1 Kings 18:17-39

1 Kings 18:17-39
NL 209


17 IWhen Ahab sawII Elijah,III

Notes on verse 17a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
III “Elijah” = Eliyyah. Related to {untranslated} in v17. From El (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (see note I above)}. This is Elijah, meaning “The Lord is God.”

AhabIV saidV to him, “Is it you, you troublerVI of Israel?”VII 

Notes on verse 17b

IV “Ahab” = Achab. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ahab, a name meaning “father’s brother” or “father’s friend.”
V “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
VI “troubler” = akar. 14x in OT. This is properly to stir water – figuratively it can be to trouble, harm, afflict, or worsen.
VII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “Elijah” in v17. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (see note III above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

18 He answered,VIII “I have not troubledIX Israel, but you have, and your father’sX house,XI because you have forsakenXII

Notes on verse 18a

VIII “answered” = amar. Same as “said” in v17. See note V above.
IX “troubled” = akar. Same as “troubler” in v17. See note VI above.
X “fathers” = ab. Related to “Ahab” in v17. See note IV above.
XI “house” = bayit. Probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XII “forsaken” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.

the commandmentsXIII of the LordXIV and followedXV the Baals.XVI 

Notes on verse 18b

XIII “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
XIV “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} and “Elijah” in v17. See note III above.
XV “followed” = halak + achar. Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
XVI “Baals” = Ba’al. From the same as ba’al (lord, owner, ally, or archer); from ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is Baal, literally “lord,” a Phoenician god.

19 Now therefore have allXVII Israel assembleXVIII for me at MountXIX Carmel,XX

Notes on verse 19a

XVII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XVIII “have…assemble” = shalach + qabats. Shalach is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free. Qabats is to collect, assemble, heap, grasp, or gather.
XIX “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XX “Carmel” = Karmel. From the same as kerem (vineyard, garden, vines, or a vintage). This is Carmel, a city whose name means “fruitful plentiful field” or “plantation” or “orchard” or “garden.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Carmel.html

with the fourXXI hundredXXII fiftyXXIII prophets of Baal and the four hundred prophetsXXIV of AsherahXXV

Notes on verse 19b

XXI “four” = arba. From raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four.
XXII “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
XXIII “fifty” = chamishshim. From chamesh (five, fifth). This is fifty.
XXIV “prophets” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
XXV “Asherah” = Asherah. Perhaps from Ugaritic atrt (Athirat, Asherah, goddess who is wife of El) OR from Phoenician sattar (Astarte) OR from asher (to go straight). This is asherah – sacred pole or goddess Asherah or Astarte. It may mean “progression” or “happiness” or “fortuna.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D7%90%D7%A9%D7%A8%D7%94#Hebrew & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Asherah.html

who eatXXVI at Jezebel’sXXVII table.”XXVIII

Notes on verse 19c

XXVI “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVII “Jezebel’s” = Izebel. Perhaps from iy (not, island); {probably related to ay (where, how, whether); perhaps from ayin (where)} + Zebul (Zebul; a name meaning “dwelling”); {from zebul (height, dwelling, elevation, place); from zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside)}. This is Jezebel, a name which may mean “not honored by cohabitation” or “un-husbanded” or “without cohabitation” or “unmarried” or “chaste.”  See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jezebel.html
XXVIII “table” = shulchan. Related to “have…assemble” in v19. Perhaps from shalach (see note XVIII above). This is a table or meal.

20 So Ahab sentXXIX to all the IsraelitesXXX and assembledXXXI the prophets at Mount Carmel. 21 Elijah then came nearXXXII to all the peopleXXXIII

Notes on verses 20-21a

XXIX “sent” = shalach. Same as “have…assemble” in v19. See note XVIII above.
XXX “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is related to “house” in v18. From banah (see note XI above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v17. See note VII above.
XXXI “assembled” = qabats. Same as “have…assemble” in v19. See note XVIII above.
XXXII “came near” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
XXXIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

and said, “How long will you go limpingXXXIV with twoXXXV different opinions?XXXVI

Notes on verse 21b

XXXIV “go limping” = pasach. 8x in OT. This is to stop, pass over, skip over, to spare, become lame, hesitate. It is the root of the word for “Passover” in Hebrew.
XXXV “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XXXVI “opinions” = saiph. 3x in OT. Similar to seippah (division); akin to saiph (a branch, cleft, top); from saaph (to cut off top branches, to divide); from seappah (branch, twig). This is an opinion or sentiment.

