Isaiah 58:1-12

Isaiah 58:1-12
Ash Wednesday ABC


ShoutI out;II do not hold back!III

Notes on verse 1a

I “shout” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
II “out” = garon. 7x in OT. Perhaps from garah (to contend, provoke conflict, stir up strife, meddle; properly, to grate – figuratively to cause anger) OR from garar (to drag or drag off in a rough fashion, chew, sweep, destroy; to chew the cud). This is mouth, throat, head, or neck.
III “hold back” = chasak. This is to restrain, refrain, or hold back. It can mean to spare, to preserve or to punish, depending on the context.

    Lift upIV your voiceV like a trumpet!VI

Notes on verse 1b

IV “lift up” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
V “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
VI “trumpet” = shophar. From shaphar (being beautiful or lovely). This is a ram’s horn, trumpet, or cornet. A shofar is still blown at Jewish festivals such as Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish new year celebration).

AnnounceVII to my peopleVIII their rebellion,IX

Notes on verse 1c

VII “announce” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
VIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
IX “rebellion” = pesha. From pasha (to rebel, offend, quarrel; making a break from proper authority so can also refer to an apostate). This is transgression, rebellion, or sin. It could be a revolt on a national scale or an individual moral one.

    to the houseX of JacobXI their sins.XII

Notes on verse 1d

X “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XI “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
XII “sins” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.

Yet dayXIII after day they seekXIV me
    and delightXV to knowXVI my ways,XVII

Notes on verse 2a

XIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XIV “seek” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
XV “delight” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.
XVI “know” = daat. From yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism). This is knowledge, unawares, cunning, wittingly.
XVII “ways” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.

as if they were a nationXVIII that practicedXIX righteousnessXX

Notes on verse 2b

XVIII “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
XIX “practiced” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XX “righteousness” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.

    and did not forsakeXXI the ordinanceXXII of their God;XXIII

Notes on verse 2c

XXI “forsake” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
XXII “ordinance” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XXIII “God” = Elohim.

they askXXIV of me righteousXXV judgments;XXVI
    they wantXXVII God on their side.XXVIII

Notes on verse 2d

XXIV “ask” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
XXV “righteous” = tsedeq. Related to “righteousness” in v2. See note XX above.
XXVI “judgments” = mishpat. Same as “ordinance” in v2. See note XXII above.
XXVII “want” = chaphets. Same as “delight” in v2. See note XV above.
XXVIII “side” = qirbah. 2x in OT. From qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is an approach or nearness.

“Why do we fast,XXIX but you do not see?XXX
    Why humbleXXXI ourselves,XXXII but you do not notice?”XXXIII

Notes on verse 3a

XXIX “fast” = tsum. Properly, this is covering one’s mouth so, by extension, abstaining from food.
XXX “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXXI “humble” = anah. This is to be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
XXXII “ourselves” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XXXIII “notice” = yada. Related to “know” in v2. See note XVI above.

Look,XXXIV you serve your own interestXXXV on your fastXXXVI day

Notes on verse 3b

XXXIV “look” = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
XXXV “serve…interest” = matsa + chephets. Literally, “find pleasure.” Matsa is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with. Chephets is related to “delight” in v2. From chaphets (see note XV above). This is a delight, care, or pleasure. It is what you desire or what is acceptable. It can also be used concretely for a precious thing or something that one is thinking about.
XXXVI “fast” = tsom. Related to “fast” in v3. From tsum (see note XXIX above). This is fasting or a fast.

    and oppressXXXVII allXXXVIII your workers.XXXIX

Notes on verse 3c

XXXVII “oppress” = nagas. This is driving an animal, worker, debtor, or an army. By implication, it can mean to tax, harass, distress, oppress, or tyrannize. This word can be used for taskmaster or overseer.
XXXVIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXXIX “workers” = atseb. 1x in OT. From atsab (to hurt, grieve, displease; to carve, make, worry). This is a hired worker.

You fastXL only to quarrelXLI and to fightXLII

Notes on verse 4a

XL “fast” = tsum. Same as “fast” in v3. See note XXIX above.
XLI “quarrel” = rib. From rib (properly to toss or grapple; used figuratively to mean wrangling and so for arguments, complaints, or disputes; used in a legal setting for pleading or defending a case). This is strife or dispute – whether a personal one or one in a court of law.
XLII “fight” = matstsah. 3x in OT – 2x in Proverbs & 1x in Isaiah 58:4. From natsah (to strike – to hit so that something is spread away; to abandon, cast away, neglect, spread, leave, thrust out). This is strife or a quarrel.

    and to strikeXLIII with a wickedXLIV fist.XLV

Notes on verse 4b

XLIII “strike” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XLIV “wicked” = resha. From the same as rasha (to be wicked, guilty, make trouble, do wrong; can also be condemn, guilty, inflict punishment; this verb implies disturbing or violating). This is wrong, particularly moral wrong. It can be wickedness, evil, wicked deeds, or something that is ill-gotten.
XLV “fist” = egroph. 2x in OT. From garaph (to conduct away forcefully). This is a fist.

