Genesis 37

Genesis 37


JacobI settledII in the landIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
II “settled” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
III “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

where his fatherIV had lived as an alien,V the land of Canaan.VI This is the story of the familyVII of Jacob.

Notes on verses 1b-2a

IV “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
V “lived as an alien” = magor. From gur (properly, the act of turning off the road for any reason; sojourning, becoming a guest; can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory; also dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration). This is a dwelling place, a temporary lodging. It can also mean to be fearful as one might be in a strange place.
VI “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See
VII “family” = toledot. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is generations descent, family, or history.

Joseph,VIII being seventeenIX years old,X wasXI shepherdingXII the flockXIII with his brothers;XIV

Notes on verse 2b

VIII “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
IX “seventeen” = sheba + asar. Sheba is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection. Asar is from eser (ten). This is ten or -teen.
X “old” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “was” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XII “shepherding” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
XIII “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
XIV “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

he was a helperXV to the sonsXVI of BilhahXVII andXVIII Zilpah,XIX his father’s wives;XX

Notes on verse 2c

XV “helper” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XVI “sons” = ben. Same as “old” in v2. See note X above.
XVII “Bilhah” = Bilhah. 11x in OT. From balahh (to be afraid, to palpitate) OR from balah (to wear out). This is Bilhah, perhaps meaning “timid,” “trouble,” “foolish,” or “calamity.” It is also a place. See
XVIII {untranslated} = ben. Literally “and the sons of.” Same as “old” in v2. See note X above.
XIX “Zilpah” = Zilpah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from zalaph (drip, sprinkle, pour – as fragrance or myrrh does). This is Zilpah, meaning “drop” or “sprinkle.” See
XX “wives” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.

and Joseph broughtXXI a badXXII reportXXIII of them to their father. 

Notes on verse 2d

XXI “brought” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXII “bad” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
XXIII “report” = dibbah. 9x in OT. From dabab (to glide, flow gently, move slowly, speak). This is flowing so it can mean whispering, bad report, slander, or infamy.

Now IsraelXXIV lovedXXV Joseph more than any other of his children,XXVI because he was the son of his old age;XXVII

Notes on verse 3a

XXIV “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXV “loved” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.
XXVI “children” = ben. Same as “old” in v2. See note X above.
XXVII “old age” = zaqun. 4x in OT– all in Genesis. From zaqen (to be old, grow old, old man); from the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old age.

and he had madeXXVIII him a long robeXXIX with sleeves.XXX 

Notes on verse 3b

XXVIII “made” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXIX “robe” = kethoneth. Root may mean to cover. This is a tunic, coat, or other kind of garment.
XXX “sleeves” = pas. 5x in OT– of Joseph’s coat and of Tamar’s robe in 2 Samuel 13:18-19. Perhaps from pasas (to disappear, disperse); from pas (palm of the hand). This is the palm of the hand or flat of the foot. It can be used to describe a robe that is long that has sleeves or maybe an especially wide one. Sometimes this has been translated as having many colors.

But when his brothers sawXXXI that their father loved him more than all his brothers, they hatedXXXII him, and couldXXXIII not speakXXXIV peaceablyXXXV to him.

Notes on verse 4

XXXI “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXXII “hated” = sane. This is an enemy or foe. It is one that is hated with a personal hatred.
XXXIII “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XXXIV “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXXV “peaceably” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).

Once Joseph hadXXXVI a dream,XXXVII and when he toldXXXVIII it to his brothers, they hated him even more.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “had” = chalam. Properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump. This is to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream.
XXXVII “dream” = chalom. Related to “had” in v5. From chalam (see note XXXVI above). This is a dream or dreamer.
XXXVIII “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
XXXIX “more” = yasaph. Related to “Joseph” in v2. See note VIII above.

He said to them, “ListenXL, XLI to this dream that I dreamed.XLII 

Notes on verse 6

XL “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XLI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
XLII “dreamed” = chalam. Same as “had” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

XLIIIThere we were, bindingXLIV sheavesXLV in the field.XLVI

Notes on verse 7a

XLIII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XLIV “binding” = alam. 9x in OT. This is to bind or tie fast. When applied to the mouth, it means to be silent or speechless. This can be voluntary or involuntary.
XLV “sheaves” = alummah. Related to “binding” in v7. 5x in OT. From the same as alam (see note XLIV above). This is something that has been gathered and bound, such a s a sheaf.
XLVI “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

SuddenlyXLVII my sheaf roseXLVIII and stood upright;XLIX thenL your sheaves gathered aroundLI it, and bowed downLII to my sheaf.” 

