Joshua 4

Joshua 4


IWhen the entireII nationIII had finished crossing overIV the Jordan,V

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “entire” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
III “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
IV “crossing over” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
V “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”

the LordVI saidVII to Joshua,VIII, IX 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “Lord” = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note I above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VII “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
VIII “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to {untranslated} and “Lord” in v1. From YHVH (see note VI above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
IX {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.

“SelectX twelveXI menXII from the people,XIII

Notes on verse 2a

X “select” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XI “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is from sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
XII “men” = enosh. From anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is human, humankind, another. It is mortal.
XIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

oneXIV from eachXV tribe,XVI and commandXVII them,XVIII

Notes on verses 2b-3a

XIV “one” = ish + echad. Ish is related to “men” in v2. See note XII above. Echad is perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XV “each” = ish + echad. Same as “one” in v2. See note XIV above.
XVI “tribe” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
XVII “command” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XVIII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.

‘TakeXIX twelve stonesXX from here out of the middleXXI of the Jordan, from the placeXXII where the priests’XXIII

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “take” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XX “stones” = eben. This is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
XXI “middle” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
XXII “place” = matstsab. 10x in OT. From natsab (to station, appoint, establish, take a stand). This is a standing place – it could be an office, garrison, or post.
XXIII “priests’” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

feetXXIV stood,XXV carry them overXXVI with you, and lay them downXXVII

Notes on verse 3c

XXIV “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
XXV “stood” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
XXVI “carry…over” = abar. Same as “crossing over” in v1. See note IV above.
XXVII “lay…down” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.

in the placeXXVIII where you campXXIX tonight.’”XXX 

Notes on verse 3d

XXVIII “place” = malon. 8x in OT. From lun (to stop – usually to lodge for the night; can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently; figuratively, can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain). This is an inn, encampment, caravanserai, or other place to pass the night.
XXIX “camp” = lun. Related to “place” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
XXX “tonight” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.

Then Joshua summonedXXXI the twelve menXXXII whom he had appointedXXXIII from the Israelites,XXXIV one from each tribe. 

Notes on verse 4

XXXI “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XXXII “men” = ish. Same as “one” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXXIII “appointed” = kun. Same as “stood” in v3. See note XXV above.
XXXIV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

Joshua said to them, “Pass onXXXV beforeXXXVI the arkXXXVII of the Lord your GodXXXVIII into the middle of the Jordan,

Notes on verse 5a

XXXV “pass on” = abar. Same as “crossing over” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXVI “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXXVII “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
XXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v4. See note XXXIV above.

and eachXXXIX of you take upXL aXLI stone on his shoulder,XLII according to the numberXLIII of the tribes of the Israelites, 

Notes on verse 5b

XXXIX “each” = ish. Same as “one” in v2. See note XIV above.
XL “take up” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
XLI “a” = echad. Same as “one” in v2. See note XIV above.
XLII “shoulder” = shekem. Perhaps from shakam (to rise early, begin work early; properly, this is leaning one’s shoulder or back into a load or a burden; also, loading an animal for work). This is shoulder, neck, or some other place that bears burdens. Figuratively, it can refer to the spur of a hill, or one’s allotted portion.
XLIII “number” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.

so that this may beXLIV a signXLV amongXLVI you.

Notes on verse 6a

XLIV “be” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XLV “sign” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle.
XLVI “among” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

When your childrenXLVII askXLVIII in time to come,XLIX, L ‘What do those stones mean to you?’ 

Notes on verse 6b

XLVII “children” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v4. See note XXXIV above.
XLVIII “ask” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
XLIX “time to come” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
L {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.

then you shall tellLI them that the watersLII of the Jordan were cut offLIII in front ofLIV

Notes on verse 7a

LI “tell” = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.
LII “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LIII “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
LIV “in front of” = paneh. Same as “before” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

the ark of the covenantLV of the Lord. When it crossed over the Jordan, the waters of the Jordan were cut off. So these stones shall be to the Israelites a memorialLVI forever.”LVII

Notes on verse 7b

LV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
LVI “memorial” = zikkaron. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is remembrance, memorial, or record. It can also be a day that is memorable.
LVII “forever” = ad + olam. Ad is from ad (old, perpetuity, eternity; a duration going back or forward); from adah (to advance or continue; to take away or remove; adorning oneself with ornaments). This is until, while, before. Olam is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).

