Genesis 49

Genesis 49


Then JacobI calledII his sons,III and said:

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
II “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
III “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

“Gather around,IV that I may tellV you what will happenVI to you in daysVII to come.VIII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “gather around” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
V “tell” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
VI “happen” = qara. This is to meet, befall, happen upon. It can be to encounter by chance or for aggression.
VII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
VIII “come” = acharit. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is the last, length, remnant, end, reward, future.

AssembleIX and hear,X O sons of Jacob;
    listen to IsraelXI your father.XII

Notes on verse 2

IX “assemble” = qabats. This is to collect, assemble, heap, grasp, or gather.
X “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XI “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

Reuben,XIII you are my firstborn,XIV
    my mightXV and the first fruitsXVI of my vigor,XVII

Notes on verse 3a

XIII “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “sons” in v1. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note III above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
XIV “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
XV “might” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
XVI “first fruits” = reshit. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
XVII “vigor” = on. 12x in OT. Perhaps from aven (root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing; nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief.; used specifically to refer to idols). This is strength, power, ability, wealth, substance, or vigor.

    excellingXVIII in rankXIX and excelling in power.XX

Notes on verse 3b

XVIII “excelling” = yether. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is a remainder or excess. It can imply abundant or superiority. Additionally, it can be cord a free-hanging rope.
XIX “rank” = seeth. 14x in OT. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is elevation, swelling, elation, dignity, being accepted.
XX “power” = az. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively; a Late Hebrew word). This is strong or mighty. It can also refer to power or vehemence or mean greedy.

UnstableXXI as water,XXII you shall no longer excelXXIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXI “unstable” = pachaz. 2x in OT. From pachaz (to bubble up as water does when it boils; to be reckless or unimportant). This is froth, unstable, recklessness, or, figuratively, lust.
XXII “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
XXIII “excel” = yathar. Related to “excelling” in v3. See note XVIII above.

    because you went upXXIV onto your father’s bed;XXV
    then you defiledXXVI it—you went up onto my couch!XXVII

Notes on verse 4b

XXIV “went up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XXV “bed” = mishkab. From shakab (to lie down, lodge; lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons). This is a place where one lies down i.e. a bed, couch, or bedchamber. It can also be used in an abstract sense to refer to sleep or euphemistically for sex.
XXVI “defiled” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
XXVII “couch” = yatsua. 8x in OT. From yatsa (to go or come out, bring forth, appear; to go out in a literal or figurative sense). This is couch (i.e. bed), chamber, or, in architecture, a wing.

SimeonXXVIII and LeviXXIX are brothers;XXX

Notes on verse 5a

XXVIII “Simeon” = Shimon. Related to “hear” in v2. From shama (see note X above). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
XXIX “Levi” = Levi. Perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levi, perhaps meaning “attached.” It can refer to Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants.
XXX “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

    weaponsXXXI of violenceXXXII are their swords.XXXIII

Notes on verse 5b

XXXI “weapons” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
XXXII “violence” = chamas. From chamas (to violate, do violence, to wrong; implies mistreatment). This is violence, cruelty, damage, wrong, injustice, or unrighteous. Violence implies a wrong done. The term is also used to describe unjust gain.
XXXIII “swords” = mekerah. 1x in OT. From kur (to bore, dig, stab). The meaning of this word is unclear. It is some kind of weapon that pierces.

May IXXXIV never come intoXXXV their council;XXXVI

Notes on verse 6a

XXXIV “I” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XXXV “come into” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXXVI “council” = sod. Perhaps from yasad (to establish, appoint, instruct; to set in a literal or figurative sense; also, to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel). This is a session, counsel, or assembly. It can also mean a consultation.

    may IXXXVII not be joinedXXXVIII to their companyXXXIX

Notes on verse 6b

XXXVII “I” = kabod. Literally “my honor.” From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
XXXVIII “joined” = yachad. 3x in OT. This is to be one, to be united.
XXXIX “company” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.

for in their angerXL they killedXLI men,XLII

Spoiler title

XL “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XLI “killed” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
XLII “men” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind. Here, it is singular in Hebrew.

    and at their whimXLIII they hamstrungXLIV oxen.XLV

Spoiler title

XLIII “whim” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.
XLIV “hamstrung” = aqar. 7x in OT. From eqer (stock, member, offshoot; figuratively, could be a descendant or someone who is transplanted like an immigrant who takes up permanent residence). This is to dig down, pull up – particularly by root. It can also mean to hamstring (oxen or horses) or figuratively to exterminate.
XLV “oxen” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.

Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce,XLVI
    and their wrath,XLVII for it is cruel!XLVIII
I will divideXLIX them in Jacob,
    and scatterL them in Israel.

Spoiler title

XLVI “fierce” = az. Same as “power” in v3. See note XX above.
XLVII “wrath” = ebrah. From eber (the region beyond, passage, quarter, opposite side; generally the east); from abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is overflow or a passionate outburst. So, fury, anger, or rage.
XLVIII “cruel” = qashah. This is to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe.
XLIX “divide” = chalaq. This is to be smooth in a figurative sense. So, it can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute. Figuratively, it can also mean to flatter.
L “scatter” = puts. This is to dash in pieces, scatter, disperse, drive.

8 Judah,LI your brothers shall praiseLII you;
    your handLIII shall be on the neckLIV of your enemies;LV
    your father’s sons shall bow downLVI before you.

Spoiler title

LI “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
LII “praise” = yadah. Related to “Judah” in v8. See note LI above.
LIII “hand” = yad. Related to “Judah” and “praise” in v8. See note LI above.
LIV “neck” = oreph. This is the back of the neck – also used for stiff-necked. It is also used for the back more generally in a literal or figurative sense.
LV “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.
LVI “bow down” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.

Judah is a lion’sLVII whelp;LVIII
    from the prey,LIX my son, you have gone up.

Spoiler title

LVII “lion’s” = ari. From arah (to gather or pluck). This is a young lion.
LVIII “whelp” = gur. 7x in OT. From gur (to quarrel, attack). This is a young cub or whelp that still lives in the den. It is often used of a lion cub.
LIX “prey” = tereph. From taraph (to tear or pluck off into pieces, to rend or catch; to supply with food). This is something that is ton – spoil, prey, food, or some other fragment.

He crouches down,LX he stretches outLXI like a lion,
    like a lionessLXII—who dares rouseLXIII him up?

Spoiler title

LX “crouches down” = kara. This is to bow, crouch, kneel down, subdue. It is to bend the knee in many senses. It can also mean to smite, a woman crouching in childbirth, or bowing to worship God.
LXI “stretches out” = rabats. This is crouched like an animal, lie down, lie stretch out, rest, sit, brood, lurk.
LXII “lioness” = labiy’. 14x in OT. This is to roar – a lion or lioness as stout and fierce.
LXIII “rouse” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

10 The scepterLXIV shall not departLXV from Judah,
    nor the ruler’s staffLXVI from between his feet,LXVII

Spoiler title

LXIV “scepter” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
LXV “depart” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
LXVI “staff” = chaqaq. 19x in OT. This is to inscribe, carve, or decree. It can be a lawmaker/commander or a staff/scepter. Literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal.
LXVII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.

until tributeLXVIII comes to him;
    and the obedienceLXIX of the peoplesLXX is his.

Spoiler title

LXVIII “tribute” = shiloh. 1x in OT. Perhaps from shalah (to be quiet, safe, tranquil; success or happiness; could also mean to deceive or be negligent). Meaning unclear. This is Shiloh, which may refer to the one who owns something or to calmness.
LXIX “obedience” = yiqhah. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as Yaqeh (Jakeh, a personal name, which may mean “pious” or “obedient.”); from yaqa (to obey, to be pious). This is obedience. See
LXX “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

11 BindingLXXI his foalLXXII to the vineLXXIII

Spoiler title

LXXI “binding” = asar. This is to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten. It can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone.
LXXII “foal” = ayir. 9x in OT. Perhaps from ur (to raise up, wake up, lift oneself up; to awake in a literal or figurative sense). This is a male donkey or a colt as an animal of labor who is newly domesticated to bear loads.
LXXIII “vine” = gephen. Root may mean to twine or bend. So, it is a vine, particularly referring to grapes.

