Joshua 6

Joshua 6


Now JerichoI was shut up inside and outII because ofIII the Israelites;IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Jericho” = Yericho. From yareach (moon); {from the same as yerach (month)} OR from ruach (smell, breathe, perceive, anticipate, accept, enjoy). This is Jericho meaning either “moon city” or “fragrant place.”
II “shut up inside and out” = sagar + sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
III “because of” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
IV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

no oneV came out,VI and no one went in.VII The LordVIII saidIX to Joshua,X

Notes on verses 1b-2a

V “no one” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
VI “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
VII “went in” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
VIII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
IX “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
X “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “Lord” in v2. From YHVH (see note VIII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”

“See,XI I have handed Jericho overXII to you, along with its kingXIII and soldiers.XIV 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XII “handed…over” = natan + yad. Literally, “given into your hand.” Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively. Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XIII “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XIV “soldiers” = gibbor + chayil. Gibbor is from gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant. Chayil is from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.

You shall march aroundXV the city,XVI allXVII the warriorsXVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XV “march around” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.
XVI “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
XVII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XVIII “warriors” = ish + milchamah. Ish is perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind. Milchamah is from lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).

circlingXIX the city once.XX Thus you shall doXXI for sixXXII days,XXIII 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “circling” = naqaph. 19x in OT. This is to strike, cut down, surround, destroy, corrode, knock together, or enclose. It can be to surround as a guard or like the sea. It can meaning coming to the end of a festival time or enclosing in a net or trap.
XX “once” = paam + echad. Paam is from paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence. Echad is perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XXI “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XXII “six” = shesh. This is six. Figuratively, it can be a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand.
XXIII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

with sevenXXIV priestsXXV bearingXXVI seven trumpetsXXVII of rams’ hornsXXVIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXIV “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
XXV “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
XXVI “bearing” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XXVII “trumpets” = shophar. From shaphar (being beautiful or lovely). This is a ram’s horn, trumpet, or cornet. A shofar is still blown at Jewish festivals such as Rosh Hashanah (the Jewish new year celebration).
XXVIII “rams’ horns” = yobel. From yabal (to bring, carry, flow, lead forth). This is a horn – whether a ram’s horn or a silver trumpet. It can also refer to the jubilee or the beginning of a festival.

beforeXXIX the ark.XXX On the seventhXXXI day you shall march around the city seven times,XXXII the priests blowingXXXIII the trumpets. 

Notes on verse 4b

XXIX “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
XXX “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
XXXI “seventh” = shebii. Related to “seven” in v4. From sheba (see note XXIV above). This is seventh.
XXXII “times” = paam. Same as “once” in v3. See note XX above.
XXXIII “blowing” = taqa. This is to clap, clatter, thrust, sound an instrument, hammer a nail, be a bondsman.

XXXIVWhen they make a long blastXXXV with the ram’sXXXVI horn,XXXVII as soon as you hearXXXVIII the soundXXXIX of the trumpet,

Notes on verse 5a

XXXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Lord” and “Joshua” in v2. See note VIII above.
XXXV “make a long blast” = mashak. This is to draw, drag, or pull. It can mean sow, march, remove, draw along, continue, extend, or prolong.
XXXVI “ram’s” = yobel. Same as “rams’ horns” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
XXXVII “horn” = qeren. This is horn or hill. It can be a flask or cornet, ivory, altar corner, mountain peak, or figuratively power.
XXXVIII “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XXXIX “sound” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

then all the peopleXL shall shoutXLI with a greatXLII shout,XLIII

Notes on verse 5b

XL “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XLI “shout” = rua. To break or destroy something so figuratively, an ear splitting sound such as a call of alarm or a joyful sound.
XLII “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
XLIII “shout” = teruah. Related to “shout” in v5. From rua (see note XLI above). This is an alarm, trumpet sound, battle cry, rejoicing, joyful shout, or jubilee.

and the wallXLIV of the city will fall downXLV flat,XLVI and allXLVII the people shall chargeXLVIII straight ahead.”XLIX 

Notes on verse 5c

XLIV “wall” = chomah. From the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is a wall – a wall as used for protection.
XLV “fall down” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
XLVI “flat” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XLVII “all” = ish. Same as “warriors” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XLVIII “charge” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XLIX “straight ahead” = neged. From nagad (to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is in front of, opposite to. It can refer to a counterpart or partner, one corresponding to or in the sight of.