Such fasting as you doXLVI todayXLVII
    will not make your voice heardXLVIII on high.XLIX

Notes on verse 4c

XLVI “fasting…do” = tsum. Same as “fast” in v3. See note XXIX above.
XLVII “today” = yom. Same as “day” in v2. See note XIII above.
XLVIII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XLIX “high” = marom. Related to “lift up” in v1. From rum (see note IV above). This can be height, high place, or lofty. It can be either exalted or haughty/proud. It can refer to dignity or to heaven.

IsL such the fastLI that I choose,LII
    a day to humble oneself?LIII

Notes on verse 5a

L “is” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
LI “fast” = tsom. Same as “fast” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
LII “choose” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
LIII “oneself” = adam + nephesh. Adam is Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity. Nephesh is the same as “ourselves” in v3. See note XXXII above.

Is it to bow downLIV the headLV like a bulrushLVI

Notes on verse 5b

LIV “bow down” = kaphaph. 5x in OT. This is to bend, bow, or curve.  It is used for bowed down (as in oppressed), a bulrush bowing, and bowing before God.
LV “head” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
LVI “bulrush” = agmon. 5x in OT. From the same as agam (marsh, pool, pond, or swamp; root may refer to an area that holds standing water; to reeds that grow in marshes). This refers to water in wetlands. By implication, it can be a bulrush, reed, or rope.

    and to lieLVII in sackclothLVIII and ashes?LIX

Notes on verse 5c

LVII “lie” = yatsa. 4x in OT. This is to lay, to spread a bed.
LVIII “sackcloth” = saq. Perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; to pursue like a predator; to search for with greed or appetite). This is sack or sackcloth. It is a mesh fabric used for bags or clothes. It is used as clothing for times of grief or humiliation. It is perhaps the same root that the word “sack” comes from.
LIX “ashes” = epher. Root may mean to strew. This is ashes or dust.

Will you callLX this a fast,LXI
    a day acceptableLXII to the Lord?LXIII

Notes on verse 5d

LX “call” = qara. Same as “shout” in v1. See note I above.
LXI “fast” = tsom. Same as “fast” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
LXII “acceptable” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.
LXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “is” in v5. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note L above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

Is not this the fastLXIV that I choose:
    to looseLXV the bondsLXVI of injustice,LXVII

Notes on verse 6a

LXIV “fast” = tsom. Same as “fast” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
LXV “loose” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
LXVI “bonds” = chartsubbah. 2x in OT. This is a fetter or a pang (an experience of pain).
LXVII “injustice” = resha. Same as “wicked” in v4. See note XLIV above.

    to undoLXVIII the strapsLXIX of the yoke,LXX

Notes on verse 6b

LXVIII “undo” = nathar. 8x in OT. This is to jump, spring, undo, be greatly agitated, untie, or terrify.
LXIX “straps” = aguddah. 4x in OT. This may come from a word that means to bind. It is a bunch, band, thong, vault, knot, or arch.
LXX “yoke” = motah. 12x in OT. From mot (pole, bar of a yoke, bar used for carrying; a pole that shakes and so this also has the sense of wavering or falling); from mot (to shake, slip, falter, stagger, move, give way, be carried). This is a pole, bar, yoke, or staves. Properly, a pole, but by implication a yoke in a literal or figurative sense.

to let the oppressedLXXI goLXXII free,LXXIII
    and to breakLXXIV everyLXXV yoke?

Notes on verse 6c

LXXI “oppressed” = ratsats. 19x in OT. This is properly cracking in pieces. It is used in a literal or figurative sense. So, crush, break, bruise, struggle, discourage, oppress.
LXXII “let…go” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
LXXIII “free” = chophshi. 17x in OT. From chaphash (to be free or loose; figuratively used for freeing slaves). This is free, liberty, or a free person. It can mean exempt from bondage, taxation, or worry.
LXXIV “break” = nathaq. This is to pull, tear off, drag, separate, lift, burst, root out, or snap.
LXXV “every” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXXVIII above.

