Genesis 48

Genesis 48


IAfter thisII JosephIII was told, “IVYour fatherV is ill.”VI

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II {untranslated} = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
III “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
IV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
V “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “is ill” = chalah. Properly, this is to be worn; hence, being weak, sick, or afflicted. It can also mean to grieve or, positively, to flatter or entreat.

So he tookVII with him his twoVIII sons,IX ManassehX and Ephraim.XI 

Notes on verse 1b

VII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
VIII “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
IX “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
X “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
XI “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.

When JacobXII was told,XIIIXIVYour son Joseph has comeXV to you,”

Notes on verse 2a

XII “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
XIII “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
XIV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XV “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

 heXVI summoned his strengthXVII and sat upXVIII in bed.XIX 

Notes on verse 2b

XVI “he” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XVII “summoned…strength” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
XVIII “sat up” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XIX “bed” = mittah. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a couch or bed that is spread out to sleep on or for eating. It can also refer to a litter or a bier.

And Jacob said to Joseph, “GodXX AlmightyXXI appearedXXII to me at LuzXXIII

Notes on verse 3a

XX “God” = El. Related to “he” in v2. See note XVI above.
XXI “Almighty” = Shaddai. Perhaps from shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful) OR from shed (protective spirit) OR shadah (to moisten) OR shad (breast). Perhaps meaning almighty, “my destroyer,” “my protective spirit,” “my rainmaker,” “self-sufficient, “who is abundantly,” or “breasted one” – as the one who abundantly provides or grants fertility/abundance to humans. See
XXII “appeared” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXIII “Luz” = Luz. 8x in OT. Probably from the same as luz (almond tree or almond wood; may also be hazel) OR from luz (to turn aside). The is Luz, meaning “almond tree” or “twisted.” See

in the landXXIV of Canaan,XXV and he blessedXXVI me, 

Notes on verse 3b

XXIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXV “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See
XXVI “blessed” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.

and said to me, ‘XXVIII am going to make you fruitfulXXVIII and increase your numbers;XXIX I will makeXXX of you a companyXXXI of peoples,XXXII

Notes on verse 4a

XXVII {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
XXVIII “make…fruitful” = parah. Related to “Ephraim” in v1. See note XI above.
XXIX “increase… numbers” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
XXX “make” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
XXXI “company” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
XXXII “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

and will giveXXXIII this land to your offspringXXXIV after you for a perpetualXXXV holding.’XXXVI 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIII “give” = natan. Same as “make” in v4. See note XXX above.
XXXIV “offspring” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
XXXV “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
XXXVI “holding” = achuzzah. From achaz (to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession). This is a possession, particularly used of land.

Therefore your two sons, who were bornXXXVII to you in the land of EgyptXXXVIII before I came to you in Egypt, are now mine; Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, just as ReubenXXXIX and SimeonXL are. 

Notes on verse 5

XXXVII “born” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
XXXVIII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XXXIX “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “sons” in v1 & “appeared” in v3. From raah (see note XXII above) + ben (see note IX above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
XL “Simeon” = Shimon. From shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”

As for the offspringXLI born to you after them, they shall beXLII yours. They shall be recordedXLIII under the namesXLIV of their brothersXLV with regard to their inheritance.XLVI 

Notes on verse 6

XLI “offspring” = moledet. Related to “born” in v5. From yalad (see note XXXVII above). This is kindred, offspring, birthplace, lineage, native country, or family.
XLII “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XLIII “recorded” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XLIV “names” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
XLV “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XLVI “inheritance” = nachalah. Related to nachal (to inherit, occupy, distribute, take as heritage). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.

7 For when I came from Paddan,XLVII Rachel,XLVIII alas, diedXLIX in the land of Canaan on the way,L

Notes on verse 7a

XLVII “Paddan” = Paddan. 11x in OT. From pada (“to upgrade the operating standard) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense) OR from pada (see above) + aram (Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel); {perhaps from armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace)}. This is Paddan-aram, perhaps meaning “ultimate upgrade,” “plain of Aram,” “elevated ransom,” or “new Aramaic standard.” See
XLVIII “Rachel” = Rachel. From the same as rachel (a ewe, sheep). Its root may refer to travelling. This is Rachel, meaning “ewe.”
XLIX “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
L “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

while there was still someLI distanceLII to goLIII to Ephrath; and I buriedLIV her there on the way to Ephrath”LV (that is, Bethlehem).LVI

