Judges 19

Judges 19


IIn those days,II when there was noIII kingIV

Notes on verse 1a

I {untranslated} = hayah. This is to be or become, to happen.
II “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
III “no” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
IV “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.

in Israel,V VIa certainVII LeviteVIII

Notes on verse 1b

V “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
VI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
VII “certain” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
VIII “Levite” = Leviyyi. From Levi (Levi; perhaps meaning “attached”; Jacob’s son, his tribe, and descendants); perhaps from lavah (to join, twine, unite, remain, borrow, lend). This is Levite or levitical.

residingIX in the remote partsX of the hill countryXI

Notes on verse 1c

IX “residing” = gur. Properly, this is the act of turning off the road for any reason. So, it means sojourning, becoming a guest. It can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory. It can also mean dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration. This word is where the Hebrew “ger” comes from, which is the word translated “stranger” or “resident alien.”
X “remote parts” = yerekah. From yarek (thigh, side, body, shank; can be figurative for genitalia). This is flank, side, recesses, border, quarter, extreme parts.
XI “hill country” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.

of EphraimXII tookXIII to himself aXIV concubineXV

Notes on verse 1d

XII “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
XIII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XIV {untranslated} = ishshah. Related to “certain” in v1. From ish (see note VII above). This is woman, wife, or female.
XV “concubine” = pilegesh. Perhaps a loanword. This is a concubine.

from BethlehemXVI in Judah.XVII But his concubine became angryXVIII with him, and she went awayXIX from him

Notes on verses 1e-2a

XVI “Bethlehem” = Beth lechem. From bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively)} + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”
XVII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
XVIII “became angry” = zanah. This is being or playing a prostitute. Figuratively, it can also mean fornicating. An alternate reading has this verb as tsanach, which means to be angry with, reject, push aside, or desert. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levite%27s_concubine
XIX “went away” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

to her father’sXX houseXXI at Bethlehem in Judah and wasXXII there someXXIII fourXXIV months.XXV 

Notes on verse 2b

XX “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XXI “house” = bayit. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1. Probably from banah (see note XVI above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XXII “was” = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XXIII “some” = yom. Same as “days” in v1. See note II above.
XXIV “four” = arba. From raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four.
XXV “months” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.

ThenXXVI her husbandXXVII set outXXVIII afterXXIX her,

Notes on verse 3a

XXVI {untranslated} = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XXVII “husband” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
XXVIII “set out” = halak. Same as “went away” in v2. See note XIX above.
XXIX “after” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

to speakXXX tenderlyXXXI to her and bring her back.XXXII

Notes on verse 3b

XXX “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXXI “tenderly” = leb. Literally, “to her heart.” From the same as lebab (the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, the will; only used in a figurative sense in the Bible); may be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses).. This is inner self, mind, will, feelings, the center.
XXXII “bring…back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

He had with him his servantXXXIII and a coupleXXXIV of donkeys.XXXV

Notes on verse 3c

XXXIII “servant” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XXXIV “couple” = tsemed. 15x in NT. From tsamad (to bind, attach, frame, serve, or contrive). This is a pair, together, yoke, team. It can also be used for an acre because it would take a team of cattle a whole day to plow it.
XXXV “donkeys” = chamor. From chamar (to be red, blush). This is a male donkey.

When he reachedXXXVI her father’s house, the young woman’sXXXVII father sawXXXVIII him and came with joyXXXIX to meetXL him. 

Notes on verse 3d

XXXVI “reached” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXXVII “young woman’s” = naarah. Related to “servant” in v3. From naar (see note XXXIII above). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.
XXXVIII “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XXXIX “came with joy” = samach. This is to rejoice or be glad. Properly, it is to brighten up in a literal or figurative sense.
XL “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.

His father-in-law,XLI the young woman’s father, made him stay,XLII and he remainedXLIII with him threeXLIV days;

Notes on verse 4a

XLI “father-in-law” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
XLII “made…stay” = chazaq. This is to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden.
XLIII “remained” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XLIV “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.

so they ateXLV and drank,XLVI and he stayedXLVII there. 

