Isaiah 36:1-3, 13-20 & 37:1-7 & 2:1-4

Isaiah 36:1-3, 13-20 & 37:1-7 & 2:1-4
Narrative Lectionary 111


36:1 IIn the fourteenthII yearIII of KingIV Hezekiah,V

Notes on verse 36:1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “fourteenth” = arba + asar. Arba is from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
III “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
IV “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
V “Hezekiah” = Chizqiyyah. Related to {untranslated} in v36:1. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (see note I above)}. This is Hezekiah or Hizkiah, meaning “the Lord has strengthened.”

King SennacheribVI of AssyriaVII came upVIII

Notes on verse 36:1b

VI “Sennacherib” = Sancherib. 13x in OT. From Akkadian Sin-ahhi-eriba or Sin-achche-eriba (“Sin has replaced the brothers” or “Sin increases the brothers;” Sin was a god of the moon); {from Sin (moon god) + achi (brothers) + rab (to increase)}. This is Sennacherib, meaning “Sin has replaced the brothers” or “Sin increases the brothers.” See &
VII “Assyria” = Ashshur. From Akkadian Ashshur (“City of God Ashshur”) OR related to Hebrew ashar (to go straight, advance, proceed, direct, guide, be level, be honest, be blessed or happy). This is Assyria, referring to the place and its inhabitants. It is also a name – Ashshur, a descendant of Shem. See
VIII “came up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.

against allIX the fortifiedX citiesXI of JudahXII and capturedXIII them. 

Notes on verse 36:1c

IX “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
X “fortified” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.
XI “cities” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
XIII “captured” = taphas. This is to catch, seize, wield, capture. It can also mean to use unwarrantably.

The king of Assyria sentXIV the RabshakehXV with a greatXVI armyXVII

Notes on verse 36:2a

XIV “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XV “Rabshakeh” = Rabshaqeh. 16x in OT. From rab (chief, captain, official); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply) + shaqah (to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown; watering plants or giving water to flocks) OR from Akkadian rab shaqe (Rabshakeh; “chief of the princes/cup-bearers”). This is Rabshakeh or Rabshaqeh. It is not a name. It’s a title that may mean “chief of the officers” or “chief butler” for the Assyrian military. See
XVI “great” = kabed. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is heavy, grievous, sore. It can also be weighty in the sense of gravitas. The word for “glory” in Hebrew comes from this root (kabod).
XVII “army” = chel. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting) OR from chayil (strength, wealth, ability, activity; a soldier or a company of soldiers; goods; a force of people, means, or goods; valor, virtue, or strength); from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is an army, entrenchment, fortress, wall, or host.

from LachishXVIII to King Hezekiah at Jerusalem.XIX He stoodXX by the conduitXXI

Notes on verse 36:2b

XVIII “Lachish” = Lachish. This is Lachish or Lakish. It is a city whose name meaning is unclear.
XIX “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XX “stood” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
XXI “conduit” = t’alah. Related to “came up” in v36:1. 11x in OT. From alah (see note VIII above). This is a conduit, stream, channel for irrigation, or trench. It can also be a bandage for an injury.

of the upperXXII poolXXIII on the highwayXXIV to the fuller’sXXV field.XXVI 

Notes on verse 36:2c

XXII “upper” = elyon. Related to “came up” in v36:1 & “conduit” in v36:2. From alah (see note VIII above). This is most high, upper. It refers to elevation – so, lofty.
XXIII “pool” = berekah. 17x in OT. From barak (to kneel, bless; blessing God as part of worship and adoration; blessing humans to help them; can be used as a euphemism to say curse God). This is a pool or a pond. Perhaps it refers to camels kneeling to drink or rest.
XXIV “highway” = mesillah. From salal (to lift up, build, pile, extol, exalt; can also be used for opposing as a dam holds back water). This is highway, path, step. It could be a course in a figurative sense or specifically a viaduct or staircase.
XXV “fuller’s” = kabas. This is to trample – washing by stomping feet. It can be fulling in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVI “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.