Notes on verse 7b

XLVII “suddenly” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.
XLVIII “rose” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XLIX “stood upright” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
L {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.
LI “gathered around” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “bowed down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

His brothers said to him, “Are you indeed to reignLIII over us? Are you indeed to have dominionLIV over us?” SoLV they hated him even more because of his dreams and his words.LVI

Notes on verse 8

LIII “indeed to reign” = malak + malak. To be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned. By implication, to take counsel. This word may be from the Hebrew word for king “melek” or vice versa. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LIV “indeed to have dominion” = mashal + mashal. This is to rule, reign, govern, have authority, wield. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LV “so” = yasaph. Same as “more” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LVI “words” = dabar. Related to “speak” in v4. From dabar (see note XXXIV above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

He had another dream, and toldLVII it to his brothers, saying, “Look,LVIII I have had another dream:LIX

Notes on verse 9a

LVII “told” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.
LVIII “look” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.
LIX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.

the sun,LX the moon,LXI and elevenLXII starsLXIII were bowing down to me.” 

Notes on verse 9b

LX “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
LXI “moon” = yareach. Perhaps from the same as yerach (month). This is moon.
LXII “eleven” = echad + asar. Echad is perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few. Asar is the same as “seventeen” in v2. See note IX above.
LXIII “stars” = kokab. Perhaps from the same as kavah (to prick, blister, burn, scorch). This is a star as shining, stargaze. Figuratively, can mean prince.

10 But when he toldLXIV it to his father and to his brothers, his father rebukedLXV him, and said to him, “What kind of dream is this that you have had? Shall we indeed come,LXVI I and your motherLXVII and your brothers, and bow to the groundLXVIII before you?” 

Notes on verse 10

LXIV “told” = saphar. Same as “told” in v9. See note LVII above.
LXV “rebuked” = gaar. 14x in OT. This is to rebuke, corrupt, or chide.
LXVI “indeed come” = bo + bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note XXI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXVII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVIII “ground” = erets. Same as “land” in v1. See note III above.

11 So his brothers were jealousLXIX of him, but his father keptLXX the matterLXXI in mind.

Notes on verse 11

LXIX “were jealous” = qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy.
LXX “kept” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LXXI “matter” = dabar. Same as “words” in v8. See note LVI above.

12 Now his brothers wentLXXII to pastureLXXIII their father’s flock near Shechem.LXXIV 13 And Israel said to Joseph, “Are not your brothers pasturing the flock at Shechem? Come, I will sendLXXV you to them.”

He answered, “Here I am.”LXXVI 

Notes on verses 12-13

LXXII “went” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXIII “pasture” = ra’ah. Same as “shepherding” in v2. See note XII above.
LXXIV “Shechem” = Shekem. From the same as shekem (shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens; figuratively, the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion); from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is Shechem, meaning “ridge.”
LXXV “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXXVI “here I am” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.

14 So he said to him, “Go now,LXXVII see if it is wellLXXVIII with your brothers and with the flock; and bring word backLXXIX to me.” So he sent him from the valleyLXXX of Hebron.LXXXI

Notes on verse 14a

LXXVII “now” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XLI above.
LXXVIII “well” = shalom. Same as “peaceably” in v4. See note XXXV above.
LXXIX “bring…back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXXX “valley” = emeq. From amoq (to be deep in a literal or figurative sense; profound). This is Vale or valley – frequently part of place names.
LXXXI “Hebron” = Chebron. From cheber (company, society, enchantment, wide); from chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Hebron, meaning “seat of association” or “league.”

He came to Shechem, 15 and a manLXXXII foundLXXXIII himLXXXIV wanderingLXXXV in the fields; the man askedLXXXVI him, “What are you seeking?”LXXXVII 

Notes on verses 14b-15

LXXXII “man” = enosh. Related to “wives” in v2. See note XX above.
LXXXIII “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
LXXXIV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.
LXXXV “wandering” = taah. This is to wander, deceive, seduce, vacillate. It is to stray in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVI “asked” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
LXXXVII “seeking” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.

16 “I am seeking my brothers,” he said; “tell me, please,LXXXVIII where they are pasturing the flock.” 

17 The manLXXXIX said, “They have gone away,XC for I heard them say, ‘Let us go to Dothan.’”XCI So Joseph went after his brothers, and found them at Dothan. 