XLVIIIOn the fourthXLIX day

Notes on verses 4b-5a

XLV “ate” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVI “drank” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
XLVII “stayed” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
XLVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
XLIX “fourth” = rebii. Related to “four” in v2. From the same as arba (see note XXIV above). This is fourth or square-shaped.

they got up earlyL in the morning,LI and he preparedLII to go,LIII but the young woman’s father saidLIV to his son-in-law,LV

Notes on verse 5b

L “got up early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
LI “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
LII “prepared” = qum. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXVI above.
LIII “go” = halak. Same as “went away” in v2. See note XIX above.
LIV “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
LV “son-in-law” = chathan. Related to “father-in-law” in v4. See note XLI above.

“FortifyLVI yourselfLVII with a bitLVIII of food,LIX and after that you may go.” 

Notes on verse 5c

LVI “fortify” = saad. 12x in OT. This is to support – usually used in a figurative sense. So it is sustain, hold, refresh, comfort, establish.
LVII “yourself” = leb. Same as “tenderly” in v3. See note XXXI above.
LVIII “bit” = path. 15x in OT. From pathath (to crumble, open, break). This is a piece, morsel, or fragment.
LIX “food” = lechem. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1. See note XVI above.

So the twoLX men satLXI and ate and drank together,LXII and the young woman’s father said to the man,LXIII

Notes on verse 6a

LX “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
LXI “sat” = yashab. Same as “remained” in v4. See note XLIII above.
LXII “together” = yachad. From yachad (to join, be united). This is a unit, both, altogether, unitedness, alike.
LXIII “man” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.

“Why notLXIV, LXV spend the nightLXVI and enjoyLXVII yourself?”LXVIII 

Notes on verse 6b

LXIV “why not” = yaal. 19x in OT. This to be pleased or willing, determined, to take on something, to try, to do willingly, to begin. It can have the idea of assent or consent as well as continuing or persisting as.
LXV {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
LXVI “spend the night” = lun. Same as “stayed” in v4. See note XLVII above.
LXVII “enjoy” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
LXVIII “yourself” = leb. Same as “tenderly” in v3. See note XXXI above.

When the man got upLXIX to go, his father-in-law kept urgingLXX him until he spent the night there again.LXXI 

On the fifthLXXII day he got up early in the morning to leave,LXXIII

Notes on verses 7-8a

LXIX “got up” = qum. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXVI above.
LXX “urging” = patsar. 7x in OT. This is to urge, press, peck at. Figuratively, it can mean to stun or refer to stubbornness.
LXXI “again” = shub. Same as “bring…back” in v3. See note XXXII above.
LXXII “fifth” = chamishi. From chamesh (five). This is fifth or one-fifth.
LXXIII “leave” = halak. Same as “went away” in v2. See note XIX above.

and the young woman’s father said, “FortifyLXXIV yourselfLXXV and lingerLXXVI until the day declines.”LXXVII So the two of them ate. 

Notes on verse 8b

LXXIV {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXV above.
LXXV “yourself” = lebab. Related to “tenderly” in v3. See note XXXI above.
LXXVI “linger” = mahah. 9x in OT. Perhaps from mah (what, how long). This is to delay, question, linger, be reluctant.
LXXVII “declines” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.

When the man with his concubine and his servant got up to leave, his father-in-law, the young woman’s father, said to him, “Look,LXXVIII, LXXIX the day has worn onLXXX until it is almost evening.LXXXI

Notes on verse 9a

LXXVIII “look” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LXXIX {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXV above.
LXXX “worn on” = raphah. This is to slacken in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait.
LXXXI “is almost evening” = arab. 3x in OT. From ereb (night, twilight, dusk). This is evening or eventide. It is to grow dark or dusky.

Spend the night.LXXXII See,LXXXIII the day has drawn to a close.LXXXIV Spend the night here and enjoy yourself.LXXXV

Notes on verse 9b

LXXXII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXV above.
LXXXIII “see” = hinneh. Same as “look” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.
LXXXIV “drawn to a close” = chanah. This is decline, bending down, or living in tents. It can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle.
LXXXV “yourself” = lebab. Same as “yourself” in v8. See note LXXV above.