And there came outXXVII to him EliakimXXVIII sonXXIX of Hilkiah,XXX

Notes on verse 36:3a

XXVII “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVIII “Eliakim” = Elyaqim. 12x in OT. From El (God, a god) + qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is Eliakim or Elyaqim, meaning “God sets up” or “God of raising” or “God will establish” or “Whom God set up.” See
XXIX “son” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXX “Hilkiah” = Chilqiyyahu. Related to {untranslated} and “Hezekiah” in v36:1. From cheleq (portion, catch, division, reward, share, smooth tongue, flattery, associate); {from chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter)} + Yah (see note V above). This is Hilkiah, “my portion is the Lord” or “portion of the Lord.” See

who was in charge of the palace,XXXI and ShebnaXXXII the secretary,XXXIII

Notes on verse 36:3b

XXXI “palace” = bayit. Related to “son” in v36:3. Probably from banah (see note XXIX above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXXII “Shebna” = Shebna. 9x in OT. Perhaps from shub (to turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively; not necessarily implying going back to where you started from) + na (I or we pray, now; used to ask for something) OR from navah (home, beautify, praise) + na (see above). This is Shebna or Shebnah. It may mean “growth” or “tender youth” or “grown up” or “seat of beauty” or “captured” or “please let return.” See
XXXIII “secretary” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.

and JoahXXXIV son of Asaph,XXXV the recorder.XXXVI

Notes on verse 36:3c

XXXIV “Joah” = Yoach. Related to {untranslated} and “Hezekiah” in v36:1 & “Hilkiah” in v36:3. 11x in OT. From YHVH (see note V above) + ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like). This is Joah or Yoach, “the Lord is brother” or “Lord-brothered.”
XXXV “Asaph” = Asaph. From asaph (to gather, assemble, bring, take away, destroy, or remove). This is Asaph, meaning “gatherer” or “collector.” It is a personal name.
XXXVI “recorder” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.

13 Then the Rabshakeh stood and called outXXXVII in a loudXXXVIII voiceXXXIX in the language of Judah,XL

Notes on verse 36:13a

XXXVII “called out” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XXXVIII “loud” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
XXXIX “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
XL “language of Judah” = Yehudith. Related to “Judah” in v36:1. 6x in OT. From Yehudi (Jew or Jewish – one descended from Judah); from Yehudah (see note XII above). This is the language of Judah or of the Jews.

“HearXLI the wordsXLII of the greatXLIII king, the king of Assyria! 14 Thus says the king: Do not let Hezekiah deceiveXLIV you, for he will not be ableXLV to deliverXLVI you. 

Notes on verses 36:13b-14

XLI “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XLII “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
XLIII “great” = gadol. Same as “loud” in v36:13. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIV “deceive” = nasha. 15x in OT. This is to deceive, lead astray, trick, or delude.
XLV “be able” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XLVI “deliver” = natsal. This is to snatch someone or something away in a good sense – as rescue, defend, or deliver – or in a bad sense – as strip or plunder.

15 Do not let Hezekiah make you relyXLVII on the LordXLVIII by saying, ‘The Lord will surely deliverXLIX us; this city will not be givenL into the handLI of the king of Assyria.’ 

Notes on verse 36:15

XLVII “rely” = batach. This is to hide for refuge, be secure or sure. Figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping.
XLVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} and “Hezekiah” in v36:1 & “Hilkiah” and “Joah” in v36:3. See note V above.
XLIX “surely deliver” = natsal + natsal. Same as “deliver” in v36:14. See note XLVI above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
L “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LI “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

16 Do not listenLII to Hezekiah, for thus says the king of Assyria: MakeLIII your peaceLIV with me and come out to me; then every oneLV of you will eatLVI from your own vineLVII

Notes on verse 36:16a

LII “listen” = shama. Same as “hear” in v36:13. See note XLI above.
LIII “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LIV “peace” = barakah. Related to “pool” in v36:2. From barak (see note XXIII above). This is blessing, which implies prosperity or peace.
LV “every one” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LVI “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LVII “vine” = gephen. Root may mean to twine or bend. So, it is a vine, particularly referring to grapes.

andLVIII your own fig tree and drinkLIX, LX waterLXI from your own cistern,LXII 

Notes on verse 36:16b

LVIII {untranslated} = ish. Same as “every one” in v36:16. See note LV above.
LIX “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
LX {untranslated} = ish. Same as “every one” in v36:16. See note LV above.
LXI “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LXII “cistern” = bor. From bur (to bore; figuratively, to explain, examine, or clear up). This is a pit – generally a cistern or dungeon. It could also be a well or fountain.