So Joshua sonL of NunLI summonedLII the priests and said to them, “Take upLIII the ark of the covenantLIV

Notes on verse 6a

L “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note IV above.
LI “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”
LII “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LIII “take up” = nasa. Same as “bearing” in v4. See note XXVI above.
LIV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from barar (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

and have seven priests carryLV seven trumpets of rams’ hornsLVI in front ofLVII the ark of the Lord.” 

To the people he said, “Go forwardLVIII and march around the city; have the armed menLIX pass onLX beforeLXI the ark of the Lord.”

Notes on verses 6b-7

LV “carry” = nasa. Same as “bearing” in v4. See note XXVI above.
LVI “rams’ horns” = yobel. Same as “rams’ horns” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LVII “in front of” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
LVIII “go forward” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
LIX “armed men” = chalats. This is to pull off, withdraw, arm, loose, depart, deliver, prepare for a battle, strengthen.
LX “pass on” = abar. Same as “go forward” in v7. See note LVIII above.
LXI “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.

LXIIAs Joshua had commandedLXIII the people, the seven priests carrying the seven trumpets of rams’ hornsLXIV beforeLXV the Lord went forward, blowing the trumpets, with the ark of the covenant of the Lord followingLXVI them. 

Notes on verse 8

LXII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
LXIII “commanded” = amar. Same as “said” in v2. See note IX above.
LXIV “rams’ horns” = yobel. Same as “rams’ horns” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXV “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
LXVI “following” = halak + achar. Halak is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

And the armed men wentLXVII beforeLXVIII the priests who blew the trumpets; the rear guardLXIX cameLXX afterLXXI the ark, while the trumpets blew continually.LXXII 

Notes on verse 9

LXVII “went” = halak. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above.
LXVIII “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
LXIX “rear guard” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
LXX “came” = halak. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above.
LXXI “after” = achar. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above.
LXXII “continually” = halak. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above.

10 To the people Joshua gave this command:LXXIII, LXXIV “You shall not shout or let your voiceLXXV be heard, nor shall you utterLXXVI a wordLXXVII until the day I tellLXXVIII you to shout. Then you shall shout.” 

Notes on verse 10

LXXIII “gave…command” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
LXXIV {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v2. See note IX above.
LXXV “voice” = qol. Same as “sound” in v5. See note XXXIX above.
LXXVI “utter” = yatsa + peh. Yatsa is the same as “came out” in v1. See note VI above. Peh is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
LXXVII “word” = dabar. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXXVIII “tell” = amar. Same as “said” in v2. See note IX above.

11 So the ark of the Lord went aroundLXXIX the city, circling it once, and they came intoLXXX the campLXXXI and spent the nightLXXXII in the camp.

Notes on verse 11

LXXIX “went around” = sabab. Same as “march around” in v3. See note XV above.
LXXX “came into” = bo. Same as “went in” in v1. See note VII above.
LXXXI “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
LXXXII “spent the night” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.

12 Then Joshua rose earlyLXXXIII in the morning,LXXXIV and the priests took up the ark of the Lord. 13 The seven priests carrying the seven trumpets of rams’ hornsLXXXV beforeLXXXVI the ark of the Lord passed on, blowing the trumpets continually.LXXXVII

Notes on verses 12-13a

LXXXIII “rose early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
LXXXIV “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LXXXV “rams’ horns” = yobel. Same as “rams’ horns” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
LXXXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
LXXXVII “continually” = halak + halak. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

The armed men wentLXXXVIII beforeLXXXIX them, and the rear guard cameXC after the ark of the Lord, while the trumpets blew continually. 14 On the secondXCI day they marched around the city once and then returnedXCII to the camp. They did this for six days.

Notes on verses 13b-14

LXXXVIII “went” = halak. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above.
LXXXIX “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
XC “came” = halak. Same as “following” in v8. See note LXVI above.
XCI “second” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
XCII “returned” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

15 XCIIIOn the seventh day they rose early, at dawn,XCIV and marched around the city in the same mannerXCV seven times. It was onlyXCVI on that day that they marched around the city seven times. 

Notes on verse 15

XCIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
XCIV “dawn” = alah + shachar. Alah is the same as “charge” in v5. See note XLVIII above. Shachar has a root that may mean to look for in early hour or in a diligent way. This is dawn, early light, or morning.
XCV “manner” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XCVI “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.