TomorrowLXXXVI you can get up early in the morning for your journeyLXXXVII and go home.”LXXXVIII

10 But the man wouldLXXXIX not spend the night; he got up and departedXC

Notes on verses 9c-10a

LXXXVI “tomorrow” = machar. Related to “after” in v3. Perhaps from achar (see note XXIX above). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
LXXXVII “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
LXXXVIII “home” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
LXXXIX “would” = abah. This is to breathe after, be willing, obey, accept, be content with, satisfy.
XC “departed” = halak. Same as “went away” in v2. See note XIX above.

and arrivedXCI oppositeXCII JebusXCIII (that is, Jerusalem).XCIV He had with him a couple of saddledXCV donkeys, and his concubine was with him. 

Notes on verse 10b

XCI “arrived” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
XCII “opposite” = nokach. Perhaps from the same as nekach (root may mean being straightforward; before, the front). This is in front of, before, on behalf, opposite.
XCIII “Jebus” = Yebus. 4x in OT. From bus (to trample down, tread in a literal or figurative sense; to loathe, pollute, squirm). This is Yebus, a previous name for Jerusalem meaning “threshing place” or “treading down” or “trodden underfoot” or “he will trample down.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jebus.html
XCIV “Jerusalem” = Yerushalaim. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound). This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
XCV “saddled” = chabash. This is to wrap tightly or bind, to bandage, or heal. It can be to saddle an animal or wrap a turban. Figuratively, it can mean to stop or to govern.

11 When they were near Jebus, the day was farXCVI spent,XCVII and the servant said to his master,XCVIII “ComeXCIX now,C

Notes on verse 11a

XCVI “far” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XCVII “was…spent” = radad. 4x in OT. This is to beat down in pieces, spread, subdue. Figuratively, this could be to conquer or it could be to cover something with gold (i.e. overlay).
XCVIII “master” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XCIX “come” = halak. Same as “went away” in v2. See note XIX above.
C “now” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXV above.

let us turn asideCI to this cityCII of the JebusitesCIII and spend the night in it.” 

Notes on verse 11b

CI “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CII “city” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CIII “Jebusites” = Yebusi. Related to “Jebus” in v10. From Yebus (see note XCIII above). This is Jebusite, meaning treaders or threshers.

12 But his master said to him, “We will not turn aside into a city of foreigners,CIV who do not belong to the peopleCV of Israel, butCVI we will continue onCVII to Gibeah.”CVIII 

Notes on verse 12

CIV “foreigners” = nokri. From neker (strange; to act foreign or strange; to disguise; can also be misfortune or unexpected calamity); from nakar (to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize). This is foreign, alien, stranger, extraordinary, adulteress. It is strange in many different senses – foreign, not being one’s relative, different, wonderful, relating to adultery.
CV “people” = ben. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1 & “house” in v2. From banah (see note XVI above). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
CVI {untranslated} = hennah. Related to “look” in v9. Perhaps from hen (see note LXXVIII above). This is here in a location or here in a time, i.e. now.
CVII “continue on” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
CVIII “Gibeah” = Gibah. From the same as Geba (Geba or Gibeah; hillock); from the same as gabia (cup, bowl, flower; root might mean being convex). This is Gibeah, a city whose name means “hill.”

13 Then he said to his servant, “Come, let us try to reachCIX oneCX of these placesCXI and spend the night at Gibeah or at Ramah.”CXII 

Notes on verse 13

CIX “try to reach” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
CX “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXI “places” = maqom. Related to {untranslated} in v3. From qum(see note XXVI above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CXII “Ramah” = Ramah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively) OR from ramah (properly, to loosen; figuratively, to deceive to various degrees). This is Ramah, meaning “height” or “lofty place” or “deceit” or “established” or “loose.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ramah.html

14 So they passed onCXIII and went their way,CXIV and the sunCXV went downCXVI on them

Notes on verse 14a

CXIII “passed on” = abar. Same as “continue on” in v12. See note CVII above.
CXIV “went…way” = halak. Same as “went away” in v2. See note XIX above.
CXV “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
CXVI “went down” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.

nearCXVII Gibeah, which belongs to Benjamin.CXVIII 15 They turned aside there, to go inCXIX and spend the night at Gibeah. He went in and sat downCXX

Notes on verses 14b-15a

CXVII “near” = etsel. From atsal (to reserve, refuse, join, separate, keep). This is nearby, toward, joining.
CXVIII “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1 & “house” in v2 & “people” in v12. From ben (see note CV above) + from yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
CXIX “go in” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
CXX “sat down” = yashab. Same as “remained” in v4. See note XLIII above.

in the open squareCXXI of the city, but noCXXII oneCXXIII took them inCXXIV to spend the night.