Notes on verses 16-17

LXXXVIII “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XLI above.
LXXXIX “man” = ish. Related to “wives” in v2 & “man” in v15. See note XX above.
XC “gone away” = nasa.  This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
XCI “Dothan” = Dothan. 3x in OT. Perhaps from Aramaic dat (“decree or well”). This is Dothan, north of Samaria, meaning “decree,” “well,” or “two cisterns.” See

18 They saw him from a distance,XCII and before he came nearXCIII to them, they conspiredXCIV to killXCV him. 

19 They said to oneXCVI another,XCVII “Here comes thisXCVIII dreamer. 

Notes on verses 18-19

XCII “distance” = rachoq. From rachaq (to widen, become distant, cast, or remove in a literal or figurative sense). This is distant or far, whether of space or of time.
XCIII “came near” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XCIV “conspired” = nakal. 4x in OT. This is to deceive, defraud, be crafty or treacherous. It can also mean to conspire.
XCV “kill” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XCVI “one” = ish. Same as “man” in v17. See note LXXXIX above.
XCVII “another” = ach. Same as “brothers” in v2. See note XIV above.
XCVIII {untranslated} = hinneh + baal. Hinneh is the same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above. Baal is from baal (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is lord, owner, ally, master, or archer.

20 Come now, let us killXCIX him and throwC him into oneCI of the pits;CII

Notes on verse 20a

XCIX “kill” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
C “throw” = shalak. This is to throw, fling, or hurl. It can also be to throw away in a literal or figurative sense.
CI “one” = echad. Same as “eleven” in v9. See note LXII above.
CII “pits” = bor. From bur (to bore; figuratively, to explain, examine, or clear up). This is a pit – generally a cistern or dungeon. It could also be a well or fountain.

then we shall say that a wildCIII animalCIV has devouredCV him, and we shall see what will become of his dreams.” 

Notes on verse 20b

CIII “wild” = ra’. Same as “bad” in v2. See note XXII above.
CIV “animal” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CV “devoured” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

21 But when ReubenCVI heard it, he deliveredCVII him out of their hands,CVIII saying, “Let us not takeCIX his life.”CX 

Notes on verse 21

CVI “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “saw” in v4 & “old” in v2. From raah (see note XXXI above) + ben (see note X above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
CVII “delivered” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.
CVIII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CIX “take” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CX “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

22 Reuben said to them, “ShedCXI no blood;CXII throw him into this pit here in the wilderness,CXIII but lay no hand on him”—that he might rescueCXIV him out of their hand and restoreCXV him to his father. 

Notes on verse 22

CXI “shed” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.
CXII “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
CXIII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “speak” in v4 & “words” in v8. From dabar (see note XXXIV above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
CXIV “rescue” = natsal. Same as “delivered” in v21. See note CVII above.
CXV “restore” = shub. Same as “bring…back” in v14. See note LXXIX above.

23 SoCXVI when Joseph came to his brothers, they strippedCXVII him of his robe, the long robe with sleeves that he wore; 24 and they tookCXVIII him and threw him into a pit. The pit was empty;CXIX there was no waterCXX in it.

Notes on verses 23-24

CXVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “was” in v2. See note XI above.
CXVII “stripped” = pashat. This is to raid or invade. Figuratively, it means to strip or plunder.
CXVIII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXIX “empty” = req. 14x in OT. From riq (to be empty or to make empty; also vanity, emptiness, something worthless, in vain); from ruq (to pour out in a literal or figurative sense, hence, to be or make empty). This is empty, vain, or worthless.
CXX “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

25 Then they sat downCXXI to eat;CXXII, CXXIII

Notes on verse 25a

CXXI “sat down” = yashab. Same as “settled” in v1. See note II above.
CXXII “eat” = akal. Same as “devoured” in v20. See note CV above.
CXXIII {untranslated} = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

and looking upCXXIV they sawCXXV a caravanCXXVI of IshmaelitesCXXVII coming from Gilead,CXXVIII

