Genesis 42

Genesis 42


1 When JacobI learnedII that there was grainIII in Egypt,IV he said to his sons,V “Why do you keep lookingVI at one another? 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
II “learned” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
III “grain” = sheber. 9x in OT – 7x in Genesis. From shabar (to break, give birth to, destroy, burst; can be literal or figurative). This is corn or grain as separated into its constituent parts.
IV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
V “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
VI “looking” = raah. Same as “learned” in v1. See note II above.

2 VIII have heard,”VIII he said, “that there is grain in Egypt; go downIX and buy grainX for us there, that we may liveXI and not die.”XII 

Notes on verse 2

VII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
VIII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
IX “go down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
X “buy grain” = shabar. Related to “grain” in v1. From sheber (see note III above). This is to trade grain, whether buying or selling.
XI “live” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it an be revive, nourish, or save.
XII “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

So tenXIII of Joseph’sXIV brothersXV went down to buy grainXVI in Egypt. 

Notes on verse 3

XIII “ten” = eser. This is ten or -teen.
XIV “Joseph’s” = Yoseph. From yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
XV “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XVI “grain” = bar. 14x in OT. From barar (to select, polish, cleanse, brighten, purify). This is something that is winnowed so any kind of grain, whether in the field or harvested. It can be corn, wheat, or other grains. This can also refer to a field or the open country.

But Jacob did not sendXVII Joseph’s brother BenjaminXVIII with his brothers, for he feared that harmXIX might comeXX to him. 

Notes on verse 4

XVII “send” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
XVIII “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “sons” in v1. From ben (see note V above) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
XIX “harm” = ason. 5x in OT – 3x in Genesis & 2x in Exodus. This is mischief, evil, or injury.
XX “come” = qara. This is to meet, befall, happen upon. It can be to encounter by chance or for aggression.

Thus the sons of IsraelXXI were amongXXII the other peopleXXIII who cameXXIV to buy grain,XXV

Notes on verse 5a

XXI “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXII “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XXIII “other people” = bo. Literally “those who journeyed.” Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIV below.
XXIV “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXV “buy grain” = shabar. Same as “buy grain” in v2. See note X above.

for the famineXXVI had reachedXXVII the landXXVIII of Canaan.XXIX

Notes on verse 5b

XXVI “famine” = raab. From raeb (to be hungry). This is hunger, death, or hunger from famine.
XXVII “reached” = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
XXVIII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XXIX “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See

Now Joseph was governorXXX over the land; it was he who soldXXXI to all the peopleXXXII of the land.

Notes on verse 6a

XXX “governor” = shallit. 4x in OT. Perhaps from shalat (to rule, dominate, govern; it can also mean to bear or permit). This is mighty, governor, warrior, one with mastery.
XXXI “sold” = shabar. Same as “buy grain” in v2. See note X above.
XXXII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

And Joseph’s brothers came and bowedXXXIII themselves before him with their facesXXXIV to the ground.XXXV 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXIII “bowed” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
XXXIV “faces” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
XXXV “ground” = erets. Same as “land” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

When Joseph sawXXXVI his brothers, he recognizedXXXVII them, but he treated them like strangersXXXVIII and spokeXXXIX harshlyXL to them. “Where do you come from?” he said.

They said, “From the land of Canaan, to buyXLI food.”XLII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXVI “saw” = raah. Same as “learned” in v1. See note II above.
XXXVII “recognized” = nakar. This is to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize. It is looking at something in a fixed way, showing perhaps respect or reverence. Alternately, it can show gazing with suspicion. Also, it can mean being strange towards someone or something and rejecting or ignoring it.
XXXVIII “treated them like strangers” = nakar. Same as “recognized” in v7. See note XXXVII above.
XXXIX “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XL “harshly” = qasheh. From qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is hard, severe, heavy, obstinate, hard-hearted.
XLI “buy” = shabar. Same as “buy grain” in v2. See note X above.
XLII “food” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.

