Genesis 8

Genesis 8


But GodI rememberedII NoahIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “God” = Elohim.
II “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
III “Noah” = Noach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is Noah or Noach, meaning rest.

and all the wild animalsIV and all the domestic animalsV that were with him in the ark.VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “wild animals” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
V “domestic animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
VI “ark” = tebah. Probably from Egyptian T-b-t (chest, coffin). Used for Moses’ basket, Noah’s ark, and the ark of the covenant.

 And God made a windVII blowVIII over the earth,IX and the watersX subsided;XI 

Notes on verse 1c

VII “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
VIII “made…blow” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
IX “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
X “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
XI “subsided” = shakak. 5x in OT. This is to decrease, subside, pacify. It can also mean to weave as when one sets a trap. It is also used when the Great Flood subsides in Genesis 8.

the fountainsXII of the deepXIII and the windowsXIV of the heavensXV

Notes on verse 2a

XII “fountains” = mayan. From ayin (eye, appearance; eye in a literal or figurative sense; a fountain). This is a spring, well, or fountain. Figuratively, this is a source of contentment.
XIII “deep” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.
XIV “windows” = arubbah. 9x in OT. From arab (to ambush, lurk, lie in wait). This is a window, lattice, dove-cote, chimney. It can also refer to floodgates. It is often used for the floodgates in the sky that open when great rains come (as in the Great Flood).
XV “heavens” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

were closed,XVI the rainXVII from the heavens was restrained,XVIII and the waters gradually recededXIX from the earth. At the end of one hundred fifty days the waters had abated;XX 

Notes on verses 2b-3

XVI “closed” = saker. 3x in OT. This is to stop, give over, or surrender.
XVII “rain” = geshem. Perhaps from gasham (to rain). This is rain, shower, or rainy. It can be used figuratively for blessing or for destruction.
XVIII “restrained” = kala. 18x in OT. This is to stop in the sense of holding back or restraining. It could be keep, refuse, forbid, or to prohibit by word.
XIX “gradually receded” = shubhalak + shub. Perhaps literally “the waters receded from the earth, going back steadily.” Shub is to turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.” The second shub is Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.” Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XX “abated” = chaser. This is to lack, abate, have need of, bereave, fail.

and in the seventhXXI month,XXII on the seventeenthXXIII day of the month, the ark came to restXXIV on the mountains of Ararat.XXV 

Notes on verse 4

XXI “seventh” = shebii. From sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is seventh.
XXII “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
XXIII “seventeenth” = sheba + asar. Sheba is related to “seventh” in v4. See note XXI above. Asar is ten or -teenth.
XXIV “came to rest” = nuach. Related to “Noah” in v1. See note III above.
XXV “Ararat” = Ararat. 4x in OT. Related to Akkadian Urartu (“the Eastern Anatolian plateau”). This is Ararat in modern day eastern Armenia. See

The waters continuedXXVI to abate until the tenthXXVII month; in the tenth month, on the firstXXVIII day of the month, the topsXXIX of the mountains appeared.XXX

Notes on verse 5

XXVI “continued” = hayah + halak. Hayah is to be or become, to happen. Halak is the same as “gradually receded” in v3. See note XIX above.
XXVII “tenth” = asiri. Related to “seventeenth” in v4. From the same as asar (see note XXIII above). This is tenth or one-tenth.
XXVIII “first” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XXIX “tops” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XXX “appeared” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

6 XXXIAt the end of fortyXXXII days Noah openedXXXIII the windowXXXIV of the ark that he had madeXXXV 

Notes on verse 6

XXXI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “continued” in v5. See note XXVI above.
XXXII “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
XXXIII “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
XXXIV “window” = challon. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is window.
XXXV “made” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

and sent outXXXVI the raven;XXXVII and it wentXXXVIII to and froXXXIX until the waters were dried upXL from the earth. 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVI “sent out” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XXXVII “raven” = oreb. 10x in OT. Perhaps from arab (to grow dark, become gloomy); from ereb (evening, night, twilight) or from arab (to bargain, barter, give or take in pledge; to braid or intermingle). This is a raven.
XXXVIII “went” = yatsa + yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense. Infinitive Absolute is second. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
XXXIX “fro” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XL “dried up” = yabesh. This is to be dry, withered, confused, or ashamed. It can also be to fail.