Notes on verse 25b

CXXIV “looking up” = nasa + ayin. Literally, “lifting their eyes.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXXV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.
CXXVI “caravan” = orechah. 2x in OT. From arach (to go, travel, wander). This is a caravan or other company that travels together.
CXXVII “Ishmaelites” = Yishmeeli. Related to “Israel” in v3 & “listen” in v6. 8x in OT. From Yishmael (Ishmael, meaning “God hears” or “God will hear”); {from shama (see note XL above) + el (see note XXIV above)}. This is Ishmaelite.
CXXVIII “Gilead” = Gilad. From gala (to lay bare, quarrel, expose) OR from gal’ed (heap of testimony); {from gal (wave, billow, rock pile; something rolled; a spring of water); {from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense)} + ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve)}}. This is Gilead, meaning “perpetual fountain” or “heap of testimony.” See

with their camelsCXXIX carryingCXXX gum,CXXXI balm,CXXXII and resin,CXXXIII

Notes on verse 25c

CXXIX “camels” = gamal. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening). This is a camel as an animal of labor or one that bears burdens. The English word “camel” is from a Semitic source, perhaps Hebrew or others.
CXXX “carrying” = nasa. Same as “looking up” in v25. See note CXXIV above.
CXXXI “gum” = nekot. 2x in OT. From naka (to smite, drive away) OR from nake (smitten, stricken, wounded). This is a natural, aromatic gum or spice. It might be tragacanth gum. See
CXXXII “balm” = tsori. 6x in OT– this is the balm in Gilead in Jeremiah 8:22. Root might be to crack as under pressure, to leak. This is gum from the balsam tree – perhaps commiphora gileadensis. See &
CXXXIII “resin” = lot. 2x in OT. This is a gum or resin – probably labdanum or myrrh. See & All three products are also found in Genesis 43 when Israel sends gifts back with Benjamin to Joseph.

on their wayCXXXIV to carry it downCXXXV to Egypt.CXXXVI 

Notes on verse 25d

CXXXIV “on their way” = halak. Same as “went” in v12. See note LXXII above.
CXXXV “carry…down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
CXXXVI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.

26 Then JudahCXXXVII said to his brothers, “What profitCXXXVIII is it if we killCXXXIX our brother and concealCXL his blood? 

Notes on verse 26

CXXXVII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
CXXXVIII “profit” = betsa. From batsa (to break or cut off, to acquire violently, break ranks, greedy, fulfill; usually, it means to plunder). This is dishonest gain or gain from violence. It can also be plunder or profit.
CXXXIX “kill” = harag. Same as “kill” in v20. See note XCIX above.
CXL “conceal” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.

27 Come, let us sellCXLI him to the Ishmaelites, and not layCXLII our hands on him, for he is our brother, our own flesh.”CXLIII And his brothers agreed.CXLIV 

Notes on verse 27

CXLI “sell” = makar. This is to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery. Figuratively, it can mean to surrender.
CXLII “lay” = hayah. Same as “was” in v2. See note XI above.
CXLIII “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CXLIV “agreed” = shama. Same as “listen” in v6. See note XL above.

28 When someCXLV MidianiteCXLVI tradersCXLVII passed by,CXLVIII

Notes on verse 28a

CXLV {untranslated} = ish. Same as “man” in v17. See note LXXXIX above.
CXLVI “Midianite” = Midyani. 8x in OT. From midyan (Midian, Midianite, meaning “strife” or “place of judgment”); from the same as midyan (brawling, contention); from the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, strive). This is Midianite.
CXLVII “traders” = sachar. To travel, go around. So, it is to travel like a peddler, to trade, to be a merchant. It can also mean to palpitate.
CXLVIII “passed by” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

they drewCXLIX Joseph up, liftingCL him out of the pit, and sold him to the Ishmaelites for twentyCLI pieces of silver.CLII And they tookCLIII Joseph to Egypt.

Notes on verse 28b

CXLIX “drew” = mashak. This is to draw, drag, or pull. It can mean sow, march, remove, draw along, continue, extend, or prolong.
CL “lifting” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CLI “twenty” = esrim. Related to “seventeen” in v2. From the same as eser (see note IX above). This is twenty or twentieth.
CLII “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
CLIII “took” = bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note XXI above.

29 When Reuben returnedCLIV to the pit andCLV saw that Joseph was not in the pit, he toreCLVI his clothes.CLVII 

Notes on verse 29

CLIV “returned” = shub. Same as “bring…back” in v14. See note LXXIX above.
CLV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v7. See note XLIII above.
CLVI “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
CLVII “clothes” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

30 He returned to his brothers, and said, “The boyCLVIII is gone; and I, where can I turn?”CLIX 31 Then they took Joseph’s robe, slaughteredCLX a goat,CLXI and dippedCLXII the robe in the blood. 