16 AndXCVII at the seventh time, when the priests had blown the trumpets, Joshua said to the people, “Shout! For the Lord has givenXCVIII you the city. 17 XCIXThe city and allC that is in it shall be devoted to the Lord for destruction.CI

Notes on verses 16-17a

XCVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
XCVIII “given” = natan. Same as “handed…over” in v2. See note XII above.
XCIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
C “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CI “devoted…for destruction” = cherem. From charam (to ban, destroy, devote, seclude; to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction). This is something shut in like a net. Figuratively, it refers to something that is devoted to God or under a ban, often for destruction.

Only RahabCII the prostituteCIII and allCIV who are with her in her houseCV shall liveCVI

Notes on verse 17b

CII “Rahab” = Rachab. 5x in OT. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is Rahab, a name meaning “wide” or “spacious.” See
CIII “prostitute” = zanah. This is to fornicate, commit adultery, be a prostitute. Figuratively, it can mean committing idolatry.
CIV “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CV “house” = bayit. Related to “Israelites” in v1. Probably from banah (see note IV above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
CVI “live” = chayah. This is to live or keep alive in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be revive, nourish, or save.

because she hidCVII the messengersCVIII we sent.CIX 18 AsCX for you, keep awayCXI from the things devoted to destruction,

Notes on verses 17c-18a

CVII “hid” = chaba. This is to hide, hush, harden (like water freezing), or secret.
CVIII “messengers” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
CIX “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CX “as” = raq. Same as “only” in v15. See note XCVI above.
CXI “keep away” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.

so as notCXII to covetCXIII and takeCXIV any of the devoted things and makeCXV the camp of Israel an object for destruction,CXVI bringing troubleCXVII upon it. 

Notes on verse 18b

CXII “so as not” = pen. Related to “because of” in v1. Perhaps from panah (see note III above). This is lest, if, or.
CXIII “covet” = charam. Related to “devoted…for destruction” in v17. See note CI above.
CXIV “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CXV “make” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CXVI “object for destruction” = cherem. Same as “devoted…for destruction” in v17. See note CI above.
CXVII “trouble” = akar. 14x in OT. This is properly to stir water – figuratively it can be to trouble, harm, afflict, or worsen.

19 But allCXVIII silverCXIX and goldCXX and vesselsCXXI of bronzeCXXII

Notes on verse 19a

CXVIII “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXIX “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
CXX “gold” = zahab. Root may mean to shimmer. This is gold or something that has the color of gold like oil. It can also refer to a clear sky – to good weather.
CXXI “vessels” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
CXXII “bronze” = nechosheth. Perhaps from nechushah (copper, bronze, brass – something made from this metal like a coin or fetter; something that is considered base in contrast to gold or silver.; from nachush (made of bronze or brass, coppery; figuratively, hard); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is bronze, copper, steel, brass or something made from copper. So, it could be a coin or chains. It can also figuratively mean something considered lesser in contrast to gold or silver.

and ironCXXIII are sacredCXXIV to the Lord; they shall go intoCXXV the treasuryCXXVI of the Lord.” 

Notes on verse 19b

CXXIII “iron” = barzel. From the same as Birzoth (a name meaning holes). Root may mean to pierce. This is iron as something used as a cutting implement. It can also specifically mean ax head.
CXXIV “sacred” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
CXXV “go into” = bo. Same as “went in” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXVI “treasury” = otsar. From atsar (to store up, hoard). This is treasure or the place where one keeps treasure – a depository, storehouse, armory, cellar.

20 So the people shouted, and the trumpets were blown. CXXVIIAs soon as the people heard the sound of the trumpets, they raisedCXXVIII a great shout, and the wall fell down flat, so the people chargedCXXIX straight ahead into the city and capturedCXXX it. 

Notes on verse 20

CXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CXXVIII “raised” = rua. Same as “shout” in v5. See note XLI above.
CXXIX {untranslated} = ish. Same as “warriors” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXX “captured” = lakad. This is to capture, seize, or imprison. It is to catch something in a snare or net or trap. It can also mean to occupy of select something by casting lots.