If the Lord is God,XXXVII follow him, but if Baal, then follow him.” The people did not answerXXXVIII him a word.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 21c

XXXVII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Elijah” and “Israel” in v17. See note III above.
XXXVIII “answer” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
XXXIX “word” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

22 Then Elijah said to the people, “I, even I only,XL am leftXLI a prophet of the Lord, but Baal’s prophets numberXLII four hundred fifty. 23 Let two bullsXLIII be givenXLIV to us;

Notes on verses 22-23a

XL “only” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
XLI “am left” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
XLII “number” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XLIII “bulls” = par. Perhaps related to parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a young bull or ox.
XLIV “given” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

let them chooseXLV oneXLVI bull for themselves, cut it in pieces,XLVII and layXLVIII it on the woodXLIX

Notes on verse 23b

XLV “choose” = bachar. This is to choose, appoint, try, excellent.
XLVI “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XLVII “cut…in pieces” = nathach. 9x in OT. This is to dismember or divide at the joints.
XLVIII “lay” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XLIX “wood” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.

but putL no fireLI to it; I will prepareLII the otherLIII bull and layLIV it on the wood but put no fire to it. 

Notes on verse 23c

L “put” = sim. Same as “lay” in v23. See note XLVIII above.
LI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “prepare” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LIII “other” = echad. Same as “one” in v23. See note XLVI above.
LIV “lay” = natan. Same as “given” in v23. See note XLIV above.

24 Then you callLV on the nameLVI of your god,LVII and I will call on the name of the Lord; the god who answersLVIII by fire isLIX indeed God.”

Notes on verse 24a

LV “call” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LVI “name” = shem. Related to “lay” in v23. May be from sim (see note L above). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
LVII “god” = elohim. Same as “God” in v21. See note XXXVII above.
LVIII “answers” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.
LIX “is” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note I above.

All the people answered,LX, LXI “WellLXII spoken!”LXIII 

25 Then Elijah said to the prophets of Baal, “Choose for yourselves one bull and prepare it first,LXIV for you are many;LXV then call on the name of your god, but put no fire to it.” 

Notes on verses 24b-25

LX “answered” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.
LXI {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v17. See note V above.
LXII “well” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
LXIII “spoken” = dabar. Same as “word” in v21. See note XXXIX above.
LXIV “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
LXV “many” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.

26 So they tookLXVI the bull that was given them, prepared it, and called on the name of Baal from morningLXVII until noon,LXVIII crying,LXIX “O Baal, answerLXX us!”

Notes on verse 26a

LXVI “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXVII “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LXVIII “noon” = tsohar. From tsahar (pressing oil, glistening); from yitshar (fresh oil, anointed; oil as that which is burned to make light; used figuratively to talk about anointing). This is a light, window, or midday.
LXIX “crying” = amar. Same as “said” in v17. See note V above.
LXX “answer” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.

But there was noLXXI voiceLXXII and noLXXIII answer.LXXIV They limped about the altarLXXV that they had made.LXXVI 

Notes on verse 26b

LXXI “no” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
LXXII “voice” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
LXXIII “no” = ayin. Same as “no” in v26. See note LXXI above.
LXXIV “answer” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.
LXXV “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
LXXVI “made” = asah. Same as “prepare” in v23. See note LII above.

27 LXXVIIAt noon Elijah mockedLXXVIII them, saying, “CryLXXIX aloud!LXXX Surely he is a god; either he is meditating,LXXXI

Notes on verse 27a

LXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note I above.
LXXVIII “mocked” = hathal. 10x in OT. This is to mock, deceive, or conduct business in a dubious fashion. It implies cheating.
LXXIX “cry” = qara. Same as “call” in v24. See note LV above.
LXXX “aloud” = qol + gadol. Qol is the same as “voice” in v26. See note LXXII above. Gadol is from gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXXXI “meditating” = siach. 13x in OT. Perhaps from siyach (to muse, meditate, complain, sing, sigh, speak, or utter). This is a musing, concern, communication, or prayer.

or he has wandered away,LXXXII or he is on a journey,LXXXIII or perhaps he is asleepLXXXIV and must be awakened.”LXXXV 

Notes on verse 27b

LXXXII “wandered away” = sig. 1x in OT. From the same as sig (dross, a moving away); from sug (to turn back, aside, or away; properly, to flinch, which implies moving away or going back; literally, can mean retreat or figuratively can mean backslide i.e. apostatize). This is pursuing or leaving to somewhere private.
LXXXIII “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
LXXXIV “asleep” = yashen. 5x in OT. From yashen (to be languid or go slack; it can mean to sleep, become old or stale, or die). This is sleeping, sleepy, those who sleep.
LXXXV “be awakened” = yaqats. 10x in OT. This is to wake someone up.