    and his donkey’sLXXIV coltLXXV to the choice vine,LXXVI

Spoiler title

LXXIV “donkey’s” = athon. Perhaps from the same as eythan (continual, mighty, strong, ever-flowing, permanence). This is a female donkey as an animal that is patient and gentle.
LXXV “colt” = ben. Same as “sons” in v1. See note III above.
LXXVI “choice vine” = soreq. 3x in OT. From sharaq (to be shrill, hiss, whistle). This is best species of vine – one that gives rich, purple grapes. It can also refer to noble wine.

he washesLXXVII his garmentsLXXVIII in wineLXXIX

Spoiler title

LXXVII “washes” = kabas. This is to trample – washing by stomping feet. It can be fulling in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVIII “garments” = lebush. From labash (to wrap around, which implies clothing oneself or someone else; wrapping around in a literal or figurative way). This is clothing literally or figuratively. It can be used as a euphemism for a wife.
LXXIX “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.

    and his robeLXXX in the bloodLXXXI of grapes;LXXXII

Spoiler title

LXXX “robe” = suth. 1x in OT. Probably from the same as masveh (veil). This is literarlly a covering so it refers to clothes or a robe.
LXXXI “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
LXXXII “grapes” = enab. 19x in OT. Root may mean to bear fruit. This is a grape, raisin, or wine. It can be used for the literal crop or as a metaphor for God’s relationship with Israel.

12 his eyesLXXXIII are darkerLXXXIV than wine,
    and his teethLXXXV whiterLXXXVI than milk.LXXXVII

Spoiler title

LXXXIII “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LXXXIV “darker” = chaklili. 1x in OT. From the same as chakliah (dark; a place name). This is darkly flashing or red. It is meant in a complimentary way, perhaps brilliant.
LXXXV “teeth” = shen. From shanan (to sharpen, point, pierce; figuratively to teach). This is a tooth, ivory, something sharp, or, figuratively, a cliff.
LXXXVI “whiter” = laban. From laban (to be white or make a brick). This is white or something that is white.
LXXXVII “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.

13 ZebulunLXXXVIII shall settleLXXXIX at the shoreXC of the sea;XCI

Spoiler title

LXXXVIII “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
LXXXIX “settle” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
XC “shore” = choph. 7x in OT. From chaphaph (to surround, cover, or shield; to surround in order to protect). This is a shore, cove, or haven.
XCI “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

    he shall be a havenXCII for ships,XCIII
    and his borderXCIV shall be at Sidon.XCV

Spoiler title

XCII “haven” = choph. Same as “shore” in v13. See note XC above.
XCIII “ships” = oniyyah. From the same as oni (ships, a fleet); probably from anah (to meet, happen, approach). This is ships or sailors.
XCIV “border” = yerekah. From yarek  (thigh, side, body, shank; can be figurative for genitalia). This is flank, side, recesses, border, quarter, extreme parts.
XCV “Sidon” = Tsidon. From Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidon – a city in Phoenicia. See &

14 IssacharXCVI is a strongXCVII donkey,XCVIII
    lying downXCIX between the sheepfolds;C

Spoiler title

XCVI “Issachar” = Yissashkar. Related to “rank” in v3. Perhaps from nasa (see note XIX above) + sakar (wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit); {from sakar (to hire, reward, earn)} OR ish (see note XLII above) + sakar (see above). This is Issachar, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “he will bring a reward.” See
XCVII “strong” = gerem. 5x in OT. From garam (to leave a remainder, reserve for later; break bones). This is bone, strength, top.
XCVIII “donkey” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
XCIX “lying down” = rabats. Same as “stretches out” in v9. See note LXI above.
C “sheepfolds” = mishpethayim. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as shaphath (to lay, ordain, locate, establish, light on fire, bring). This is fireplace, burden, sheepfold, cattle stall.