8 Although Joseph had recognized his brothers, they did not recognize him. 9 Joseph also rememberedXLIII the dreamsXLIV that he had dreamedXLV about them. He said to them, “You are spies;XLVI you have come to see the nakednessXLVII of the land!” 

Notes on verses 8-9

XLIII “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XLIV “dreams” = chalom. From chalam (properly, to bind solidly and so to be plump; to be healthy or strong, to recover; figuratively, to dream). This is a dream or dreamer.
XLV “dreamed” = chalam. Related to “dreams” in v9. See note XLIV above.
XLVI “spies” = ragal. From regel (foot, endurance, or journey; a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey; can euphemistically mean private parts). This is to walk along, spy out, slander.
XLVII “nakedness” = ervah. From arah (to be bare, empty, raze, uncover, discover, demolish). This is nakedness, nudity – particularly as a reference to genitals, shame, or blemish.

10 They said to him, “No, my lord;XLVIII your servantsXLIX have come to buyL food. 

Notes on verse 10

XLVIII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XLIX “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
L “buy” = shabar. Same as “buy grain” in v2. See note X above.

11 We are all sons of oneLI man;LII we are honestLIII men; your servants have never beenLIV spies.” 

Notes on verse 11

LI “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
LII “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
LIII “honest” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
LIV “been” = hayah. Same as “reached” in v5. See note XXVII above.

12 But he said to them, “No, you have come to see the nakedness of the land!” 

13 They said, “We, your servants, are twelveLV brothers, the sons of a certainLVI man in the land of Canaan;LVII the youngest,LVIII however, is nowLIX with our father,LX and one is no more.” 

Notes on verses 12-13

LV “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Asar is ten or -teen.
LVI “certain” = echad. Same as “one” in v11. See note LI above.
LVII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LVIII “youngest” = qaton. From qut (to cut off, be grieved; figuratively to detest). This is small, young, least, not important. It could be a small quantity, size, age, or importance.
LIX “now” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LX “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

14 But Joseph said to them, “It is just as I have said to you; you are spies! 15 Here is how you shall be tested:LXI as Pharaoh lives,LXII you shall not leaveLXIII this place unless your youngest brother comes here!LXIV 

Notes on verses 14-15

LXI “tested” = bachan. This is to examine, test, or prove – as one tests metals. It can also be used literally or figuratively for investigating or trying.
LXII “as Pharaoh lives” = chay + Paroh. Literally “by the life of Pharaoh.” Chay is related to “live” in v2. From chayah (see note XI above). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense. Paroh is from Egyptian pr (palace, pharaoh; literally house + great). This is Pharaoh, a title for Egyptian kings. See
LXIII “leave” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXIV “here” = hennah. Related to {untranslated} in v2. Perhaps from hen (see note VII above). This is here in a location or here in a time, i.e. now.

16 Let one of you goLXV and bringLXVI your brother, while the rest of you remain in prison,LXVII in order that your wordsLXVIII may be tested, whether there is truthLXIX in you; or else, as Pharaoh lives, surely you are spies.” 

Notes on verse 16

LXV “go” = shalach. Same as “send” in v4. See note XVII above.
LXVI “bring” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXVII “remain in prison” = asar. This is to tie, yoke, bind, or fasten. It can mean to harness an animal, to join in fighting a battle, or to imprison someone.
LXVIII “words” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v7. From dabar (see note XXXIX above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXIX “truth” = emet. From aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This is firmness or stability. Figuratively, it is faithfulness, truth, or trustworthiness. This is the same root that “amen” comes from.

17 And he put them all togetherLXX in prisonLXXI for threeLXXII days.LXXIII

Notes on verse 17

LXX “put…all together” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
LXXI “prison” = mishmar. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is jail, guard, watch, guard post.
LXXII “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
LXXIII “days” = yom. Same as “now” in v13. See note LIX above.

18 On the thirdLXXIV day Joseph said to them, “DoLXXV this and you will live, for I fearLXXVI God:LXXVII 

Notes on verse 18

LXXIV “third” = shelishi. Related to “three” in v17. From the same as shalosh (see note LXXII above). This is third.
LXXV “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXXVI “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LXXVII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v5. See note XXI above.

