Jeremiah 33:10-11, 14-18

Jeremiah 33:10-11, 14-18
NL 213


10 Thus says the Lord:A In this placeB of which you say,C

Notes on verse 10a

A “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
B “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
C “say” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.

“It is a wasteD withoutE humansF orG animals,”H

Notes on verse 10b

D “waste” = chareb. 8x in OT. From charab (to dry up because of drought, destroy, or make waste, kill). This is dry, desolate, ruined.
E “without” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
F “humans” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
G {untranslated} = ayin. Same as “without” in v10. See note E above.
H “animals” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.

in the townsI of JudahJ and the streetsK of JerusalemL

Notes on verse 10c

I “towns” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
J “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
K “streets” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
L “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

that are desolate,M without inhabitants,N human orO animal, there shall once more be heardP 

Notes on verse 10d

M “are desolate” = shamem. This is to stun or become numb. It can also mean to devastate or be appalled. Can also mean to be amazed or astonished.
N “inhabitants” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
O {untranslated} = ayin. Same as “without” in v10. See note E above.
P “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

11 the voiceQ of mirthR and the voice of gladness,S the voice of the bridegroomT and the voice of the bride,U

Notes on verse 11a

Q “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
R “mirth” = sason. From sus (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to be bright or cheerful). This is rejoicing, cheerfulness, and welcome.
S “gladness” = simchah. From samach (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to brighten up; also used figuratively). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.
T “bridegroom” = chathan. From chathan (to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage). This is bridegroom, son-in-law. It is someone who is related through marriage. Figuratively, it can be a child who is circumcised
U “bride” = kallah. Perhaps related to kalal (to complete, perfect). This is bride or daughter-in-law and the term is used before and after marriage.

the voices of those who singV as they bringW thank offeringsX to the houseY of the Lord:

Notes on verse 11b

V “sing” = amar. Same as “say” in v10. See note C above.
W “bring” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
X “thank offerings” = todah. Related to “Judah” in v10 & “give thanks” in v11. From yadah (see note J above). This is properly extending one’s hand, which implies affirmation and adoration. It can be a song of thanksgiving, a choir of thanksgiving, confession, or praise. It can also be a thank offering.
Y “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

“Give thanksZ to the Lord of hosts,AA
    for the Lord is good,BB
    for his steadfast loveCC endures forever!”DD

Notes on verse 11c

Z “give thanks” = yadah. Related to “Judah” in v10. See note J above.
AA “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
BB “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CC “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
DD “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

For I will restoreEE the fortunesFF of the landGG as at first,HH says the Lord.

Notes on verse 11d

EE “restore” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
FF “fortunes” = shebut. From shabah (to take captive, keep, a captor). This is prisoners or exile. It can also be used figuratively to describe a previous condition of prosperity.
GG “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
HH “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.

14 The daysII are surelyJJ coming,KK saysLL the Lord,

Notes on verse 14a

II “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
JJ “surely” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
KK “coming” = bo. Same as “bring” in v11. See note W above.
LL “says” = neum. From na’am (to speak a prophecy; properly, to whisper, which implies saying an oracle). This is an utterance or speaking an oracle.

when I will fulfillMM the promiseNN, OO I madePP to the house of IsraelQQ and the house of Judah. 

Notes on verse 14b

MM “fulfill” = qum. Related to “place” in v10. See note B above.
NN “promise” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
OO {untranslated} = tob. Same as “good” in v11. See note BB above.
PP “made” = dabar. Related to “promise” in v14. See note NN above.
QQ “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

15 In those days and at that timeRR I will cause a righteousSS BranchTT

Notes on verse 15a

RR “time” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
SS “righteous” = tsedaqah. From the same as tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, vindication. It is everything that is just or ethical. That which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense. It also includes just weights (i.e. true weights). Figuratively, this is justice, righteousness, equity – even prosperity). This is righteousness, justice, righteous acts, and moral virtue.
TT “Branch” = tsemach. Related to “spring up” in v15. 12x in OT. From tsamach (see note UU below). This is a sprout or growth, literal or figurative.

to spring upUU for David,VV and he shall executeWW justiceXX and righteousnessYY in the land. 

Notes on verse 15b

UU “spring up” = tsamach. This is to sprout, grow, or spring up – literal or figurative.
VV “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
WW “execute” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XX “justice” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
YY “righteousness” = tsedaqah. Same as “righteous” in v15. See note SS above.

16 In those days Judah will be saved,ZZ and Jerusalem will liveAAA in safety.BBB And this is the name by which it will be called:CCC “The Lord is our righteousness.”DDD

Notes on verse 16

ZZ “saved” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.
AAA “live” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).
BBB “safety” = betach. From batach (to hide for refuge, be secure or sure; figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping). This is a place of refuge. So, abstractly, it can be confidence, security, hope, trust, or assurance.
CCC “called” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
DDD “righteousness” = tsedeq. Related to “righteous” in v15. See note SS above.

17 For thus saysEEE the Lord: David shall never lackFFF a manGGG to sitHHH on the throneIII of the house of Israel, 

Notes on verse 17

EEE “says” = amar. Same as “say” in v10. See note C above.
FFF “lack” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
GGG “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
HHH “sit” = yashab. Same as “inhabitants” in v10. See note N above.
III “throne” = kisse. From the same as kese (full moon); perhaps from kasah (to cover, conceal, overwhelm; to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret). This is throne – a seat that is covered or has a canopy. Thus, it is a seat that conveys authority.

18 and the LeviticalJJJ priestsKKK shall never lack a man in my presenceLLL to offerMMM burnt offerings,NNN

Notes on verse 18a

JJJ “Levitical” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.
KKK “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
LLL “presence” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
MMM “offer” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
NNN “burnt offerings” = olah. Related to “offer” in v18. From alah (see note MMM above). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole thing is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

to makeOOO grain offerings,PPP and to makeQQQ sacrificesRRR for all time.SSS

Notes on verse 18b

OOO “make” = qatar. Perhaps from qetoreth (smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned); from the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is to make an offering, particular one of burned incense. It focuses on the fragrance made from the sacrificial fire. This is generally used to refer to worship.
PPP “grain offerings” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
QQQ “make” = asah. Same as “execute” in v15. See note WW above.
RRR “sacrifices” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
SSS “all times” = kol + yom. Literally, “all days.” Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Yom is the same as “days” in v14. See note II above.

Image credit: “Rocks and branches at Bibémus” by Paul Cézanne, 1895.

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