John 18:12-27

John 18:12-27
Narrative Lectionary 433

12 So the soldiers,A their officer,B and the JewishC policeD

Notes on verse 12a

A “soldiers” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
B “officer” = chiliarchos. From chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion) + archos (chief, leader); {from archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is chiliarch – one who commands a thousand.
C “Jewish” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.
D “police” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, under the authority of another) + eresso (to row). Originally, this was a rower or someone who worked the oars on the lower deck of a boat. It is used figuratively of someone under the authority of another who follows their commands. So this could be servant, attendant, or office. It could also be someone who is a minister of the Gospel.

arrestedE JesusF and boundG him. 

Notes on verse 12b

E “arrested” = sullambano. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
F “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
G “bound” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.

13 FirstH they tookI him to Annas,J who was the father-in-law of Caiaphas,K the high priestL that year. 

Notes on verse 13

H “first” = proton. From protos(what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief); from pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is firstly, before, in the beginning, formerly.
I “took” = ago. This is lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go.
J “Annas” = Hannas. Related to “Jesus” in v12. 4x in NT. From Hebrew chananyah (Hannaniah; “the Lord has been gracious” or “the Lord has favored); {from chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status) Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note F above)}. This is Annas, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
K “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
L “high priest” = archiereus. Related to “officer” in v12. From archo (see note B above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.

14 Caiaphas was the one who had advisedM the Jews that it was betterN to have oneO personP dieQ for the people.R

Notes on verse 14

M “advised” = sumbouleuo. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + bouleuo (to plan, consider, deliberate, advise); {from boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}. This is people who come together to make a plan who are highly motivated to achiever their goals. It can mean deliberate, consult, or give advice.
N “was better” = sumphero. 17x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to collect, bring together, or be profitable to. It is combining things such that there is gain or profit or advantage.
O “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
P “person” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
Q “die” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
R “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.

15 SimonS PeterT and anotherU discipleV followedW Jesus.

Notes on verse 15a

S “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
T “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
U “another” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
V “disciple” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
W “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

Since that disciple was knownX to the high priest, he went withY Jesus into the courtyardZ of the high priest, 

Notes on verse 15b

X “known” = gnostos. 15x in NT. From ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is known or acquaintance.
Y “went with” = suneiserchomai. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + eiserchomai (to go in in a literal or figurative sense); {from eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (to come, go)}. This is to enter together, embark with, go with.
Z “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.

16 but Peter was standingAA outside at the gate.BB So the otherCC disciple, who was known to the high priest, went out,DD spoke to the woman who guarded the gate,EE and brought Peter in.FF 

Notes on verse 16

AA “standing” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
BB “gate” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
CC “other” = allos. Same as “another” in v15. See note U above.
DD “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “went with” in v15. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note Y above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
EE “woman who guarded the gate” = thuroros. Related to “gate” in v16. 4x in NT. From thura (see note BB above) + ouros (watcher).This is a doorkeeper or porter.
FF “brought…in” = eisago. Related to “took” in v13. 11x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + ago (see note I above). This is to lead in or introduce in a literal or figurative sense.

17 The womanGG, HH said to Peter, “You are not also one of this man’sII disciples, are you?”

He said, “I am not.” 

Notes on verse 17

GG “woman” = paidiske. From pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is young girl or female slave or servant.
HH {untranslated} = thuroros. Same as “woman who guarded the gate” in v16. See note EE above.
II “man’s” = anthropos. Same as “person” in v14. See note P above.

18 Now the slavesJJ and the police had madeKK a charcoal fireLL because it was cold,MM and they were standing around it and warmingNN themselves. Peter also was standing with them and warming himself.

Notes on verse 18

JJ “slaves” = doulos. Related to “bound” in v12. Perhaps from deo (see note G above). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
KK “made” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LL “charcoal fire” = anthrakia. 2x in NT – here and in Jn 21:9 when Jesus appears to the disciples and cooks fish on the shore. From anthrax (coal, a live coal). This is burning coals piled together. This is where the words “anthrax” and also “anthracite” come from.
MM “cold” = psuchos. 3x in NT. From psucho (to breathe, blow, breathe out, to cool or make cold). This is cold or coolness. It is connected to the root of psuche (psyche), which refers to the breathe of life and, by extension, life itself as expressed in individuality.
NN “warming” = thermaino. 6x in NT. From thermos (hot); from the same as theros (heat, which implies the summer); from thero (to heat). This is to warm or warm oneself. This root is where the words “thermometer” and “thermos” come from.