19 if you are honest men, let one of your brothers stayLXXVIII here where you are imprisoned.LXXIX The rest of you shall goLXXX and carryLXXXI grain for the famineLXXXII of your households,LXXXIII 

Notes on verse 19

LXXVIII “stay” = asar. Same as “remain in prison” in v16. See note LXVII above.
LXXIX “where you are imprisoned” = bayit + mishmar. Literally “in this house of imprisonment.” Bayit is related to “sons” in v1 & “Benjamin” in v4. Probably from banah (see note V above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple. Mishmar is the same as “prison” in v17. See note LXXI above.
LXXX “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXXXI “carry” = bo. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIV above.
LXXXII “famine” = reabon. 3x in OT – also used of the famine in Egypt in Genesis 42:19, 33. Related to “famine” in v5. From raeb (see note XXVI above). This is hunger – lacking food for any reason.
LXXXIII “households” = bayit. Same as “where you are imprisoned” in v19. See note LXXIX above.

20 and bringLXXXIV your youngest brother to me. Thus your words will be verified,LXXXV and you shall not die.” And they agreed to do so.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 20

LXXXIV “bring” = bo. Same as “came” in v5. See note XXIV above.
LXXXV “verified” = aman. Related to “truth” in v16. See note LXIX above.
LXXXVI “so” = ken. Same as “honest” in v11. See note LIII above.

21 They said to one another,LXXXVII “Alas,LXXXVIII we are paying the penaltyLXXXIX for what we did to our brother;

Notes on verse 21a

LXXXVII “to one another” = ish + el + ach. Literally “a man to his brother.” Ish is the same as “man” in v11. See note LII above. Ach is the same as “brothers” in v3. See note XV above.
LXXXVIII “alas” = abal. 11x in OT. Perhaps from abal (to mourn, bewail). This is truly, indeed, but.
LXXXIX “paying the penalty” = ashem. Literally “we are guilty.” 3x in OT. From asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is guilty, at fault. It can also refer to one who brings a sin offering.

we saw hisXC anguishXCI when he pleadedXCII with us, but we would not listen. That is whyXCIII this anguish has come upon us.” 

Notes on verse 21b

XC “his” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XCI “anguish” = tsarat. From tsar (properly, a narrow or constricted place; figuratively, trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress); from tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). This is anguish, distress, trouble, tightness, an adversary.
XCII “pleaded” = chanan. This is to beseech, show favor, be gracious. Properly, it is to bend in kindness to someone with less status.
XCIII “that is why” = ken. Same as “honest” in v11. See note LIII above.

22 Then ReubenXCIV answeredXCV them, “Did I not tell you not to wrongXCVI the boy?XCVII But you would not listen.

Notes on verse 22a

XCIV “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “learned” in v1 & “sons” in v1 & “Benjamin” in v4 & “where” in v19. From raah (see note II above) + ben (see note V above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
XCV “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
XCVI “wrong” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
XCVII “boy” = yeled. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is something born – so, offspring, youth, fruit. It is the same word used in Isaiah 9:6 “for a child will be born to us.”

So nowXCVIII there comes a reckoningXCIX for his blood.”C 

Notes on verse 22b

XCVIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VII above.
XCIX “reckoning” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
C “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.

23 They did not knowCI that Joseph understoodCII them, since he spoke with them through an interpreter.CIII 

Notes on verse 23

CI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CII “understood” = shama. Same as “heard” in v2. See note VIII above.
CIII “interpreter” = luts. Perhaps from the same as lits (to scorm, mock, or deride; an envoy or interpreter). Properly, this means “to make mouths at” or scoff, mock. It can also be ambassador or interpreter in reference to pronouncing another language.