Then he sent out the doveXLI from him, to seeXLII if the waters had subsidedXLIII from the faceXLIV of the ground;XLV 

Notes on verse 8

XLI “dove” = yonah. Perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is a dove or pigeon. Used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships. Also used figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty.
XLII “see” = raah. Same as “appeared” in v5. See note XXX above.
XLIII “subsided” = qalal. This is to be little, insignificant, swift. It can also mean to bring down in esteem, create contempt, curse.
XLIV “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XLV “ground” = adamah. From the same as adam (man, humankind); perhaps from ‘adom (to be red). This is ground, earth, soil as red, or land.

but the dove foundXLVI no placeXLVII to set its foot,XLVIII and it returnedXLIX to him to the ark, for the waters were still on the face of the whole earth.

Notes on verse 9a

XLVI “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XLVII “place” = manoach. Related to “Noah” in v1 & “came to rest” in v4. 6x in OT. From nuach (see note III above). This is resting place, a restful state, quiet, a home.
XLVIII “foot” = kaph + regel. Kaph is from kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power. Regel is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
XLIX “returned” = shub. Same as “receded” in v3. See note XIX above.

So he put outL his handLI and took it and brought it into the ark with him. 10 He waitedLII another seven days, and againLIII he sent out the dove from the ark; 

Notes on verses 9b-10

L “put out” = shalach. Same as “sent out” in v7. See note XXXVI above.
LI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
LII “waited” = chul. This is whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain. It is used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear. It can also be falling in pain or waiting.
LIII “again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.

11 and the dove came back to him in the evening,LIV andLV there in its beakLVI

Notes on verse 11a

LIV “evening” = ereb. Perhaps related to “raven” in v7. See note XXXVII above.
LV {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LVI “beak” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

was a freshly plucked oliveLVII leaf;LVIII so Noah knewLIX that the waters had subsided from the earth. 12 Then he waitedLX another seven days, and sent out the dove; and it did not return to him any more.

Notes on verses 11b-12

LVII “olive” = zayith. This is olive tree, grove, or other parts of the olive tree like the branch or berry.
LVIII “leaf” = aleh. 18x in OT. From alah (to go up, climb, to be high; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is leaf, branch, or foliage.
LIX “knew” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
LX “waited” = yachal. This is to wait, which implies patience, hope, and trust. It can also be pained waiting.

13 LXIIn the sixLXII hundred first year, in the firstLXIII month, on the first day of the month, the waters were dried upLXIV from the earth;

Notes on verse 13a

LXI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “continued” in v5. See note XXVI above.
LXII “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
LXIII “first” = rishon. Related to “tops” in v5. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (see note XXIX above). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
LXIV “dried up” = charab. This is to dry up because of drought, destroy, or make waste.

and Noah removedLXV the coveringLXVI of the ark, and looked, and sawLXVII that the face of the ground was drying. 14 In the secondLXVIII month, on the twentyLXIX-seventh day of the month, the earth was dry. 

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXV “removed” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
LXVI “covering” = mikseh. 16x in OT. From kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is a covering.
LXVII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v11. See note LV above.
LXVIII “second” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
LXIX “twenty” = esrim. Related to “seventeenth” in v4 & “tenth” in v5. From the same as asar (see note XXIII above). This is twenty or twentieth.

15 Then God saidLXX to Noah, 16 “Go out of the ark, you and your wife,LXXI and your sonsLXXII and your sons’ wives with you. 

Notes on verses 15-16

LXX “said” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LXXI “wife” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
LXXII “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

17 Bring out with you every living thingLXXIII that is with you of all fleshLXXIV—birdsLXXV and animalsLXXVI

Notes on verse 17a

LXXIII “living thing” = chay. Same as “wild animals” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXIV “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
LXXV “birds” = oph. From uph (to fly, flee, shine, be weary, be faint). This is a flying creature.
LXXVI “animals” = behemah. Same as “domestic animals” in v1. See note V above.

and every creeping thingLXXVII that creepsLXXVIII on the earth—so that they may aboundLXXIX on the earth, and be fruitfulLXXX and multiplyLXXXI on the earth.” 