15 he sawCI that a resting placeCII was good,CIII
    and that the landCIV was pleasant;CV

Spoiler title

CI “saw” = raah. Related to “Reuben” in v3. See note XIII above.
CII “resting place” = menuchah. From manoach (resting place, quiet, home); from nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is resting place, consolation, ease, quiet. It is the same word in Psalm 23:2, “he leads me beside the still waters.”
CIII “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CV “was pleasant” = naem. 8x in OT. This is to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense.

so he bowedCVI his shoulderCVII to the burden,CVIII

Spoiler title

CVI “bowed” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
CVII “shoulder” = shekem. Perhaps from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens. Figuratively, it can refer to the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion.
CVIII “burden” = sabal. 9x in OT. This is carry a heavy load, do strong labor, be a burden. Can also specially mean to be pregnant.

    and becameCIX a slaveCX at forced labor.CXI

Spoiler title

CIX “became” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
CX “slave” = abad. This is to work, serve, or compel. It can describe any kind of work or service (including religious devotion).  Also, till or cultivate. Used causatively, it can mean to enslave or keep in bondage.
CXI “forced labor” = mas. Perhaps from masas (to melt, discourage, faint; to deteriorate from a sickness or weaken because of sleepiness or an emotional response). This is a burden that creates weariness and or exhaustion. It is forced labor, taskwork, or other levy.

16 DanCXII shall judgeCXIII his people
    as oneCXIV of the tribesCXV of Israel.

Spoiler title

CXII “Dan” = Dan. From din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXIII “judge” = din. Related to “Dan” in v16. See note CXII above.
CXIV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXV “tribes” = shebet. Same as “scepter” in v10. See note LXIV above.

17 Dan shall beCXVI a snakeCXVII by the roadside,CXVIII
    a viperCXIX along the path,CXX

Spoiler title

CXVI “be” = hayah. Same as “become” in v15. See note CIX above.
CXVII “snake” = nachash. Perhaps from nachash (to practice divination, learn by experience; to hiss as in whispering a spell). This is a serpent or snake. Used for the Serpent in the garden of Eden.
CXVIII “roadside” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life
CXIX “viper” = shephiphon. 1x in OT. Perhaps from shuph (to gape, bruise, overwhelm, snape at, or cover). This is a viper, cerastes, or adder – a snake that snaps.
CXX “path” = orach. From arach (to go, travel, wander). This is a road that is widely used, highway, caravan, traveler, troop.

that bitesCXXI the horse’sCXXII heelsCXXIII
   so that its riderCXXIV fallsCXXV backward.CXXVI

Spoiler title

CXXI “bites” = nashak. 16x in OT. This is bite or sting as from a snake. Figuratively, it is lending with interest.
CXXII “horse’s” = sus. Root may mean to skip as in jump for joy. This is a crane or a swift bird. It is also a horse as leaping.
CXXIII “heels” = aqeb. Related to “Jacob” in v1. 13x in OT. See note I above.
CXXIV “rider” = rakab. This is to ride an animal or in some vehicle. It can also mean bringing on a horse.
CXXV “falls” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXXVI “backward” = achor. Related to “come” in v1. From achar (see note VIII above). This is the back, behind, backward, time to come. It can also refer to facing to the north or the west.

18 I waitCXXVII for your salvation,CXXVIII O Lord.CXXIX

Spoiler title

CXXVII “wait” = qavah. It can mean to bind or gather together, especially in the sense of twisting together. In that light, it can mean collect. Figuratively, this can mean to wait, await, expect, or tarry.
CXXVIII “salvation” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.
CXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “became” in v15. From havah (see note CIX above) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

19 GadCXXX shall be raidedCXXXI by raiders,CXXXII
    but he shall raid at their heels.

Spoiler title

CXXX “Gad” = Gad. Perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or ”fortunate.”
CXXXI “raided” = gud. Related to “Gad” in v19. 3x in OT. See note CXXX above.
CXXXII “raiders” = gedud. From gadad (to cut, gather, assemble, crowd; also, to gash as pushing in). This is a crowd, but generally used to refer to soldiers. So, it is a band, troop, or company. It can also be a group of robbers.