17 until I comeLXIII and take you awayLXIV to a landLXV like your own land, a land of grainLXVI and wine,LXVII a land of breadLXVIII and vineyards.LXIX 

Notes on verse 36:17

LXIII “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXIV “take…away” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LXVI “grain” = dagan. Perhaps from dagah (to multiply, move quickly, breed greatly, grow). This is grain or other cereal.
LXVII “wine” = tirosh. From yarash (inheriting or dispossessing; refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them; by implication, to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish).  This is new wine or sweet wine – wine that is freshly squeezed. Sometimes used for fermented wine.
LXVIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXIX “vineyards” = kerem. This is a vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage.

18 Do notLXX let Hezekiah misleadLXXI you by saying, ‘The Lord will deliver us.’ Has anyLXXII of the godsLXXIII of the nationsLXXIV delivered their land out of the hand of the king of Assyria? 

Notes on verse 36:18

LXX “not” = pen. Perhaps from panah (to turn, face, appear). This is lest, if, or.
LXXI “mislead” = suth. 18x in OT. Perhaps from shayith (a thorn-bush or thorn; some kind of wild growth); perhaps from shith (to place, set, bring, appoint, consider, bring, array or look). This is to incite, induce, persuade, provoke, mislead, remove. It could be from the root in the sense of being pricked or agitated. It can imply being seduced.
LXXII “any” = ish. Same as “every one” in v36:16. See note LV above.
LXXIII “gods” = elohim. Related to “Eliakim” in v36:3. See note XXVIII above.
LXXIV “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.

19 Where are the gods of HamathLXXV and Arpad?LXXVI Where are the gods of Sepharvaim?LXXVII Have they delivered SamariaLXXVIII out of my hand? 20 Who among all the gods of these countriesLXXIX have delivered their countries out of my hand, that the Lord should deliver Jerusalem out of my hand?”

Notes on verses 36:19-20

LXXV “Hamath” = Chamath. From the same as chemeth (waterskin, bottle); from the same as chomah (a wall for protection); from the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is Hamath or Chamath, a place whose name means “walled” or “fortification” or “fortress” or “defense” or “citadel” or “waterskin.” See
LXXVI “Arpad” = Arpad. 6x in OT. Perhaps from raphad (to spread, make a bed, refresh, comfort). This is Arpad or Arphad, a city whose name means “spread out” or “light of redemption” or “I shall be supported.” See,_Syria
LXXVII “Sepharvaim” = Sepharvayim. Related to “secretary” in v36:3. 6x in OT. From sepher (see note XXXIII above). This is Sepharvaim or Sepharvayim, meaning “two Sipparas” or “two booktowns” or “writings” or “scribes.” See &
LXXVIII “Samaria” = Shomron. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is Samaria, meaning watch station.
LXXIX “countries” = erets. Same as “land” in v36:17. See note LXV above.

37:1 LXXXWhen King Hezekiah heard it, he toreLXXXI his clothes,LXXXII coveredLXXXIII himself with sackclothLXXXIV and went intoLXXXV the houseLXXXVI of the Lord. 

Notes on verse 37:1

LXXX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v36:1. See note I above.
LXXXI “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It an also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
LXXXII “clothes” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
LXXXIII “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXXIV “sackcloth” = saq. Perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; by implication having an appetite, seeking greedily). This is sack or sackcloth used as bags for grain and so on. Also worn during times or mourning or when seeking humility. The word “sack” in English is derived from this Semitic root.
LXXXV “went into” = bo. Same as “come” in v36:17. See note LXIII above.
LXXXVI “house” = bayit. Same as “palace” in v36:3. See note XXXI above.

And he sent Eliakim, who was in charge of the palace, and Shebna the secretary, and the seniorLXXXVII priests,LXXXVIII covered with sackcloth, to the prophetLXXXIX IsaiahXC son of Amoz.XCI 

Notes on verse 37:2

LXXXVII “senior” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
LXXXVIII “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
LXXXIX “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
XC “Isaiah” = Yshayah. Related to {untranslated} and “Hezekiah” in v36:1 & “Hilkiah” and “Joah” in v36:3 & “Lord” in v36:15 From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe; to free someone) + Yah (see note V above). This is Isaiah, meaning “salvation of the Lord” or “the Lord has saved.”
XCI “Amoz” = Amots. 13x in OT. From amets (to be strong, alert, or bold; to harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish; physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness). This is Amoz, meaning “strong.”

