Jeremiah 28:5-9

Jeremiah 28:5-9
Ordinary A31


Then the prophetA JeremiahB spoke to the prophet HananiahC in the presence of the priests and all the peopleD who were standing in the house of the Lord;E 

Notes on verse 5

A “prophet” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
B “Jeremiah” = yirmeyah. From the same as yirmeyah (Jeremiah, “the Lord loosens” or “the Lord will rise”); {from the same as remiyya (slack, idle, lazy, negligent) + Yah (a shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Jeremiah, meaning “the Lord loosens” or “the Lord will rise.”
C “Hananiah” = chananyah. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Hananiah, meaning “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored.
D “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
E “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Jeremiah” and “Hananiah” in v5. See note B above.

and the prophet Jeremiah said, “Amen!F May the Lord do so; may the Lord fulfillG the wordsH that you have prophesied,I

Notes on verse 6a

F “amen” = amen. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
G “fulfill” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
H “words” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
I “prophesied” = naba. Related to “prophet” in v5. From nabi (see note A above). This is to prophesy. Older usages referred to raving, religious ecstasy that sometimes went along with music. In later usage, it was religious teachings that sometimes held prediction. Prophesying is speaking the truth of what is and where it will lead.

and bring backJ to this placeK from BabylonL the vesselsM of the house of the Lord, and all the exiles.N 

Notes on verse 6b

J “bring back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
K “place” = maqom. Related to “fulfill” n v6. From qum (see note G above).
L “Babylon” = babel. Perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow) OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god). This is Babylon or Babel. See
M “vessels” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
N “exiles” = golah. From galah (to remove, bring, carry, lead, appear, advertise; to strip someone or something bare in a negative sense; captives were typically stripped before they were sent into exile; used figuratively, in a positive sense, this word means reveal, disclose, discover). This is exile, captive, captivity, removing, or carried away.

But listenO nowP to this word that I speakQ in your hearing and in the hearing of all the people. 

Notes on verse 7

O “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
P “now” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
Q “speak” = dabar. Related to “words” in v6. See note H above.

The prophets who preceded you and me from ancient timesR prophesied war,S famine,T and pestilenceU against manyV countries and greatW kingdoms.X 

Notes on verse 8

R “ancient times” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
S “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
T “famine” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
U “pestilence” = deber. Related to “words” in v6 & “speak” in v7. From dabar (see note H above). This is pestilence, plague, or thorns.
V “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
W “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
X “kingdoms” = mamlakah.  From the same as melek (king, royal). This is kingdom, dominion, sovereignty, rule. It can also refer to the realm.

As for the prophet who prophesies peace,Y when the word of that prophet comes true, then it will be knownZ that the Lord has trulyAA sent the prophet.”

Notes on verse 9

Y “peace” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
Z “known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
AA “truly” = emet. Related to “amen” in v6. From aman (see note F above). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.

Image credit: “Jeremiah” by Michelangelo in the Sistine Chapel, 1511.

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