Notes on verse 7b

LI “some” = kibrah. 3x in OT. From kebar (a while, already, formerly, a length of time); from kabar (to be many, multiply, increase amount or quality; properly, this is to braid or weave together). This is a length or distance of unspecified size.
LII “distance” = erets. Same as “land” in v3. See note XXIV above.
LIII “go” = bo. Same as “come” in v2. See note XV above.
LIV “buried” = qabar. This is to bury or inter. It could also refer to the person who does the burying.
LV “Ephrath” = Ephrath. Related to “Ephraim” in v1. 10x in OT. From the same as apher (covering, ashes, bandage); from the same as epher (see note XI above) OR from parah (see note XI above) OR from parar (to divide, split) OR from apar (to be exhausted). This is Ephrath or Ephrathah. It is a female name and the name of several places, including Bethlehem. It may mean “fruitfulness,” “exhausted,” “worthless,” or “fruitful.” See
LVI “Bethlehem” = Beth lechem. Related to “sons” in v1 & “Reuben” in v5. From bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (see note IX above)} + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”

8 When IsraelLVII sawLVIII Joseph’s sons, he said, “Who are these?” 

Joseph said to his father, “They are my sons, whom GodLIX has given me here.”

And he said, “BringLX them to me, please,LXI that I may bless them.” 

Notes on verses 8-9

LVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Same as “he” in v2. See note XVI above.
LVIII “saw” = raah. Same as “appeared” in v3. See note XXII above.
LIX “God” = Elohim. Related to “he” in v2 & “God” in v3. See note XVI above.
LX “bring” = laqach. Same as “took” in v1. See note VII above.
LXI “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”

10 Now the eyesLXII of Israel were dimLXIII with age,LXIV and he couldLXV not see well.

Notes on verse 10a

LXII “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LXIII “were dim” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
LXIV “age” = zoqen. 1x in OT. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old age.
LXV “could” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.

So Joseph brought them nearLXVI him; and he kissedLXVII them and embracedLXVIII them. 

Notes on verse 10b

LXVI “brought…near” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
LXVII “kissed” = nashaq. This is to kiss in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to touch, rule, or equip with weapons.
LXVIII “embraced” = chabaq. 13x in OT. This is to embrace, clasp one’s hands, or cling.

11 Israel said to Joseph, “I did not expectLXIX to see your face;LXX and hereLXXI GodLXXII has let me see your childrenLXXIII also.” 

Notes on verse 11

LXIX “expect” = palal. This is to judge for oneself or in an official capacity. It can also mean to pray or make supplication, to entreat.
LXX “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXI “here” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
LXXII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LIX above.
LXXIII “children” = zera. Same as “offspring” in v4. See note XXXIV above.

12 Then Joseph removedLXXIV them from his father’s knees,LXXV and he bowedLXXVI himself with his faceLXXVII to the earth.LXXVIII 

Notes on verse 12

LXXIV “removed” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXV “knees” = berek. Related to “blessed” in v3. From barak (see note XXVI above). This is the knee.
LXXVI “bowed” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
LXXVII “face” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
LXXVIII “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v3. See note XXIV above.

13 Joseph took them both,LXXIX Ephraim in his right handLXXX toward Israel’s left,LXXXI and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel’s right, and brought them near him. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXIX “both” = shenayim. Same as “two” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXXX “right hand” = yamin. May be from yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm). This can mean right hand, right side, or south. Since most people are right-handed, the metaphorical usage of this word presumes that the right hand is stronger and more agile. Thus, it is the instrument of power and action.
LXXXI “left” = semol. Perhaps from the same as simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is left, left side, or north as the part that is dark.

14 But Israel stretched outLXXXII his right hand and laidLXXXIII it on the headLXXXIV of Ephraim, who was the younger,LXXXV

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXII “stretched out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXXXIII “laid” = shith. This is to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look.
LXXXIV “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
LXXXV “younger” = tsair. From tsasr (to be brought low, small, little one; figuratively, be insignificant or ignoble). This is little, young, least, younger, few in number, low in value.

and his left hand on the head of Manasseh, crossingLXXXVI his hands,LXXXVII for Manasseh was the firstborn.LXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXVI “crossing” = sakal. This is to consider or be prudent and so it can mean to instruct or be an expert. It can also mean dealing prudently, which implies success and prospering. This verb presumes intelligence of the subject. In one form of the verb, it can mean laying cross-wise.
LXXXVII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LXXXVIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.