20 Asher’sCXXXIII foodCXXXIV shall be rich,CXXXV
    and he shall provideCXXXVI royal delicacies.CXXXVII

Spoiler title

CXXXIII “Asher’s” = Asher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is Asher, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It means “happy one.”
CXXXIV “food” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
CXXXV “rich” = shamen. 10x in OT. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, plenteous, rich, greasy, roust, lusty. It refers to rich food, fertile land, and strong people.
CXXXVI “provide” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXXXVII “delicacies” = maadan. 4x in OT. From the same as eden (luxury, delight, pleasure); from adan (to luxuriate).  This is a delicacy or delight.

21 NaphtaliCXXXVIII is a doeCXXXIX let looseCXL
   that bearsCXLI lovelyCXLII fawns.CXLIII

Spoiler title

CXXXVIII “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXXXIX “doe” = ayyalah. 8x in OT. From ayyal (deer, stag); from the same as ulam (porch, hall); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power); from alam (to bind or tie fast; to be silent or speechless, whether voluntary or involuntary) or from ayil (strength; things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks). This is a doe, female deer.
CXL “let loose” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CXLI “bears” = natan. Same as “provide” in v20. See note CXXXVI above.
CXLII “lovely” = shepher. 1x in OT. From shaphar (being beautiful or lovely). This is beauty or goodliness.
CXLIII “fawns” = emer. From amar (to say, answer, challenge). This is something that is said – a word, saying, speech.

22 JosephCXLIV is a fruitfulCXLV bough,CXLVI
    a fruitful bough by a spring;CXLVII
   his branchesCXLVIII runCXLIX over the wall.CL

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CXLIV “Joseph” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
CXLV “fruitful” = parah. This is to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase. It is bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLVI “bough” = ben. Same as “sons” in v1. See note III above.
CXLVII “spring” = ayin. Same as “eyes” in v12. See note LXXXIII above.
CXLVIII “branches” = bat. Related to “sons” in v1 & “Reuben” in v3. From ben (see note III above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIX “run” = tsaad. 8x in OT. This is to step, go, run, walk, to pace. It is to march with a regular step, climb up, hurl down.
CL “wall” = shur. Related to “oxen” in v6. 4x in OT. From the same as shor (see note XLV above). This is a wall as something that goes around something else.

23 The archersCLI fiercely attackedCLII him;
    they shotCLIII at him and pressed him hard.CLIV

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CLI “archers” = baal + chets. Literally “owners of arrows.” Baal is from ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is lord, owner, ally, master, or archer. Chets is from chatsats (to divide, chop, pierce, distribute, shoot an arrow, an archer). This is an arrow or archer, shaft, staff. Properly, it is someone or something that pierces, such as an arrow. It can imply a wound. Used figuratively of God’s thunder bolt.
CLII “fiercely attacked” = marar. 13x in OT. This is to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled.
CLIII “shot” = rabab. 2x in OT. This is to shoot. It is used to refer to archery or for God expressing lightning.
CLIV “pressed…hard” = satam. 6x in OT. 2x in the Joseph cycle – Gen 49:23 in Jacob’s blessing they shot at Joseph and pressed him hard & Gen 50:15 when the brothers wonder if Joseph still bears a grudge against them; also Genesis 27:41 where Esau hated Jacob. This is to have a grudge or hate. Properly, it means lying in wait for so to persecute or oppose.

24 Yet his bowCLV remainedCLVI taut,CLVII
    and his armsCLVIII were made agileCLIX

Spoiler title

CLV “bow” = qeshet. Related to “cruel” in v7. Perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare) OR from qashah (see note XLVIII above). This is a bow, arrow, or archer. Bow can be used figuratively for strength.
CLVI “remained” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CLVII “taut” = eythan. Related to “donkey’s” in v11. 13x in OT. See note LXXIV above.
CLVIII “arms” = zeroa. Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive). This is the arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal. It is figuratively used for power, force, might, or help.
CLIX “made agile” = pazaz. 2x in OT. This is agile, refine, leap, make strong.

by the handsCLX of the Mighty OneCLXI of Jacob,
    by the name of the Shepherd,CLXII the RockCLXIII of Israel,

Spoiler title

CLX “hands” = yad + yad. Literally “of his hands, by the hands of.” Same as “hand” in v8. See note LIII above.
CLXI “Mighty One” = abir. 6x in OT. From the same as abar (to fly or soar). This is Strong One or Mighty One. It is used to refer to God, especially in poetic, older passages.
CLXII “Shepherd” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
CLXIII “Rock” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