24 He turned awayCIV from them and wept;CV then he returnedCVI and spoke to them.

Notes on verse 24a

CIV “turned away” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.
CV “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
CVI “returned” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

And he picked outCVII SimeonCVIII and had him boundCIX before their eyes.CX 

Notes on verse 24b

CVII “picked out” = laqach. Same as “bring” in v16. See note LXVI above.
CVIII “Simeon” = Shimon. Related to “heard” in v2. From shama (see note VIII above). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
CIX “bound” = asar. Same as “remain in prison” in v16. See note LXVII above.
CX “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).

25 Joseph then gave ordersCXI to fillCXII their bagsCXIII with grain,CXIV

Notes on verse 25a

CXI “gave orders” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CXII “fill” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CXIII “bags” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
CXIV “grain” = bar. Same as “grain” in v3. See note XVI above.

to return every man’s moneyCXV to his sack,CXVI and to giveCXVII them provisionsCXVIII for their journey.CXIX ThisCXX was done for them.

Notes on verse 25b

CXV “money” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
CXVI “sack” = saq. Perhaps from shaqaq (to run, rush; by implication having an appetite, seeking greedily). This is sack or sackcloth used as bags for grain and so on. Also worn during times or mourning or when seeking humility. The word “sack” in English is derived from this Semitic root.
CXVII “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXVIII “provisions” = tsedah. 11x in OT. From the same as tsayid (food or provision). This is food, meat, or other provisions.
CXIX “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CXX “this” = ken. Same as “honest” in v11. See note LIII above.

26 They loadedCXXI their donkeysCXXII with their grain,CXXIII and departed.CXXIV 

Notes on verse 26

CXXI “loaded” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXXII “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.
CXXIII “grain” = sheber. Same as “grain” in v1. See note III above.
CXXIV “departed” = halak. Same as “go” in v19. See note LXXX above.

27 When one of them openedCXXV his sack to give his donkey fodderCXXVI at the lodging place,CXXVII

Notes on verse 27a

CXXV “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
CXXVI “fodder” = mispo. 5x in OT– 4x in Genesis and 1x in Judges 19 in the story of the Levite’s concubine. This is from a root that might be to collect. This is a word for fodder or feed.
CXXVII “lodging place” = malon. 8x in OT. From lun (to stop – usually to lodge for the night; can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently; figuratively, can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain). This is an inn, encampment, caravanserai, or other place to pass the night.

he saw his moneyCXXVIII at the topCXXIX of the sack.CXXX 28 He said to his brothers, “My money has been put back;CXXXI hereCXXXII it is in my sack!”

Notes on verses 27b-28a

CXXVIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VII above.
CXXIX “top” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CXXX “sack” = amtachat. 15x in OT – all in Genesis 42-44. From matach (to spread out). This is something that is spread out like a bag or a sack.
CXXXI “put back” = shub. Same as “returned” in v24. See note CVI above.
CXXXII “here” = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VII above.

At this they lostCXXXIII heartCXXXIV and turned tremblingCXXXV to one another,CXXXVI saying, “What is this that God has done to us?”

Notes on verse 28b

CXXXIII “lost” = yatsa. Same as “leave” in v15. See note LXIII above.
CXXXIV “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXXXV “turned trembling” = charad. This is trembling, being afraid, or being terrified. It can also refer to moving quickly due to anxiety.
CXXXVI “to one another” = ish + el + ach. Literally “a man to his brother.” See note LXXXVII above.

29 When they came to their father Jacob in the land of Canaan, they toldCXXXVII him all that had happenedCXXXVIII to them, saying, 30 “The man,CXXXIX the lord of the land, spoke harshly to us, and charged us with spyingCXL on the land. 31 But we said to him, ‘We are honest men, we are not spies. 32 We are twelve brothers, sons of our father; one is no more, and the youngest is now with our father in the land of Canaan.’ 

Notes on verses 29-32

CXXXVII “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
CXXXVIII “happened” = qarah. This is to encounter, usually unintentionally. It can also mean to happen or to lay wood for a floor or roof.
CXXXIX “man” = enosh. Related to “man” in v11. See note LII above.
CXL “charged us with spying” = natan + et + ragal. Literally “gave us for spies.” Natan is the same as “give” in v25. See note CXVII above. Ragal is the same as “spies” in v9. See note XLVI above.