Notes on verse 15b

CXXI “open square” = rechob. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is a wide, open place like a plaza, square, or avenue.
CXXII “no” = ayin. Same as “no” in v1. See note III above.
CXXIII “one” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXIV “took…in” = asaph + bayit. Asaph is Bayit is the same as “house” in v2. See note XXI above.

16 ThenCXXV at eveningCXXVI there was an oldCXXVII man comingCXXVIII

Notes on verse 16a

CXXV “then” = hinneh. Same as “look” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.
CXXVI “evening” = ereb. Related to “is almost evening” in v9. See note LXXXI above.
CXXVII “old” = zaqen. From the same as zaqan (beard or chin – the beard represents old age). This is old, aged, or elder.
CXXVIII “coming” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.

from his workCXXIX in the field.CXXX The man was from the hill country of Ephraim, and he was residing in Gibeah. (The peopleCXXXI of the place were Benjaminites.)CXXXII 

Notes on verse 16b

CXXIX “work” = maaseh. From asah (to do, make, accomplish, become). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
CXXX “field” = sadeh. From the same as shadday (almighty, field, land); from shadad (to devastate, ruin, destroy, oppress, be powerful). Or, it may be from a word that means to spread out. This is field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild as in a wild animal.
CXXXI “people” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
CXXXII “Benjaminites” = Ben-yemini. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1 & “house” in v2 & “people” in v12 & “Benajmin” in v14 & to “Benjamin” in v14. 9x in OT. From Binyamin (see note CXVIII above). This is one descended from the tribe of Benjamin.

17 When the old man looked upCXXXIII and saw the wayfarerCXXXIV in the open square of the city, he said, “Where are you going, and where do you comeCXXXV from?” 

Notes on verse 17

CXXXIII “looked up” = nasa + ayin. Literally, “raised his eyes.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Ayin is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXXXIV “wayfarer” = ish + arach. Ish is the same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above. Arach is 5x in OT. This is to go, travel, wander.
CXXXV “come” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.

18 He answeredCXXXVI him, “We are passingCXXXVII from Bethlehem in Judah to the remote parts of the hill country of Ephraim, from which I come. I went to Bethlehem in Judah, and I am going to my home.CXXXVIII, CXXXIX NobodyCXL has offered to take me in. 

Notes on verse 18

CXXXVI “answered” = amar. Same as “said” in v5. See note LIV above.
CXXXVII “passing” = abar. Same as “continue on” in v12. See note CVII above.
CXXXVIII “home” = bayit. Same as “house” in v2. See note XXI above.
CXXXIX {untranslated} = YHVH. Related to {untranslated} in v1. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (see note I above). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
CXL “nobody” = ayin + ish. Ayin is the same as “no” in v1. See note III above. Ish is the same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.

19 CXLIWe haveCXLII strawCXLIII andCXLIV fodderCXLV for our donkeys,CXLVI

Notes on verse 19a

CXLI {untranslated} = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
CXLII “have” = yesh. This is being, existence, or substance.
CXLIII “straw” = teben. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1 & “house” in v2 & “people” in v12 & “Benajmin” in v14 & “Benjaminites” in v16. 17x in OT. Perhaps from banah (see note XVI above). This is material like straw or stubble – refuse used as fodder.
CXLIV {untranslated} = gam. Same as {untranslated} in v19. See note CXLI above.
CXLV “fodder” = mispo. 5x in OT– 4x in Genesis and 1x in Judges 19 in the story of the Levite’s concubine. This is from a root that might be to collect. This is a word for fodder or feed.
CXLVI {untranslated} = gam. Same as {untranslated} in v19. See note CXLI above.