25 by the GodCLXIV of your father, who will helpCLXV you,
    by the AlmightyCLXVI who will blessCLXVII you

Spoiler title

CLXIV “God” = El. Related to “Israel” in v2. See note XI above.
CLXV “help” = azar. This is to surround, which implies encircling to protect someone or help them out. It can also be help, ally, or support.
CLXVI “Almighty” = Shaddai. Perhaps from shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful) OR from shed (protective spirit) OR shadah (to moisten) OR shad (breast). Perhaps meaning almighty, “my destroyer,” “my protective spirit,” “my rainmaker,” “self-sufficient, “who is abundantly,” or “breasted one” – as the one who abundantly provides or grants fertility/abundance to humans. See
CLXVII “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.

    with blessingsCLXVIII of heavenCLXIX above,
blessings of the deepCLXX that liesCLXXI beneath,
    blessings of the breastsCLXXII and of the womb.CLXXIII

Spoiler title

CLXVIII “blessings” = barakah. Related to “bless” in v25. From barak (see note CLXVII above). This is blessing, which implies prosperity or peace.
CLXIX “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CLXX “deep” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.
CLXXI “lies” = rabats. Same as “stretches out” in v9. See note LXI above.
CLXXII “breasts” = shad. This is breast, whether of a human woman or an animal.
CLXXIII “womb” = racham. From the same as rechem (womb); from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is compassion, mercy, or tender love.

26 The blessings of your father
    are strongerCLXXIV than the blessings of the eternal mountains,CLXXV
    the bountiesCLXXVI of the everlastingCLXXVII hills;

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CLXXIV “are stronger” = gabar. This is to be strong or mighty. It can mean to prevail or to be insolent.
CLXXV “eternal mountains” = harah. This is to conceive or be pregnant – it can be literal or figurative.{Looks like “har,” which means “hill” or “mountain.”}
CLXXVI “bounties” = taavah. 1x in OT. From the same as tav (a mark, signature); {from tavah (to mark, confess, make an offering for praise)} OR from ta’ah (to mark, set a boundary, designate). This is a limit, boundary, complete extent.
CLXXVII “everlasting” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

may they be on the headCLXXVIII of Joseph,
    on the browCLXXIX of him who was set apart fromCLXXX his brothers.

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CLXXVIII “head” = rosh. Related to “first fruits” in v3. See note XVI above.
CLXXIX “brow” = qodqod. 11x in OT. Perhaps from qadad (to bow the head, stoop, bow in deference). This is the scalp or crown of the head.
CLXXX “set apart from” = nazir. 16x in OT. From nazar (to dedicate, set apart, fast, keep self from impurity, refrain from worship; to consecrate for a holy purpose). This is a devoted one, i.e. a Nazarite. It can also refer to a prince or a vine that has not been trimmed.

27 BenjaminCLXXXI is a ravenousCLXXXII wolf,CLXXXIII

Spoiler title

CLXXXI “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “sons” in v1 & “Reuben” in v3 & “branches” in v22. From ben (see note III above) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
CLXXXII “ravenous” = taraph. Related to “prey” in v9. See note LIX above. Same as “without doubt torn to pieces” in Genesis 37:33 in speculating that Joseph was torn by wild animals.
CLXXXIII “wolf” = zeeb. 7x in OT. Perhaps from a word that refers to yellow. This is wolf.

    in the morningCLXXXIV devouringCLXXXV the prey,
    and at evening dividing the spoil.”CLXXXVI

Spoiler title

CLXXXIV “mourning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CLXXXV “devouring” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXVI “spoil” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.

28 All these are the twelveCLXXXVII tribes of Israel, and this is what their father saidCLXXXVIII to them when he blessed them, blessing eachCLXXXIX one of them with a suitable blessing.

Spoiler title

CLXXXVII “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is ten or -teen.
CLXXXVIII “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
CLXXXIX “each” = enosh. Related to “men” in v6. See note XLII above.