The Israelites didLVIII, LIX as Joshua commanded. They took upLX twelve stones out of the middle of the Jordan, according to the number of the tribes of the Israelites, as the Lord had toldLXI Joshua, carried them over with them to the place where they camped,LXII and laid them down there. 

Notes on verse 8

LVIII “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LIX {untranslated} = ken. Related to “stood” in v3. Perhaps from kun (see note XXV above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
LX “took up” = nasa. Same as “take” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXI “told” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
LXII “place where…camped” = malon. Same as “place” in v3. See note XXVIII above.

(Joshua set upLXIII twelve stones in the middle of the Jordan, in the placeLXIV where the feet of the priests bearingLXV the ark of the covenant had stood,LXVI and they are there to this day.)LXVII

Notes on verse 9

LXIII “set up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
LXIV “in the place” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
LXV “bearing” = nasa. Same as “take” in v3. See note XIX above.
LXVI “where…stood” = matstsab. Same as “place” in v3. See note XXII above.
LXVII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

10 The priests who bore the ark remained standingLXVIII in the middle of the Jordan until everythingLXIX was finished that the Lord had commanded Joshua to tellLXX the people,

Notes on verse 10a

LXVIII “remained standing” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LXIX “everything” = kol + dabar. Kol is the same as “entire” in v1. See note II above. Dabar is related to “told” in v8. From dabar (see note LXI above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXX “tell” = dabar. Same as “told” in v8. See note LXI above.

according to allLXXI that MosesLXXII had commanded Joshua. The people crossed over in haste.LXXIII 11 LXXIVAs soon as all the people had finished crossing over, the ark of the Lord and the priests crossed over to the front of the people. 

Notes on verses 10b-11

LXXI “all” = kol. Same as “entire” in v1. See note II above.
LXXII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
LXXIII “in haste” = mahar. This is being liquid, which implies flowing. So, this word implies hurrying forward, whether in a positive or negative sense.
LXXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.

12 The Reubenites,LXXV the Gadites,LXXVI and the halfLXXVII-tribe of ManassehLXXVIII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXV “Reubenites” = ben + Reuben. Literally, “children of Reuben.” Ben is the same as “Israelites” in v4. See note XXXIV above. Reuben is related to “Israelites” in v4. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note XXXIV above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
LXXVI “Gadites” = ben + Gad. Literally, “children of Gad.” Ben is the same as “Israelites” in v4. See note XXXIV above. Gad is perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
LXXVII “half” = chatsi. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half, middle, midnight, midst.
LXXVIII “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.

crossed over armedLXXIX before the Israelites, as Moses had orderedLXXX them. 13 About fortyLXXXI thousandLXXXII armedLXXXIII

Notes on verses 12b-13a

LXXIX “armed” = chamushim. 4x in OT. Perhaps from the same as chomesh (root may mean being stout; belly). This is able-bodied, which refers to soldiers armed and read for battle.
LXXX “ordered” = dabar. Same as “told” in v8. See note LXI above.
LXXXI “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
LXXXII “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
LXXXIII “armed” = chalats. This is to pull off, withdraw, arm, loose, depart, deliver, prepare for a battle, strengthen.

for warLXXXIV crossed over before the Lord to the plainsLXXXV of JerichoLXXXVI for battle.LXXXVII

Notes on verse 13b

LXXXIV “war” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
LXXXV “plains” = arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.
LXXXVI “Jericho” = Yericho. From yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (smell, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy). This is Jericho meaning either “moon city” or “fragrant place.”
LXXXVII “battle” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).

14 On that day the Lord exaltedLXXXVIII Joshua in the sightLXXXIX of all Israel,XC and they stood in aweXCI of him, as they had stood in awe of Moses all the days of his life.XCII

Notes on verse 14

LXXXVIII “exalted” = gadal. This is to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing.
LXXXIX “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XC “Israel” = Yisrael. Same as “Israelites” in v4. See note XXXIV above.
XCI “stood in awe” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XCII “life” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.

15 The Lord said to Joshua,XCIII 16 “Command the priests who bear the ark of the covenantXCIV to come upXCV out of the Jordan.” 

17 Joshua therefore commanded the priests,XCVI “Come up out of the Jordan.” 

Notes on verses 15-17

XCIII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.
XCIV “covenant” = eduth. From ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.
XCV “come up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.