with breadCXLVII and wineCXLVIII CXLIXfor me and the womanCL

Notes on verse 19b

CXLVII “bread” = lechem. Same as “food” in v5. See note LIX above.
CXLVIII “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
CXLIX {untranslated} = yesh. Same as “have” in v19. See note CXLII above.
CL “woman” = amah. This is female servant or slave, handmaid.

and the young manCLI along with us. Your servantsCLII need nothing more.”CLIII 

Notes on verse 19c

CLI “young man” = naar. Same as “servant” in v3. See note XXXIII above.
CLII “servants” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLIII “need nothing more” = ayin + machsor + kol + dabar. Ayin is the same as “no” in v1. See note III above. Machsor is 13x in OT. From chaser (to lack, need, become empty, to fail). Related to “I shall not want” from Psalm 23:1. This is something needed so it could be lack, poverty, or deficiency. Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Dabar is related to “speak” in v3. From dabar (see note XXX above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

20 The old man said, “PeaceCLIV be to you.CLV I will care forCLVI allCLVII your wants;CLVIII onlyCLIX do not spend the night in the square.”CLX 

Notes on verse 20

CLIV “peace” = shalom. Related to “Jerusalem” in v10. From shalam (see note XCIV above). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
CLV {untranslated} = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
CLVI “I will care for” = al. Literally, “on me.”
CLVII “all” = kol. Same as “need nothing more” in v19. See note CLIII above.
CLVIII “wants” = machsor. Same as “need nothing more” in v19. See note CLIII above.
CLIX “only” = raq. Same as {untranslated} in v20. See note CLV above.
CLX “square” = rechob. Same as “open square” in v15. See note CXXI above.

21 So he broughtCLXI him into his house and fed the donkeys; they washedCLXII their feetCLXIII and ate and drank.

22 While they were enjoying themselves,CLXIV CLXVthe men of the city,

Notes on verses 21-22a

CLXI “brought” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
CLXII “washed” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
CLXIII “feet” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
CLXIV “themselves” = leb. Same as “tenderly” in v3. See note XXXI above.
CLXV {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “look” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.

a perverseCLXVI lot,CLXVII surroundedCLXVIII the house

Notes on verse 22b

CLXVI “perverse” = ben + beliyyaal. Literally, “children of worthlessness.” Ben is the same as “people” in v12. See note CV above. Beliyyaal is from beli (lack, nothing, without, wearing out, failure, destruction); {from balah (to grow old, wear out, waste away, consume, spend)} + yaal (to gain, profit, do good, ascend, be useful or valuable; benefitted). This is lacking profit i.e. worthlessness, destruction, evil, ungodly person, wickedness, or Belial.
CLXVII “lot” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
CLXVIII “surrounded” = sabab. This is turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch. It is to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense.

and started poundingCLXIX on the door.CLXX They said to the old man, the masterCLXXI of the house,CLXXII “Bring outCLXXIII the man who cameCLXXIV into your house, so that we may have intercourseCLXXV with him.” 

Notes on verse 22c

CLXIX “pounding” = daphaq. 3x in OT. This is to knock, pound, drive hard. It is severe force or pressure.
CLXX “door” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.
CLXXI “master” = baal. From ba’al (to marry, have dominion, be master). This is lord, owner, ally, master, or archer, husband.
CLXXII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v5. See note LIV above.
CLXXIII “bring out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXIV “came” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
CLXXV “have intercourse” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

23 And the man, the masterCLXXVI of the house, went outCLXXVII to them and said to them, “No, my brothers,CLXXVIII do not act so wickedly.CLXXIX, CLXXX

Notes on verse 23a

CLXXVI “master” = baal. Same as “master” in v22. See note CLXXI above.
CLXXVII “went out” = yatsa. Same as “bring out” in v22. See note CLXXIII above.
CLXXVIII “brothers” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
CLXXIX “act so wickedly” = ra’a’. This is to be evil, bad, afflict. Properly, it means to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces. Figuratively, it is to cause something to be worthless. It is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense – something that displeases, does harm or mischief, punishes or vexes.
CLXXX {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXV above.