29 Then he chargedCXC them, saying to them, “I am about to be gathered to my people. BuryCXCI me with my ancestorsCXCII

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CXC “charged” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CXCI “bury” = qabar. This is to bury or inter. It could also refer to the person who does the burying.
CXCII “ancestors” = ab. Same as “father” in v2. See note XII above.

in the caveCXCIII in the fieldCXCIV of EphronCXCV the Hittite,CXCVI 

Spoiler title

CXCIII “cave” = mearah. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is a cave, cavern, den, or hole.
CXCIV “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
CXCV “Ephron” = Ephron. 14x in OT. From the same as opher (stag, fawn, hart); from aphar (to throw dust, be dust); from aphar (dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored; ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish). This is Ephron, the name a of a person, a place, and a mountain. It may mean “fawn-like,” “place of dust,” “ore,” “malleability,” “dust man,” or “young ones.” See
CXCVI “Hittite” = Chitti. From cheth (Heth or Cheth; one of Canaan’s sons from whom perhaps the Hittites descend) OR from hatat (terror, lacking strength or courage); perhaps from hata (to seize; often used of coals from a fire). This is Hittite – perhaps meaning terrors or terrible. See

30 in the cave in the field at Machpelah,CXCVII nearCXCVIII Mamre,CXCIX in the land of Canaan,CC

Spoiler title

CXCVII “Machpelah” = Makpelah. 6x in OT. From kaphal (to double, fold, repeat). This is Machpelah or Makpelah, meaning “a fold.”
CXCVIII {untranslated} = paneh. Literally “the face of.” From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXCIX “Mamre” = Mamre. 10x in OT. Perhaps from mara (to rebel, flap wings, whip, be filthy). This is Mamre a personal name and a place name. It may mean vigor or lusty.
CC “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

in the field that AbrahamCCI boughtCCII from Ephron the HittiteCCIII as a burial site.CCIV 

Spoiler title

CCI “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “father” in v2. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note XII above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CCII “bought” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
CCIII {untranslated} = achuzzah. From achaz (to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession). This is a possession, particularly used of land.
CCIV “burial site” = qeber. Related to “bury” in v29. From qabar (see note CXCI above). This is a place where one is buried such as a grave or tomb.

31 There Abraham and his wifeCCV SarahCCVI were buried; there IsaacCCVII and his wife RebekahCCVIII were buried;

Spoiler title

CCV “wife” = ishshah. Related to “men” in v6 & “each” in v28. From ish (see note XLII above). This is woman, wife, or female.
CCVI “Sarah” = Sarah. From the same as Saray (princess, mistress, noble lady, queen); from sar (chief, ruler, captain, official, prince). This is Sarah, meaning princess.
CCVII “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
CCVIII “Rebekah” = Ribqah. From the same as marbeq (fattened, a stall used for housing cattle; root may mean to tie up). This is Rebekah, perhaps meaning tied up or secured. See

and there I buried LeahCCIX— 32 the field and the cave that is in it were purchasedCCX from the Hittites.”CCXI 

Spoiler title

CCIX “Leah” = Leah. From laah (to be weary or exhausted, parched, faint, or tired; to be impatient or have a hard time; figuratively, being grieved or disgusted). This is Leah, meaning “weary” or “wild cow.” See
CCX “purchased” = miqneh. Related to “bought” in v30. From qanah (see note CCII above). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
CCXI “Hittites” = ben + Cheth. Literally “sons of Cheth.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note III above. Cheth is related to “Hittite” in v29. 14x in OT. See note CXCVI above.

33 When Jacob endedCCXII his charge to his sons, he drew upCCXIII his feet into the bed,CCXIV breathed his last,CCXV and was gathered to his people.

Spoiler title

CCXII “ended” = kalah. Related to “weapons” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CCXIII “drew up” = asaph. Same as “gather around” in v1. See note IV above.
CCXIV “bed” = mittah. Related to “bowed” in v15. From natah (see note CVI above). This is a couch or bed that is spread out to sleep on or for eating. It can also refer to a litter or a bier.
CCXV “breathed his last” = gava. This is to breathe out, which implies expire or die.

Image credit: “Jacob Blesses the Sons of Joseph” by Carl Peter Goebel, 1820.

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