They said to him, “Thus says Hezekiah: This dayXCII is a day of distress,XCIII of rebuke,XCIV and of disgrace;XCV

Notes on verse 37:3a

XCII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XCIII “distress” = tsarah. From tsar (properly, a narrow or constricted place; figuratively, trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress); from tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is tightness, distress, affliction, trouble, or adversary.
XCIV “rebuke” = tokechah. From yakach (to decide, be right, argue, or convince; to decide, convict, reason together, or reprove). This is correction, rebuke, punishment. It can also be evidence used in court.
XCV “disgrace” = n’atsah. 5x in OT. From na’ats (to spurn, blaspheme, reject, provoke). This is disgrace, blasphemy, abusive speech.

childrenXCVI have come to the birth,XCVII and there is no strengthXCVIII to bring them forth.XCIX 

Notes on verse 37:3b

XCVI “children” = ben. Same as “son” in v36:3. See note XXIX above.
XCVII “birth” = mishbar. 3x in OT. From shabar (to break, give birth to, destroy, burst; can be literal or figurative). This is an area that has been fractured open. It is used for the mouth of the womb.
XCVIII “strength” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
XCIX “bring…forth” = yalad. This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.

It may be that the LordC your GodCI heard the words of the Rabshakeh, whom his masterCII the king of Assyria has sent to mockCIII the livingCIV God,

Notes on verse 37:4a

C “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} and “Hezekiah” in v36:1 & “Hilkiah” and “Joah” in v36:3 & “Lord” in v36:15 & “Isaiah” in v37:2. It has the same meaning as “Lord” with a different vowel pointing. See note XLVIII above.
CI “God” = Elohim. Same as “gods” in v36:18. See note LXXIII above.
CII “master” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
CIII “mock” = charaph. This is to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy. It can also mean spend the winter or betroth.
CIV “living” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

and will rebukeCV the words that the LordCVI your God has heard; therefore lift upCVII your prayerCVIII for the remnantCIX that is left.”CX

Notes on verse 37:4b

CV “rebuke” = yakach. Related to “rebuke” in v37:3. See note XCIV above.
CVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v37:4. See note C above.
CVII “lift up” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CVIII “prayer” = tephillah. From palal (to judge for oneself or in an official capacity; to pray or make supplication, to entreat). This is prayer or intercession. It can also be a hymn.
CIX “remnant” = sheerith. From shaar (properly, swelling up i.e. being left over; a remnant, remaining, being redundant). This is a remainder, residue, or survivor. It can also refer to posterity.
CX “is left” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.

When the servantsCXI of King Hezekiah came to Isaiah, Isaiah said to them, “Say to your master: Thus says the Lord:CXII Do not be afraidCXIII because ofCXIV the words that you have heard, with which the servantsCXV of the king of Assyria have reviledCXVI me. 

Notes on verses 37:5-6

CXI “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v36:15. See note XLVIII above.
CXIII “be afraid” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
CXIV “because of” = paneh. Related to “not” in v36:18. From panah (see note LXX above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXV “servants” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
CXVI “reviled” = gadaph. 7x in OT. This is to revile, reproach, use harsh words, blaspheme.

CXVIII myself will putCXVIII a spiritCXIX in him,

Notes on verse 37:7a

CXVII {untranslated} = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
CXVIII “put” = natan. Same as “given” in v36:15. See note L above.
CXIX “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.

so that he shall hear a rumorCXX and returnCXXI to his own land; I will cause him to fallCXXII by the swordCXXIII in his own land.”

Notes on verse 37:7b

CXX “rumor” = shemuah. Related to “hear” in v36:13. From shama (see note XLI above). This is something heard – news, a rumor, fame, announcement.
CXXI “return” = shub. Related to “Shebna” in v36:3. See note XXXII above.
CXXII “fall” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXXIII “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.

2:1 The word that Isaiah son of Amoz sawCXXIV concerning Judah and Jerusalem.