15 He blessed Joseph, and said,

“The GodLXXXIX beforeXC whom my ancestorsXCI AbrahamXCII and IsaacXCIII walked,XCIV

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXIX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LIX above.
XC {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “face” in v11. See note LXX above.
XCI “ancestors” = ab. Same as “father” in v1. See note V above.
XCII “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “father” in v1. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note V above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
XCIII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
XCIV “walked” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

the GodXCV who has been my shepherdXCVI all my life to this day,XCVII

Notes on verse 15b

XCV “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LIX above.
XCVI “shepherd” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
XCVII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

16 the angelXCVIII who has redeemedXCIX me from all harm,C bless the boys;CI

Notes on verse 16a

XCVIII “angel” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XCIX “redeemed” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
C “harm” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CI “boys” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.

and in them let my name be perpetuated,CII and the name of my ancestors Abraham and Isaac;
and let them growCIII into a multitudeCIV onCV the earth.”

Notes on verse 16b

CII “perpetuated” = qara. Same as “recorded” in v6. See note XLIII above.
CIII “grow” = dagah. 1x in OT. Perhaps from dag (fish) OR from da’ag (to fear, be worried, sorrow, be concerned, be anxious, be sorry). This is to multiply, spawn, become many.
CIV “multitude” = rob. From rabab (to be or become much or many, multiply). This is any kind of abundance.
CV “on” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

17 When Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeasedCVI him;CVII so he tookCVIII his father’s hand, to removeCIX it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh’s head. 18 Joseph said to his father, “Not so,CX my father! Since this one is the firstborn, putCXI your right hand on his head.” 

Notes on verses 17-18

CVI “displeased” = ra’a’. Related to “harm” in v16. See note C above.
CVII {untranslated} = ayin. Literally “in his sight.” Same as “eyes” in v10. See note LXII above.
CVIII “took” = tamak. This is to sustain, support, maintain, grasp. Figuratively, it can be to help or uphold.
CIX “remove” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CX “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CXI “put” = sum. Perhaps related to “names” in v6. See note XLIV above.

19 But his father refused, and said, “I know,CXII my son, I know; he also shall becomeCXIII a people, and he also shall be great.CXIV Nevertheless his youngerCXV brother shall be greater than he, and his offspring shall become a multitudeCXVI of nations.”CXVII 

Notes on verse 19

CXII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CXIII “become” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CXIV “be great” = gadal. This is to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing.
CXV “younger” = qaton. From qut (to cut off, be grieved; figuratively to detest). This is small, young, least, not important. It could be a small quantity, size, age, or importance.
CXVI “multitude” = melo. From male (fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate; fill in a literal or figurative sense). This is fullness in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVII “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

20 So he blessed them that day, saying,

“By you Israel will invoke blessings,CXVIII saying,
‘GodCXIX makeCXX you like Ephraim and like Manasseh.’”

So he put Ephraim ahead ofCXXI Manasseh. 

Notes on verse 20

CXVIII “invoke blessings” = barak. Same as “blessed” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXIX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LIX above.
CXX “make” = sum. Same as “put” in v18. See note CXI above.
CXXI “ahead of” = paneh. Literally “before the face of.” Same as “face” in v11. See note LXX above.

21 Then Israel said to Joseph, “CXXIII am about to die, but GodCXXIII will be with you and will bring you againCXXIV to the land of your ancestors. 22 I now give to you oneCXXV portionCXXVI more than to your brothers,

Notes on verses 21-22a

CXXII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note IV above.
CXXIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v9. See note LIX above.
CXXIV “bring…again” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXXV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXXVI “portion” = shekem. Perhaps from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens. Figuratively, it can refer to the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion.

the portion that I took from the hand of the AmoritesCXXVII with my swordCXXVIII and with my bow.”CXXIX

Notes on verse 22b

CXXVII “Amorites” = Emori. From amar (to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
CXXVIII “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CXXIX “bow” = qeshet. Perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare) OR from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is a bow, arrow, or archer. Bow can be used figuratively for strength.

Image credit: “Jacob Blesses the Sons of Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh” by Januarius Zick, probably 1760s.

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