Is it not to shareLXXVI your breadLXXVII with the hungryLXXVIII
    and bringLXXIX the homelessLXXX poorLXXXI into your house;

Notes on verse 7a

LXXVI “share” = paras. 14x in OT. To break in two, divide, to have hoofs (as divided feet). This is breaking in pieces, but it is generally not referring to violence. So, this would be to split, distribute, or share. This is the root verb that “Pharisee” comes from since they were separated or separatists to pursue lives of purity.
LXXVII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXXVIII “hungry” = raeb. 16x in OT. From raeb (to be hungry or famished). This is hungry, a person who is hungry.
LXXIX “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXX “homeless” = marud. 3x in OT. From rud (to be restless, roam, tramp about). This is restlessness, wandering, an outcast, poverty, homelessness.
LXXXI “poor” = ani. Related to “humble” in v3. From anah (see note XXXI above). This is humble, lowly, poor, or afflicted.

when you see the naked,LXXXII to coverLXXXIII them
    and not to hideLXXXIV yourself from your own kin?LXXXV

Notes on verse 7b

LXXXII “naked” = arom. 16x in OT. From ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare) OR from aram (to be cunning, sensible, crafty; to make bare or smooth; usually in a negative sense). This is naked, whether in part or in full. May be related to, “the serpent was more crafty” than any other wild animal” in Genesis 3:1.
LXXXIII “cover” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
LXXXIV “hide” = alam. This is to conceal, cover from sight in a literal or figurative sense. Could be to escape, liar, neglect, or secret thing.
LXXXV “kin” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.

Then your lightLXXXVI shall break forthLXXXVII like the dawn,LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 8a

LXXXVI “light” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.
LXXXVII “break forth” = baqa. This is to break open, breach, divide, rip, shake, tear. It can also mean dash into pieces or being ready to burst.
LXXXVIII “dawn” = shachar. Root may mean to look for in early hour or in a diligent way. This is dawn, early light, or morning.

    and your healingLXXXIX shall spring upXC quickly;XCI

Notes on verse 8b

LXXXIX “healing” = arukah. 6x in OT. From arak (to be long in a literal or figurative sense, to continue, defer, draw out). This is restoration, healing, repair, wholeness. It can be literal or figurative.
XC “spring up” = tsamach. This is to sprout, grow, or spring up – literal or figurative.
XCI “quickly” = meherah. From mahar (being liquid, which implies flowing; hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense). This is speed, quickly, shortly, promptly.

your vindicatorXCII shall goXCIII beforeXCIV you;
    the gloryXCV of the Lord shall be your rear guard.XCVI

Notes on verse 8c

XCII “vindicator” = tsedeq. Same as “righteous” in v2. See note XXV above.
XCIII “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XCIV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XCV “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
XCVI “rear guard” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.

Then you shall call, and the Lord will answer;XCVII
    you shall cry for help,XCVIII and he will say, “Here I am.”XCIX
If you removeC the yoke from amongCI you,

Notes on verse 9a

XCVII “answer” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
XCVIII “cry for help” = shava. This is crying or shouting aloud, generally seeking freedom from some kind of trouble.
XCIX “here I am” = hen. Same as “look” in v3. See note XXXIV above.
C “remove” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CI “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.

    the pointingCII of the finger,CIII the speakingCIV of evil,CV

Notes on verse 9b

CII “pointing” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v6. See note LXXII above.
CIII “finger” = etsba. Perhaps from the same as tseba (dye, something dipped). This is finger or toe – something used to seize.
CIV “speaking” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
CV “evil” = aven. Root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing. This is nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief. It is also used specifically to refer to idols.

10 if you offerCVI your food to the hungryCVII
    and satisfyCVIII the needs of the afflicted,CIX, CX

Notes on verse 10a

CVI “offer” = puq. 7x in OT. This is to supply, obtain, offer, give, secure, succeed.
CVII {untranslated} = nephesh. Same as “ourselves” in v3. See note XXXII above.
CVIII “satisfy” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.
CIX “afflicted” = anah.  Same as “humble” in v3. See note XXXI above.
CX {untranslated} = nephesh. Same as “ourselves” in v3. See note XXXII above.

then your light shall riseCXI in the darknessCXII
    and your gloomCXIII be like the noonday.CXIV