21 Then they devoted to destruction by the edgeCXXXI of the swordCXXXII allCXXXIII in the city, both menCXXXIV and women,CXXXV

Notes on verse 21a

CXXXI “edge” = peh. Same as “utter” in v10. See note LXXVI above.
CXXXII “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CXXXIII “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXXIV “men” = ish. Same as “warriors” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXXV “women” = ishshah. Related to “warriors” in v3. From ish (see note XVIII above). This is woman, wife, or female.

youngCXXXVI and old,CXXXVII oxen,CXXXVIII sheep,CXXXIX and donkeys.CXL

Notes on verse 21b

CXXXVI “young” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
CXXXVII “old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CXXXVIII “oxen” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
CXXXIX “sheep” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.
CXL “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

22 But to the twoCXLI menCXLII who had spied outCXLIII the land,CXLIV

Notes on verse 22a

CXLI “two” = shenayim. Related to “second” in v14. From sheni (see note XCI above). This is two, both, second, couple.
CXLII “men” = enosh. Related to “warriors” in v3 & “women” in v21. See note XVIII above.
CXLIII “spied out” = ragal. From regel (foot, endurance, or journey; a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey; can euphemistically mean private parts). This is to walk along, spy out, slander.
CXLIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

Joshua said, “Go intoCXLV theCXLVI prostitute’s house, and bring the woman outCXLVII of it and allCXLVIII who belong to her, as you sworeCXLIX to her.” 

Notes on verse 22b

CXLV “go into” = bo. Same as “went in” in v1. See note VII above.
CXLVI {untranslated} = ishshah. Same as “women” in v21. See note CXXXV above.
CXLVII “bringing…out” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v1. See note VI above.
CXLVIII “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXLIX “swore” = shaba. Related to “seven” and “seventh” in v4. Perhaps from sheba (see note XXIV above). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.

23 So the young menCL who had been spies went inCLI and brought Rahab out, along with her father,CLII her mother,CLIII her brothers,CLIV and allCLV who belonged to her—

Notes on verse 23a

CL “young men” = naar. Same as “young” in v21. See note CXXXVI above.
CLI “went in” = bo. Same as “went in” in v1. See note VII above.
CLII “father” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIII “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIV “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
CLV “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.

they brought allCLVI her kindredCLVII out—and setCLVIII them outsideCLIX the camp of Israel. 

Notes on verse 23b

CLVI “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLVII “kindred” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.
CLVIII “set” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
CLIX “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.

24 They burned downCLX the city and everythingCLXI in it; only the silver and gold and the vessels of bronze and iron they putCLXII into the treasury of the house of the Lord. 25 But Rahab the prostitute, with her family and allCLXIII who belonged to her, Joshua spared.CLXIV

Notes on verses 24-25a

CLX “burned down” = saraph + esh. Saraph is to burn or kindle. This is the root that “seraphim” comes from. Esh is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXI “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXII “put” = natan. Same as “handed…over” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXIII “family and all” = bayit + ab + et + kol. Bayit is the same as “house” in v17. See note CV above. Ab is the same as “father” in v23. See note CLII above. Kol is the same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXIV “spared” = chayah. Same as “live” in v17. See note CVI above.

Her family has livedCLXV inCLXVI Israel ever since.CLXVII For she hid the messengers whom Joshua sent to spy out Jericho.

Notes on verse 25b

CLXV “lived” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
CLXVI “in” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CLXVII “ever since” = ad + yom + zeh. Literally, “to this day.” Yom is the same as “days” in v3. See note XXIII above.

26 Joshua then pronounced this oath,CLXVIII saying,

“Cursed beforeCLXIX the Lord be anyoneCLXX who triesCLXXI
    to buildCLXXII this city, Jericho!
At the cost of his firstbornCLXXIII he shall lay its foundation,CLXXIV

Notes on verse 26a

CLXVIII “pronounced…oat” = shaba. Same as “swore” in v22. See note CXLIX above.
CLXIX “before” = paneh. Same as “because of” in v1. See note III above.
CLXX “anyone” = ish. Same as “warriors” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CLXXI “tries” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CLXXII “build” = banah. Related to “Israelites” in v1 & “house” in v17. See note IV above.
CLXXIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CLXXIV “lay…foundation” = yasad. This is to establish, appoint, instruct. It is to set in a literal or figurative sense. Also means to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel.

    and at the cost of his youngestCLXXV he shall set upCLXXVI its gates!”CLXXVII

27 So the Lord wasCLXXVIII with Joshua, and his fameCLXXIX was in allCLXXX the land.

Notes on verses 26b-27

CLXXV “youngest” = tsair. From tsaar (to be brought low, small, little one; figuratively, be insignificant or ignoble). This is little, young, least, younger, few in number, low in value.
CLXXVI “set up” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
CLXXVII “gates” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.
CLXXVIII “was” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXXIV above.
CLXXIX “fame” = shoma. Related to “hear” in v5. 4x in OT. From shama (see note XXXVIII above). This is a report, news, or fame.
CLXXX “all” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XVII above.

Image credit: “The Seven Trumpets of Jericho” by J. James Tissot.

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