33 Then the man,CXLI the lord of the land, said to us, ‘By this I shall know that you are honest men: leaveCXLII one of your brothers with me, takeCXLIII grain for the famineCXLIV of your households, and go your way. 34 Bring your youngest brother to me, and I shall know that you are not spies but honest men. Then I will releaseCXLV your brother to you, and you may tradeCXLVI in the land.’”

Notes on verses 33-34

CXLI “man” = ish. Same as “man” in v11. See note LII above.
CXLII “leave” = yanach. Perhaps from nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
CXLIII “take” = laqach. Same as “bring” in v16. See note LXVI above.
CXLIV “famine” = reabon. Same as “famine” in v19. See note LXXXII above.
CXLV “release” = natan. Same as “give” in v25. See note CXVII above.
CXLVI “trade” = sachar. To travel, go around. So, it is to travel like a peddler, to trade, to be a merchant. It can also mean to palpitate.

35 CXLVIIAs they were emptyingCXLVIII their sacks,CXLIX, CL there in each one’sCLI sackCLII was his bagCLIII of money.

Notes on verse 35a

CXLVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “reached” in v5. See note XXVII above.
CXLVIII “emptying” = ruq. 19x in OT. This is to pour out in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to arm, draw out, cast out, or empty.
CXLIX “sacks” = saq. Same as “sack” in v25. See note CXVI above.
CL {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note VII above.
CLI “each one’s” = ish. Same as “man” in v11. See note LII above.
CLII “sack” = saq. Same as “sack” in v25. See note CXVI above.
CLIII “bag” = tsrowr. Related to “anguish” in v21. 10x in OT. From tsarar (see note XCI above). This is a ba, poub, pebble, grain, kernel, package. It is also a person’s name.

When they and their father saw their bundlesCLIV of money, they were dismayed.CLV 36 And their father Jacob said to them, “I am the one you have bereavedCLVI of children: Joseph is no more, and Simeon is no more, and now you would take Benjamin. All this has happenedCLVII to me!” 

Notes on verses 35b-36

CLIV “bundles” = tsrowr. Same as “bag” in v35. See note CLIII above.
CLV “dismayed” = yare. Same as “fear” in v18. See note LXXVI above.
CLVI “bereaved” = shakol. This is a loss from death in a literal or figurative sense. It can specifically refer to a loss of children, whether a miscarriage, being barren, or not having children more broadly.
CLVII “happened” = hayah. Same as “reached” in v5. See note XXVII above.

37 Then Reuben said to his father, “You may killCLVIII my two sons if I do not bring him back to you. PutCLIX him in my hands,CLX and I will bring him backCLXI to you.” 

Notes on verse 37

CLVIII “kill” = mut. Same as “die” in v2. See note XII above.
CLIX “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v25. See note CXVII above.
CLX “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CLXI “bring…back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

38 But he said, “My son shall not go down with you, for his brother is dead,CLXII and he aloneCLXIII is left.CLXIV

Notes on verse 38a

CLXII “is dead” = mut. Same as “die” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXIII “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
CLXIV “is left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.

If harm should comeCLXV to him on the journey that you are to make,CLXVI you would bring downCLXVII my gray hairsCLXVIII with sorrowCLXIX to Sheol.”CLXX

Notes on verse 38b

CLXV “come” = qara. Same as “come” in v4. See note XX above.
CLXVI “make” = halak. Same as “go” in v19. See note LXXX above.
CLXVII “bring down” = yarad. Same as “go down” in v2. See note IX above.
CLXVIII “gray hairs” = sebah. 19x in OT. From sib (to have gray hair, become old). This is being gray or old.
CLXIX “sorrow” = yagon. 14x in OT. From yagah (to suffer, grieve, afflict). This is grief or sorrow.
CLXX “Sheol” = Sheol. Perhaps from sha’al (to ask, request). This is the place where the dead go, the grace, the underworld.

Image credit: “Sold into Slavery” by Curtis and Pip Reid of Bible Pathway Adventures.

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