28 Then they criedLXXXVI aloud, and, as was their custom,LXXXVII they cutLXXXVIII themselves

Notes on verse 28a

LXXXVI “cried” = qara. Same as “call” in v24. See note LV above.
LXXXVII “custom” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
LXXXVIII “cut” = gadad. 8x in OT. This is to cut, gather, assemble, crowd. Also, it is to gash as pushing in.

with swordsLXXXIX and lancesXC until the bloodXCI gushed outXCII over them. 

Notes on verse 28b

LXXXIX “swords” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
XC “lances” = romach. 15x in OT. May come from a word that means to hurt. It could be a spear, lancet, buckler. It focuses on the iron tip.
XCI “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
XCII “gushed out” = shaphak. This is to pour out, gust, or slip. It can be to pour as blood, a drink offering, or molten metal. It can also mean to create a mound. Figuratively, it can refer to killing, or spending money.

29 XCIIIAs middayXCIV passed,XCV they ravedXCVI on until the time of the offeringXCVII of the oblation,XCVIII

Notes on verse 29a

XCIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note I above.
XCIV “midday” = tsohar. Same as “noon” in v26. See note LXVIII above.
XCV “passed” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
XCVI “raved” = naba. Related to “prophets” in v19. Related to nabi (see note XXIV above). This is to prophesy. It can also refer to an ecstatic state – raving. It is associated with speech, song, teachings, and predictions.
XCVII “offering” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVIII “oblation” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).

but there was noXCIX voice, noC answer,CI and noCII response.CIII

Notes on verse 29b

XCIX “no” = ayin. Same as “no” in v26. See note LXXI above.
C “no” = ayin. Same as “no” in v26. See note LXXI above.
CI “answer” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.
CII “no” = ayin. Same as “no” in v26. See note LXXI above.
CIII “response” = qesheb. 4x in OT. From qashab (to listen, pay attention to, incline – used in the phrase incline the ears). This is attentiveness, hearing, response.

30 Then Elijah said to all the people, “Come closerCIV to me,” and all the people came closer to him. First he repairedCV the altar of the Lord that had been thrown down;CVI 31 Elijah took twelveCVII stones,CVIII

Notes on verses 30-31a

CIV “come closer” = nagash. Same as “came near” in v21. See note XXXII above.
CV “repaired” = rapha. Properly, this is to repair by stitching – figuratively this means to heal or cure. It can also mean to make whole.
CVI “thrown down” = haras. This is to break down, throw down, ruin, overthrow, or destroy. It is breaking down in pieces.
CVII “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is the same as “two” in v21. See note XXXV above. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
CVIII “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

according to the numberCIX of the tribesCX of the sonsCXI of Jacob,CXII to whom the word of the Lord came,CXIII saying, “Israel shall be your name”; 

Notes on verse 31b

CIX “number” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.
CX “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
CXI “sons” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v20. See note XXX above.
CXII “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.
CXIII “came” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note I above.

32 with the stones he builtCXIV an altar in the name of the Lord. Then he made a trenchCXV aroundCXVI the altar, large enough to containCXVII two measuresCXVIII of seed.CXIX 

Notes on verse 32

CXIV “built” = banah. Related to “house” in v18 & “Israelites” in v20. See note XI above.
CXV “trench” = talah. Related to “offering” in v29. 11x in OT. From alah (see note XCVII above). This is a conduit, stream, channel for irrigation, or trench. It can also be a bandage for an injury.
CXVI “around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
CXVII “large enough to contain” = bayit. Same as “house” in v18. See note XI above.
CXVIII “measures” = seah. 9x in OT. This is a seah, used to measure flour or grain – about 7 quarts.
CXIX “seed” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.