Notes on verse 10b

CXI “rise” = zarach. 18x in OT. This is to rise, shine, or dawn. It can also be used to describe symptoms of leprosy.
CXII “darkness” = choshek. From chashak (to be or become dark). This is literal darkness is contrast to light. Figuratively, it can be obscurity, sorrow, misery, blindness, wickedness, destruction, death. It can also be hiding places. Additionally, it can mean judgment, mourning, ignorance, evil, or sin.
CXIII “gloom” = aphelah. 10x in OT. From the same as ophel (darkness, gloom, dusk, obscurity); from the same as aphel (gloomy – unused root which refers to the sun setting i.e. dusky, dark). This is darkness, gloominess, calamity, or an adjective to emphasize how thick darkness is. It is also used to mean misfortune or hiding something.
CXIV “noonday” = tsohar. From tsahar (pressing oil, glistening); from yitshar (fresh oil, anointed; oil as that which is burned to make light; used figuratively to talk about anointing). This is a light, window, or midday.

11 The LordCXV will guideCXVI you continuallyCXVII
    and satisfy your needsCXVIII in parched placesCXIX

Notes on verse 11a

CXV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “is” and “Lord” in v5. It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as “Lord” in v5. See LXIII above.
CXVI “guide” = nachah. This is lead, guide, or bring. It can be used for transporting into exile or coming in as colonists. This is the word used in Psalm 23 “he leads me in the paths of righteousness.”
CXVII “continually” = tamid. May come from a word that means to stretch. This word means an indefinite period of time. So, it could be regular or daily. It could also be constantly, continually, always, or perpetually.
CXVIII “needs” = nephesh. Same as “ourselves” in v3. See note XXXII above.
CXIX “parched places” = tsachtsachah. 1x in OT. From tsachach (to dazzle, be white). This is a scorched place like a desert.

    and make your bonesCXX strong,CXXI
and you shall be like a wateredCXXII garden,CXXIII

Notes on verse 11b

CXX “bones” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
CXXI “make…strong” = chalats. This is to pull off, withdraw, arm, loose, depart, deliver, prepare for a battle, strengthen.
CXXII “watered” = raveh. 3x in OT. From ravah (to have one’s thirst or cravings satisfied; to soak, water, or satisfy). This is watered or drunken.
CXXIII “garden” = gan. From ganan (to put a hedge around – generally, protect or defend; to cover or surround). This is a garden in that it is fenced in. It can also be an enclosure.

    like a springCXXIV of waterCXXV
    whose waters never fail.CXXVI

Notes on verse 11c

CXXIV “spring” = motsa. From yatsa (to go or come out, bring forth, appear; to go out in a literal or figurative sense). This is going forth as an act or the site from which something goes forth. It could mean exiting a place or the place where one exits. It can also be a source or a produce. Specifically, it can be a spring or fountain, the dawn as the the rising of the sin, an export, gate mine, and so on.
CXXV “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
CXXVI “fail” = kazab. 18x in OT. This is to lie, be false or in vain, to fail. It is to deceive in a literal or figurative sense.

12 Your ancientCXXVII ruinsCXXVIII shall be rebuilt;CXXIX

Notes on verse 12a

CXXVII “ancient” = olam. Related to “hide” in v7. Perhaps from alam (see note LXXXIV above). This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CXXVIII “ruins” = chorbah. From chareb (to be waste or desolate, destroyer). This is ruin, desert, waste place. Properly, it is a drought, which implies a desolated or decayed place.
CXXIX “rebuilt” = banah. Related to “house” in v1. See note X above.

    you shall raise upCXXX the foundationsCXXXI of many generations;CXXXII

Notes on verse 12b

CXXX “raise up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXXXI “foundations” = mosadah. 11x in OT. From mosad (foundation); from yasad (to establish, appoint, instruct; to set in a literal or figurative sense; also, to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel). This is a foundation.
CXXXII “generations” = dor + dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

you shall be called the repairerCXXXIII of the breach,CXXXIV
    the restorerCXXXV of streetsCXXXVI to liveCXXXVII in.

Notes on verse 12c

CXXXIII “repairer” = gadar. 10x in OT. To build a wall or wall off, mason, repair, hedge, enclose. This is to wall in or wall around.
CXXXIV “breach” = perets. 19x in OT. From parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is a breach or a gap. It could be a break, whether literal or figurative.
CXXXV “restorer” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXXXVI “streets” = nathiyb. Root may mean to tramp. This is a path beaten from regular use. So, it is pathway or traveler.
CXXXVII “live” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.

Image credit: Logo from the cover of the Edinburgh Ladies Emancipation Society. Logo drawn by Eliza Wigham, 1866.

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