Notes on verses 30-31

CLVIII “boy” = yeled. Related to “family” in v2. From yalad (see note VII above). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”
CLIX “turn” = bo. Same as “brought” in v2. See note XXI above.
CLX “slaughtered” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
CLXI “goat” = sa’iyr + ez. Literally “kid of the goats.” Sa’iyr is from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, fear, storm tossed; to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hairy, rough, male goat, shaggy. It could also refer to a devil. Ez is perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
CLXII “dipped” = tabal. 16x in OT. This is to dip or immerse. It is used to describe religious rites, as part of murderous schemes (e.g. Joseph’s brothers dipping his coat in goat’s blood), for everyday purposes, and also of miracles (e.g. Naaman immersing himself in the Jordan).

32 They had the long robe with sleeves takenCLXIII to their father, and they said, “This we have found; seeCLXIV nowCLXV whether it is your son’s robe or not.” 

Notes on verse 32

CLXIII “taken” = shalach. Same as “send” in v13. See note LXXV above.
CLXIV “see” = nakar. This is to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize. It is looking at something in a fixed way, showing perhaps respect or reverence. Alternately, it can show gazing with suspicion. Also, it can mean being strange towards someone or something and rejecting or ignoring it.
CLXV “now” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note XLI above.

33 He recognizedCLXVI it, and said, “It is my son’s robe! A wild animal has devoured him; Joseph is without doubt torn to pieces.”CLXVII 34 Then Jacob tore his garments,CLXVIII

Notes on verses 33-34a

CLXVI “recognized” = nakar. Same as “see” in v32. See note CLXIV above.
CLXVII “without doubt torn to pieces” = taraph + taraph. This is to tear or pluck off into pieces, to rend or catch. It can also mean supply with food. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CLXVIII “garments” = simlah. Perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is mantle, clothes, wrapper.

and putCLXIX sackclothCLXX on his loins,CLXXI and mournedCLXXII for his son manyCLXXIII days. 

Notes on verse 34b

CLXIX “put” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CLXX “sackcloth” = saq. Perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; by implication having an appetite, seeking greedily). This is sack or sackcloth used as bags for grain and so on. Also worn during times or mourning or when seeking humility. The word “sack” in English is derived from this Semitic root.
CLXXI “loins” = mothen. This is the waist, slender, or small of back. It can also refer to the loins when in plural.
CLXXII “mourned” = abal. This is to mourn or lament.
CLXXIII “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.

35 All his sons and all his daughtersCLXXIV soughtCLXXV to comfortCLXXVI him; but he refused to be comforted,

Notes on verse 35a

CLXXIV “daughters” = bat. Related to “old” in v2 & “Reuben” in v21. From ben (see note X above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXV “sought” = qum. Same as “rose” in v7. See note XLVIII above.
CLXXVI “comfort” = nacham. Properly, this is a strong breath or a sigh. This can be to be sorry, to pity, console. Comfort, or repent. But, one can also comfort oneself with less righteous thoughts, so this can also mean to avenge oneself.

and said, “No, I shall go downCLXXVII to SheolCLXXVIII to my son, mourning.”CLXXIX Thus his father bewailedCLXXX him. 

Notes on verse 35b

CLXXVII “go down” = yarad. Same as “carry down” in v25. See note CXXXV above.
CLXXVIII “Sheol” = Sheol. Perhaps from sha’al (to ask, request). This is the place where the dead go, the grace, the underworld.
CLXXIX “mourning” = abel. Related to “mourned” in v34. 8x in OT. From abal (see note CLXXII above). This is lamenting or someone who mourns.
CLXXX “bewailed” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.

36 Meanwhile the Midianites had sold him in Egypt to Potiphar,CLXXXI one of Pharaoh’sCLXXXII officials,CLXXXIII the captainCLXXXIV of the guard.CLXXXV

Notes on verse 36

CLXXXI “Potiphar” = Potiphar. 2x in OT. From Egyptian Potiphera (“he whom Ra has given”). This is Potiphar. See
CLXXXII “Pharaoh’s” = Paroh. From Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See
CLXXXIII “officials” = saris. Root is likely foreign and may mean castrate. So, this could be a eunuch, valet, or other kind of officer.
CLXXXIV “captain” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
CLXXXV “guard” = tabbach. From tabach (to slaughter or butcher; of animals or people). This is cook or guardsman.

Image credit: “Jacob and Joseph’s Coat” by Ford Madox Brown, from 1868 until 1871.

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