33 Next he put the wood in order,CXX cut the bull in pieces, and laidCXXI it on the wood. He said, “FillCXXII four jarsCXXIII

Notes on verse 33a

CXX “put…in order” = arak. This is to arrange by setting in a row. It can also mean to set a battle, estimate, put in order, or compare.
CXXI “laid” = sim. Same as “lay” in v23. See note XLVIII above.
CXXII “fill” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIII “jars” = kad. 18x in OT– 9x in Genesis 24 re: Isaac meeting Rebekah, 4x in Judges 7 of the empty jars that Gideon’s men had; 3x in 1 Kings 17 of the jar belonging to the widow of Zarephath, 1x in 1 Kings 18 of the jars filled with water as part of Elijah’s contest with the priests of Baal, and 1x in Ecclesiastes 12 regarding an extended metaphor of youth and old age – here a broken pitcher. This is a jar, pitcher, bowl, or pail. The root might mean to deepen. It is a vessel made of clay – earthenware, used domestically.

with waterCXXIV and pourCXXV it on the burnt offeringCXXVI and on the wood.” 

Notes on verse 33b

CXXIV “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
CXXV “pour” = yatsaq. This is to pour out, flow, wash away, or overflow. It can imply melting as one does to cast metal. By extension, it can refer to something being steadfast, stiffened, firmly in place.
CXXVI “burnt offering” = olah. Related to “offering” in v29 & “trench” in v32. From alah (see note XCVII above). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole thing is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

34 Then he said, “Do it a second time,”CXXVII and they did it a second time. Again he said, “Do it a third time,”CXXVIII and they did it a third time, 35 so that the water ranCXXIX all aroundCXXX the altar and filled the trench alsoCXXXI with water.

Notes on verses 34-35

CXXVII “do…a second time” = shanah. Related to “two” in v21. See note XXXV above.
CXXVIII “do…a third time” = shalash. 9x in OT. From shalosh (three, fork, three times). This is to intensify, separate into three sections, do a third, triplicate.
CXXIX “ran” = halak. Same as “followed” in v18. See note XV above.
CXXX “all around” = sabib. Same as “around” in v32. See note CXVI above.
CXXXI “also” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.

36 CXXXIIAt the time of the offering of the oblation, the prophet Elijah came near and said, “O Lord, God of Abraham,CXXXIII Isaac,CXXXIV and Israel,

Notes on verse 36a

CXXXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note I above.
CXXXIII “Abraham” = Abraham. Related to “Ahab” in v17 & “father’s” in v18. From the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (see note IV above) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.
CXXXIV “Isaac” = Yitschaq. From tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). This is Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”

let it be knownCXXXV this dayCXXXVI that you are God in Israel, that I am your servant,CXXXVII

Notes on verse 36b

CXXXV “be known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CXXXVI “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXXXVII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.

and that I have doneCXXXVIII all these thingsCXXXIX at your bidding.CXL 37 AnswerCXLI me, O Lord, answerCXLII me,

Notes on verses 36c-37a

CXXXVIII “done” = asah. Same as “prepare” in v23. See note LII above.
CXXXIX “things” = dabar. Same as “word” in v21. See note XXXIX above.
CXL “bidding” = dabar. Same as “word” in v21. See note XXXIX above.
CXLI “answer” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.
CXLII “answer” = anah. Same as “answer” in v21. See note XXXVIII above.

so that this people may know that you, O Lord, are God and that you have turnedCXLIII their heartsCXLIV back.”CXLV 

Notes on verse 37b

CXLIII “turned” = sabab. Related to “around” in v32. See note CXVI above.
CXLIV “hearts” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CXLV “back” = achorannith. Related to “followed” in v18. 7x in OT. From achor (the back, behind, backward, time to come; facing to the north or the west); from achar (see note XV above). This is backwards, turned away, back.

38 Then the fire of the Lord fellCXLVI and consumedCXLVII the burnt offering, the wood, the stones, and the dustCXLVIII and even licked upCXLIX the water that was in the trench. 39 When all the people saw it, they fell on their facesCL and said, “The Lord indeed is God; the Lord indeed is God.” 

Notes on verses 38-39

CXLVI “fell” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXLVII “consumed” = akal. Same as “eat” in v19. See note XXVI above.
CXLVIII “dust” = aphar. May be related to aphar (to throw dust, be dust). This is dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored. It could be ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish.
CXLIX “licked up” = lachak. 6x in OT. This is to lick or lick up.
CL “faces” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

Image credit: “Elijah and the Prophets of Baal” by Huw Rees of Moody Publishers.

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