SinceCLXXXI this man is my guest,CLXXXII do not doCLXXXIII this vile thing.CLXXXIV 

Notes on verse 23b

CLXXXI “since” = achar. Same as “after” in v3. See note XXIX above.
CLXXXII “is my guest” = boel + bayit. Literally, “has come into my house.” Bo is the same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above. Bayit is the same as “house” in v2. See note XXI above.
CLXXXIII “do” = asah. Related to “work” in v16. See note CXXIX above.
CLXXXIV “vile thing” = nebalah. 13x in OT. From nabal (to be foolish, senseless, fall away, faint, wither, to be wicked, disgrace). This is foolishness, disgrace, folly, outrage, villainy, a crime or punishment. Used frequently of sexual sin, but not always.

24 HereCLXXXV are my virginCLXXXVI daughterCLXXXVII and his concubine; let me bring them out now.

Notes on verse 24a

CLXXXV “here” = hinneh. Same as “look” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.
CLXXXVI “virgin” = betulah. This is virgin, maiden, or bride. Can also be used figuratively for a place.
CLXXXVII “daughter” = bat. Related to “Bethlehem” in v1 & “house” in v2 & “people” in v12 & “Benajmin” in v14 & “Benjaminites” in v16 & “straw” in v19. From ben (see note CV above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.

RavishCLXXXVIII them and do whatever you wantCLXXXIX to them, but against this man do not do such a vile thing.”CXC 

Notes on verse 24b

CLXXXVIII “ravish” = anah. This is to be occupied with. It can also be bowed down. It can refer to a sense of humility or to a sense of being browbeaten, oppressed, afflicted, or depressed. This can be literal or figurative – depressed in mood or circumstance.
CLXXXIX “want” = tob + ayin. Literally, “good in your eyes.” Tob is from tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good. Ayin is the same as “looked up” in v17. See note CXXXIII above.
CXC “thing” = dabar. Same as “need nothing more” in v19. See note CLIII above.

25 But the menCXCI would not listenCXCII to him. So the manCXCIII seizedCXCIV his concubine and putCXCV her outCXCVI to them.

Notes on verse 25a

CXCI “men” = enosh. Related to “certain” and {untranslated} in v1. See note VII above.
CXCII “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CXCIII “man” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
CXCIV “seized” = chazaq. Same as “made…stay” in v4. See note XLII above.
CXCV “put” = yatsa. Same as “bring out” in v22. See note CLXXIII above.
CXCVI “out” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.

They wantonly rapedCXCVII her and abusedCXCVIII her all through the nightCXCIX until the morning. And as the dawnCC began to break,CCI they let her go.CCII 

Notes on verse 25b

CXCVII “raped” = yada. Same as “have intercourse” in v22. See note CLXXV above.
CXCVIII “abused” = alal. 19x in OT. This is to affect, abuse, mistreat, impose, practice, glean, defile.
CXCIX “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
CC “dawn” = shachar. Root may mean to look for in early hour or in a diligent way. This is dawn, early light, or morning.
CCI “break” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
CCII “let…go” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.

26 As morning appeared,CCIII the womanCCIV came and fell downCCV at the doorCCVI of the man’sCCVII house where her masterCCVIII was, until it was light.CCIX

Notes on verse 26

CCIII “appeared” = bopanah. Bo is the same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above. Panah is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare.
CCIV “woman” = ishshah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note XIV above.
CCV “fell down” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CCVI “door” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
CCVII “man’s” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
CCVIII “master” = adon. Same as “master” in v11. See note XCVIII above.
CCIX “light” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.