19 Then the high priest questionedOO Jesus about his disciples and about his teaching.PP 20 Jesus answered, “I have spoken openlyQQ to the world;RR

Notes on verses 19-20a

OO “questioned” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
PP “teaching” = didache. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teaching or doctrine.
QQ “openly” = parresia. From pas (all, every, each) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
RR “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

I have alwaysSS taughtTT in synagoguesUU and in the temple,VV

Notes on verse 20b

SS “always” = pantote. Related to “openly” in v20. From pas (see note QQ above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
TT “taught” = didasko. Related to “teaching” in v19. See note PP above.
UU “synagogues” = sunagoge. Related to “took” in v13 & “brought…in” in v16. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (see note I above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
VV “temple” = hieron. Related to “high priest” in v13. From hieros (see note L above). This is the word for temple.

where allWW the Jews come together.XX I have said nothing in secret.YY 

Notes on verse 20c

WW “all” = pas. Related to “openly” and “always” in v20. See note QQ above.
XX “come together” = sunerchomai. Related to “went with” in v15 & “went out” in v16. From sun (with, together with) + erchomai (see note Y above). This is to go with, assemble, leave together with, cohabit.
YY “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”

21 Why do you ask me? Ask those who heardZZ what I said to them;AAA they knowBBB what I said.” 

22 When he had said this, one of the police standing nearbyCCC struckDDD Jesus on the face, saying, “Is that how you answer the high priest?” 

Notes on verses 21-22

ZZ “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
AAA {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
BBB “know” = eido. Related to {untranslated} in v21. See note AAA above.
CCC “standing nearby” = paristemi. Related to “standing” in v16. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note AA above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
DDD “struck” = didomi + rhapisma. Didomi is to give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense. Rhapisma is 3x in NT. From rhapizo (to hit with a rod or to slap); from a derivation of rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is a hit from a stick or an open-handed slap.

23 Jesus answered, “If I have spoken wrongly,EEE testifyFFF to the wrong.GGG

Notes on verse 23a

EEE “wrongly” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.
FFF “testify” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
GGG “wrong” = kakos. Related to “wrongly” in v23. See note EEE above.

But if I have spoken rightly,HHH why do you strikeIII me?” 24 Then Annas sentJJJ him bound to Caiaphas the high priest.

Notes on verses 23b-24

HHH “rightly” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.
III “strike” = dero. 15x in NT. To whip, flog, scourge, beat, thrash.
JJJ “sent” = apostello. Related to “standing” in v16 & “standing nearby” in v22. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note AA above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.

25 Now Simon Peter was standing and warming himself. They asked him, “You are not also one of his disciples, are you?”

He deniedKKK it and said, “I am not.” 

26 One of the slaves of the high priest, a relativeLLL of the man whose earMMM Peter had cut off,NNN

Notes on verses 25-26a

KKK “denied” = arneomai. Related to “openly” in v20. From a (not) + rheo (see note QQ above). This is to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict.
LLL “relative” = suggenes. 12x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth)}. This is relative, kinsman, offspring, or otherwise someone from the same stock. It can also be used for a fellow countryman.
MMM “ear” = otion. 5x in NT. From ous (ear; figuratively, hearing). This is ear or it might refer to the earlobe.
NNN “cut off” = apokopto. 6x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to cut off or away, mutilate, amputate, emasculate.

asked, “Did I not seeOOO you in the garden with him?” 27 Again Peter denied it, and at that momentPPP the cockQQQ crowed.RRR

Notes on verses 26b-27

OOO “see” = horao. Related to “person” in v14. See note P above.
PPP “at that moment” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
QQQ “cock” = alektor. 12x in NT. Perhaps from aleko (to ward off). This is a cock or rooster.
RRR “crowed” = phoneo. From phone (voice, sound, tone or noise; also a language or dialect); probably from phemi to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.

Image credit: “Peter Denies Jesus” by LUMO Project.

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