CXXVIn days to comeCXXVI
    the mountain of the Lord’sCXXVII house

Notes on verses 2:1-2a

CXXIV “saw” = chazah. This is to gaze at – to see or behold. It can also refer to perceiving as a mental process or looking at something with pleasure. It can be used particularly to mean seeing a vision.
CXXV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v36:1. See note I above.
CXXVI “to come” = acharith. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is the last, length, remnant, end, reward, future.
CXXVII “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v36:15. See note XLVIII above.

shall beCXXVIII establishedCXXIX as the highestCXXX of the mountainsCXXXI

Notes on verse 2:2b

CXXVIII “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v36:1. See note I above.
CXXIX “established” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
CXXX “highest” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
CXXXI “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.

    and shall be raisedCXXXII above the hills;CXXXIII
all the nations shall streamCXXXIV to it.
    ManyCXXXV peoplesCXXXVI shall comeCXXXVII and say,

Notes on verses 2:2c-3a

CXXXII “raised” = nasa. Same as “lift up” in v37:4. See note CVII above.
CXXXIII “hills” = gibah. From the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is hill or little hill.
CXXXIV “stream” = nahar. 6x in OT. This is to flow, sparkle, be cheerful, assemble.
CXXXV “many” = rab. Related to “Rabshakeh” in v36:2. From rabab (see note XV above). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CXXXVI “peoples” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CXXXVII “come” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

“Come,CXXXVIII let us go upCXXXIX to the mountain of the Lord,CXL
    to the house of the God of Jacob,CXLI

Notes on verse 2:3b

CXXXVIII “come” = halak. Same as “come” in v2:3. See note CXXXVII above.
CXXXIX “go up” = alah. Same as “came up” in v36:1. See note VIII above.
CXL “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v37:4. See note C above.
CXLI “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

that he may teachCXLII us his waysCXLIII
    and that we may walkCXLIV in his paths.”CXLV

Notes on verse 2:3c

CXLII “teach” = yarah. Related to “Jerusalem” in v36:2. See note XIX above.
CXLIII “ways” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CXLIV “walk” = halak. Same as “come” in v2:3. See note CXXXVII above.
CXLV “paths” = orach. From arach (to go, travel, wander). This is a road that is widely used, highway, caravan, traveler, troop.

For out of ZionCXLVI shall go forthCXLVII instructionCXLVIII
    and the word of the LordCXLIX from Jerusalem.

Notes on verse 2:3d

CXLVI “Zion” = Tsiyyon. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.
CXLVII “go forth” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v36:3. See note XXVII above.
CXLVIII “instruction” = torah. Related to “Jerusalem” in v36:2 & “teach” in v2:3. From yarah (see note XIX above). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.
CXLIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v37:4. See note C above.

He shall judgeCL betweenCLI the nations
    and shall arbitrateCLII for many peoples;

Notes on verse 2:4a

CL “judge” = shaphat. This is to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, or govern. It can refer to God judging or to human judges. This is pronouncing a verdict in favor or against so it implies consequences or punishment. It can also mean to litigate or govern as one with authority.
CLI “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
CLII “arbitrate” = yakach. Same as “rebuke” in v37:4. See note CV above.

they shall beatCLIII their swords into plowsharesCLIV
    and their spearsCLV into pruning hooks;CLVI
nation shall not lift up sword against nation;
    neither shall they learnCLVII warCLVIII any more.

Notes on verse 2:4b

CLIII “beat” = kathath. 17x in OT. This is to crush into pieces, to beat with a hammer, smash, bruise.
CLIV “plowshares” = eth. 5x in OT. This is a colter or plowshare – a cutting instrument made of iron use for digging.
CLV “spears” = chanith. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is a spear or lance as a weapon that is thrust in the same way one pitches a tent.
CLVI “pruning hooks” = mazmerah. 4x in OT. From zamar (to trim, prune). This is a pruning hook.
CLVII “learn” = lamad. Properly, this refers to goading (using a pointed stick to guide or prod one’s flock). By implication, it means teaching or instructing.
CLVIII “war” = milchamah. Related to “bread” in v36:17. From lacham (see note LXVIII above). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).

Image credit: “Swords into Plowshares” by Cara B. Hochhalter, 2019.

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