Notes on verse 17b

LXXVII “creeping thing” = remes. 17x in OT. From ramas (gliding swiftly, moving with quick steps or crawling; to swarm or prowl or move about). This is things that move rapidly or creep such as reptiles.
LXXVIII “creeps” = ramas. Related to “creeping things” in v17. See note LXXVII above.
LXXIX “abound” = sharats. 14x in OT. This is to swarm, creep, abound, breed a lot, wriggle.
LXXX “be fruitful” = parah. This is to bear fruit, grow, be fruitful, increase. It is bearing fruit in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “multiply” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.

18 So Noah went out with his sons and his wife and his sons’ wives. 19 And every animal,LXXXII every creeping thing, and every bird, everything that movesLXXXIII on the earth, went out of the ark by families.LXXXIV

20 Then Noah builtLXXXV an altarLXXXVI to the Lord,LXXXVII

Notes on verses 18-20a

LXXXII “animal” = chay. Same as “wild animals” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXXIII “moves” = ramas. Same as “creeps” in v17. See note LXXVII above.
LXXXIV “families” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
LXXXV “built” = banah. Related to “sons” in v16. See note LXXII above.
LXXXVI “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
LXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “continued” in v5. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note XXVI above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

and took of every cleanLXXXVIII animalLXXXIX and of every clean bird, and offeredXC burnt offeringsXCI on the altar. 

Notes on verse 20b

LXXXVIII “clean” = tahor. From taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.
LXXXIX “animal” = behemah. Same as “domestic animals” in v1. See note V above.
XC “offered” = alah. Related to “leaf” in v11. See note LVIII above.
XCI “bunt offerings” = olah. Related to “leaf” in v11 & “offered” in v20. From alah (see note LVIII above). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

21 And when the Lord smelledXCII the pleasingXCIII odor,XCIV

Notes on verse 21a

XCII “smelled” = ruach. Related to “wind” in v1. 11x in OT. Related to riach (scent, odor, perceive). This is to blow or breathe. It can imply to perceive, anticipate, or enjoy.
XCIII “pleasing” = nichoach. Related to “Noah” in v1 & “came to rest” in v4 & “place” in v9. From nuach (see note III above). This is soothing, restful, a pleasant odor, a delight.
XCIV “odor” = reyach. Related to “wind” in v1 & “smelled” in v21. From ruach (see note XCII above). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.

the Lord said in his heart,XCV “I will never again curseXCVI the ground because of humankind,XCVII for the inclinationXCVIII of the humanXCIX heart

Notes on verse 21b

XCV “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
XCVI “curse” = qalal. Same as “subsided” in v8. See note XLIII above.
XCVII “humankind” = adam. Related to “ground” in v8. See note XLV above.
XCVIII “inclination” = yetser. 9x in OT. From yatsar (to fashion or form, perhaps by squeezing something into a shape or form; to create as a potter does; figuratively, to determine). This is a form, framing, intention, imagination, conception, inclination.
XCIX “human” = adam. Same as “humankind” in v21. See note XCVII above.

is evilC from youth;CI nor will I ever again destroyCII every living creature as I have done.CIII

Notes on verse 21c

C “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CI “youth” = naur. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is youth or childhood.
CII “destroy” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CIII “done” = asah. Same as “made” in v6. See note XXXV above.

22 As long as the earth endures,CIV
    seedtimeCV and harvest,CVI cold and heat,

Notes on verse 22a

CIV Literally “for all the days of the earth.”
CV “seedtime” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CVI “harvest” = qatsir. From qatsar (to cut down, be short, reap, curtail; used especially for harvesting grass or grain; figuratively, to be discouraged or grieve). This is branch, harvest, one who harvests. Properly, this means severed, reaped. It is the crop being harvested, the time of harvest or the one who harvests. It can also be a bough.

summerCVII and winter,CVIII day and night,CIX
    shall not cease.”CX

Notes on verse 22b

CVII “summer” = qayits. From quts (summer, clip off). This is fruit, harvest, or summer – the dry season.
CVIII “winter” = choreph. 7x in OT. Perhaps from charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is autumn, winter – the time of ripeness or harvest, the prime, youth.
CIX “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
CX “cease” = shabat. This is to rest, stop, repose, cease working. It implies to celebrate (as celebrating the Sabbath).

Image credit: “Noah is Rescued from the Flood” by Edge Group – Lion Hudson (Illustrators Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas), 2015.

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