18 XCVIIWhen the priests bearing the ark of the covenantXCVIII of the Lord came up from the middle of the Jordan and the solesXCIX of the priests’ feet touchedC dry ground,CI

Notes on verse 18a

XCVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XCVIII “covenant” = berit. Same as “covenant” in v7. See note LV above.
XCIX “soles” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.
C “touched” = nathaq. This is to pull, tear off, drag, separate, lift, burst, root out, or snap.
CI “dry ground” = charabah. 8x in OT. From chareb (to be waste or desolate, destroyer). This is dry ground, dry, or desert.

the waters of the Jordan returnedCII to their placeCIII and overflowedCIV all its banks,CV as before.CVI

Notes on verse 18b

CII “returned” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CIII “place” = maqom. Related to “set up” in v9. From qum(see note LXIII above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CIV “overflowed” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CV “banks” = gadah. 4x in OT– 3x of the Jordan. Root may mean cut off. This is a bank or border of a river or stream.
CVI “before” = temol + shilshom. Temol may be from ethmol (formerly, before, yesterday, time); {from et (with, among, beside, including, toward, near); from anah (to meet, happen, approach)} + mul (front, opposite, toward); {from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy)}. This is ago, recently, yesterday, past. Shilshom is from shalash (to make triplicate, do a third time); from the same as shalosh (three, fork, three times). This is three days ago, before, yesterday in the past.

19 The people came up out of the Jordan on the tenthCVII day of the firstCVIII month,CIX and they campedCX in GilgalCXI

Notes on verse 19a

CVII “tenth” = asor. Related to “twelve” in v2. 16x in OT. From the same as eser (see note XI above). This is ten or tenth. Here, a ten-stringed instrument like the lute.
CVIII “first” = rishon. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
CIX “month” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
CX “camped” = chanah. This is decline, bending down, or living in tents. It can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle.
CXI “Gilgal” = Gilgal. From galgal (wheel, wagon, whirl, whirlwind; something that rolls); from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense). This is Gilgal – perhaps circle of stones.

on the eastCXII borderCXIII of Jericho. 20 Those twelve stones that they had takenCXIV out of the Jordan, Joshua set up in Gilgal, 21 saying to the Israelites, CXV “When your children ask their parentsCXVI in time to come,CXVII ‘What do these stones mean?’ 

Notes on verses 19b-21

CXII “east” = mizrach. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is the east as the place where the sun rises. It can also refer to the sunrise itself.
CXIII “border” = qatseh. From qatsah (to cut off, cut short; figuratively, to destroy). This is end, brink, border, edge, frontier. It can refer to that which is within set boundaries.
CXIV “taken” = laqach. Same as “select” in v2. See note X above.
CXV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.
CXVI “parents” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.

22 then you shall let your children know,CXVIII, CXIX ‘Israel crossed over the Jordan here on dry ground.’CXX 23 For the Lord your God dried upCXXI the waters of the Jordan forCXXII you until you crossed over,

Notes on verses 22-23a

CXVIII “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CXIX {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” = in v1. See note VII above.
CXX “dry ground” = yabbashah. 14x in OT– word used for dry land in Genesis 1:9-10. From yabesh (to dry up, be withered, be dry; to be ashamed, confused, or disappointed). This is dry land or dry ground.
CXXI “dried up” = yabesh. Related to “dry ground” in v22. See note CXX above.
CXXII “for” = paneh. Same as “before” in v5. See note XXXVI above.

as the Lord your God did to the RedCXXIII Sea,CXXIV which he dried up forCXXV us until we crossed over, 24 so that all the peoples of the earthCXXVI may knowCXXVII

Notes on verses 23b-24a

CXXIII “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. This is
CXXIV “Sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
CXXV “for” = paneh. Same as “before” in v5. See note XXXVI above.
CXXVI “earth” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CXXVII “know” = daat. Related to “know” in v22. From yada (see note CXVIII above). This is knowledge, unawares, cunning, wittingly.

that the handCXXVIII of the Lord is mightyCXXIX and so that you may fearCXXX the Lord your God forever.”CXXXI

Notes on verse 24b

CXXVIII “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXXIX “mighty” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
CXXX “fear” = yare. Same as “stood in awe” in v14. See note XCI above.
CXXXI “forever” = kol + yom. Literally, “all days.” Kol is the same as “entire” in v1. See note II above. Yom is the same as “day” in v9. See note LXVII above.

Image credit: “Joshua, Rahab and Jericho” by Jack Foster (Mr BibleHead).

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