII “Potiphera” = Poti phera. 3x in OT. From Egyptian words meaning “put” + Ra. This is Potiphera, meaning “he whom the Ra gave,” i.e. a gift from god. See

priestCXCIII of On,CXCIV as his wife.CXCV Thus Joseph gained authorityCXCVI over the land of Egypt.

Notes on verse 45c

CXCIII “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CXCIV “On” = On. 3x in OT. From Egyptian iunnu (pillar) OR ei-n-re (“abode of the sun”). This is On, a northern city in Egypt where Ra was particularly celebrated. It means “pillar,” “stone,” or “vigor.” See
CXCV “wife” = ishshah. Related to “each” in v11 & “each” in v12. From ish (see note LXVIII above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CXCVI “gained authority” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.

46 Joseph was thirtyCXCVII years oldCXCVIII when he entered the serviceCXCIX ofCC Pharaoh king of Egypt.

Notes on verse 46a

CXCVII “thirty” = sheloshim. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is thirty or thirtieth.
CXCVIII “old” = ben. Related to “house” in v10 & “daughter” in v45. See note CXCI above.
CXCIX “entered the service” = amad. Same as “standing” in v1. See note VI above.
CC “of” = paneh. Same as “because” in v31. See note CXXX above.

And Joseph went outCCI from the presenceCCII of Pharaoh, and wentCCIII through all the land of Egypt. 47 During the seven plenteous years the earth producedCCIV abundantly.CCV 

Notes on verses 46b-47

CCI “went out” = yatsa. Same as “gained authority” in v45. See note CXCVI above.
CCII “presence” = paneh. Same as “because” in v31. See note CXXX above.
CCIII “went” = abar. Related to “Hebrew” in v12. See note LXXII above.
CCIV “produced” = asah. Same as “do” in v25. See note CXVI above.
CCV “abundantly” = qomets. 4x in OT – all in Genesis and Leviticus. From qamats (to grasp). This is a fist, handful, a reference to plenty.

48 He gathered up all the food of the seven years when there was plenty in the land of Egypt, and stored upCCVI food in the cities; he stored up inCCVII every city the food from the fieldsCCVIII aroundCCIX it. 

Notes on verse 48

CCVI “stored up” = natan. Same as “put” in v10. See note LIX above.
CCVII “in” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CCVIII “fields” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CCIX “around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.

49 So Joseph stored upCCX grain in such abundanceCCXI—like the sandCCXII of the seaCCXIII

Notes on verse 49a

CCX “stored up” = tsabar. Same as “lay up” in v35. See note CXLIX above.
CCXI “abundance” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CCXII “sand” = chol. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting). This is sand, perhaps because of its roundness or the way that the grains can whirl.
CCXIII “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

that he stoppedCCXIV measuringCCXV it; it was beyond measure.CCXVI

Notes on verse 49b

CCXIV “stopped” = chadal. This is properly to be flabby – it implies, to stop, fall, end, rest, leave alone, forsake, or desist. Figuratively this can be lacking or idle.
CCXV “measuring” = saphar. Same as “told” in v8. See note XLIX above.
CCXVI “measure” = mispar. Related to “told” in v8. From the same as sepher (see note XLIX above). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.

50 Before the years of famine came, Joseph hadCCXVII two sons,CCXVIII whom Asenath daughter of Potiphera, priest of On, boreCCXIX to him. 

Notes on verse 50

CCXVII “had” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
CCXVIII “sons” = ben. Same as “old” in v46. See note CXCVIII above.
CCXIX “bore” = yalad. Same as “had” in v50. See note CCXVII above.

51 Joseph namedCCXX the firstbornCCXXI Manasseh,CCXXII 

Notes on verse 51a

CCXX “named” = qarashem. Qara is the same as “called for” in v8. See note XLV above. Shem is the same as “name” in v45. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CCXXI “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CCXXII Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.

“For,” he said, “God has made me forgetCCXXIII all my hardshipCCXXIV and all my father’sCCXXV house.” 

Notes on verse 51b

CCXXIII “forget” = nashah. Related to “Manasseh” in v51. 6x in OT. See note CCXXII above.
CCXXIV “hardship” = amal. From amal (to work – hard labor). This is trouble, toil, labor as well as misery, sorrow, or iniquity. It is work that wearies through effort so hence worry – can refer to body or mind.
CCXXV “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

52 The second he named Ephraim,CCXXVI “For God has made me fruitfulCCXXVII in the land of my misfortunes.”CCXXVIII

Notes on verse 52

CCXXVI “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
CCXXVII “made…fruitful” = parah. Related to “Ephraim” in v52. See note CCXXVI above.
CCXXVIII “misfortunes” = oniy. From anah (to be bowed down; humility or being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed; literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance). This is misery, poverty, or affliction.

53 The seven years of plenty that prevailedCCXXIX in the land of Egypt came to an end;CCXXX 54 and the seven years of famine beganCCXXXI to come, just as Joseph had said. There was famine in every country,CCXXXII but throughout the land of Egypt there was bread.CCXXXIII 

Notes on verses 53-54

CCXXIX “prevailed” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCXXX “came to an end” = kalah. Same as “consume” in v30. See note CXXIX above.
CCXXXI “began” = chalal. Related to “before” in v21. See note CVIII above.
CCXXXII “country” = erets. Same as “land” in v19. See note CI above.
CCXXXIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

55 When all the land of Egypt was famished,CCXXXIV the people criedCCXXXV to Pharaoh for bread. Pharaoh said to all the Egyptians,CCXXXVI “GoCCXXXVII to Joseph; what he says to you, do.” 

Notes on verse 55

CCXXXIV “famished” = raeb. Related to “famine” in v27. 17x in OT. See note CXXI above.
CCXXXV “cried” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
CCXXXVI “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v8 & “neck” in v42. From the same as Mitsrayim (see note XLVII above). This is Egyptian.
CCXXXVII “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

56 And since the famine had spreadCCXXXVIII over allCCXXXIX the land, Joseph openedCCXL all the storehouses, and soldCCXLI to the Egyptians, for the famine was severeCCXLII in the land of Egypt. 57 Moreover, all the worldCCXLIII came to Joseph in Egypt to buy grain,CCXLIV because the famine became severe throughout the world.

Notes on verses 56-57

CCXXXVIII “spread” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCXXXIX {untranslated} = paneh. Literally “the face of the land.” Same as “because of” in v31. See note CXXX above.
CCXL “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
CCXLI “sold” = shabar. From sheber (corn, grain). This is to trade in grain, whether to buy or sell.
CCXLII “was severe” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
CCXLIII “world” = erets. Same as “land” in v19. See note CI above.
CCXLIV “buy grain” = shabar. Same as “sold” in v56. See note CCXLI above.

Image credit: “Joseph Explains Pharaoh’s Dream” by Adrien Guignet, 19th century.

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