27 In the morning her masterCCX got up, openedCCXI the doorsCCXII of the house, and when he went out to go on his way,CCXIII thereCCXIV

Notes on verse 27a

CCX “master” = adon. Same as “master” in v11. See note XCVIII above.
CCXI “opened” = pathach. Related to “door” in v26. See note CCVI above.
CCXII “doors” = delet. Same as “door” in v22. See note CLXX above.
CCXIII “way” = derek. Same as “journey” in v9. See note LXXXVII above.
CCXIV “there” = hinneh. Same as “look” in v9. See note LXXVIII above.

was the woman,CCXV his concubine, lyingCCXVI at the doorCCXVII of the house, with her handsCCXVIII on the threshold.CCXIX 

Notes on verse 27b

CCXV “woman” = ishshah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note XIV above.
CCXVI “lying” = naphal. Same as “fell down” in v26. See note CCV above.
CCXVII “door” = pethach. Same as “door” in v26. See note CCVI above.
CCXVIII “hands” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CCXIX “threshold” = saph. From saphaph (to guard an entry, be a doorkeeper, snatch). This is a basin or cup. It can also be a door post or threshold.

28 “Get up,” he said to her, “we are going.” But there was noCCXX answer.CCXXI Then he putCCXXII her on the donkey, andCCXXIII the manCCXXIV set out for his home.CCXXV 

Notes on verse 28

CCXX “no” = ayin. Same as “no” in v1. See note III above.
CCXXI “answer” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
CCXXII “put” = laqach. Same as “took” in v1. See note XIII above.
CCXXIII {untranslated} = qum. Same as {untranslated} in v3. See note XXVI above.
CCXXIV “man” = ish. Same as “certain” in v1. See note VII above.
CCXXV “home” = maqom. Same as “places” in v13. See note CXI above.

29 When he had enteredCCXXVI his house, he tookCCXXVII a knife,CCXXVIII and graspingCCXXIX his concubine he cutCCXXX her

Notes on verse 29a

CCXXVI “entered” = bo. Same as “reached” in v3. See note XXXVI above.
CCXXVII “took” = laqach. Same as “took” in v1. See note XIII above.
CCXXVIII “knife” = maakeleth. Related to “ate” in v4. 4x in OT. From akal (see note XLV above). This is something used to eat, which is to say, a knife.
CCXXIX “grasping” = chazaq. Same as “made…stay” in v4. See note XLII above.
CCXXX “cut” = nathach. 9x in OT. This is to dismember or divide at the joints.

into twelveCCXXXI pieces,CCXXXII limb by limb,CCXXXIII and sentCCXXXIV her throughout all the territoryCCXXXV of Israel. 

Notes on verse 29b

CCXXXI “twelve” = shenayim + asar. Shenayim is the same as “two” in v6. See note LX above. Asar is from the same as eser (ten). This is -teen or -teenth.
CCXXXII “pieces” = nethach. Related to “cut” in v29. 13x in OT. From nathach (see note CCXXX above). This is a piece, portion, or fragment.
CCXXXIII “limb by limb” = etsem. From atsam (vast, numerous, strong; to close one’s eyes, to make powerful; to break bones). This is self, life, strength, bone, or substance.
CCXXXIV “sent” = shalach. Same as “let…go” in v25. See note CCII above.
CCXXXV “territory” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.

30 ThenCCXXXVI he commanded the men whom he sent,CCXXXVII saying, “Thus shall you say to all the Israelites: Has such a thing ever happenedCCXXXVIII since the day that the IsraelitesCCXXXIX came upCCXL

Notes on verse 30a

CCXXXVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above.
CCXXXVII “men whom he sent” = kol + raah. Literally, “all who saw it.” Kol is the same as “need nothing more” in v19. See note CLIII above. Raah is the same as “saw” in v3. See note XXXVIII above.
CCXXXVIII “happened” = hayah + raah. Literally, “done or seen.” Hayah is the same as {untranslated} in v1. See note I above. Raah is the same as “saw” in v3. See note XXXVIII above.
CCXXXIX “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “people” in v12. See note CV above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v. See note V above.
CCXL “came up” = alah. Same as “break” in v25. See note CCI above.

from the landCCXLI of EgyptCCXLII until this day? ConsiderCCXLIII it, take counsel,CCXLIV and speak out.”CCXLV

Notes on verse 30b

CCXLI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CCXLII “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CCXLIII “consider” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CCXLIV “take counsel” = uts. 2x in OT. This is to plan or counsel together.
CCXLV “speak out” = dabar. Same as “speak” in v3. See note XXX above.

Image credit: “Green Mother” (detail) by Richard Rappaport, 1967.

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