Judges 4

Judges 4


The IsraelitesI againII didIII what was evilIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
II “again” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
III “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
IV “evil” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.

in the sightV of the Lord,VI after EhudVII died.VIII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
VI “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
VII “Ehud” = Ehud. 9x in NT. From the same as ohad (Ohad, root may mean unity). This is Ehud, meaning “united.”
VIII “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.

So the Lord soldIX them into the handX of KingXI JabinXII

Notes on verse 2a

IX “sold” = makar. This is to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery. Figuratively, it can mean to surrender.
X “hand” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XI “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
XII “Jabin” = Yabin. 8x in NT. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is Jabin or Yabin meaning “one who is intelligent.”

of Canaan,XIII who reignedXIV in Hazor;XV the commanderXVI of his armyXVII

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “Canaan” = Kna’an. From kana’ (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled. This could mean lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan
XIV “reigned” = malak. Related to “King” in v2. See note XI above.
XV “Hazor” = Chatsor. 18x in NT. From the same as chatser (village, settlement); from chatser (enclosure or court – a yard that is fenced in. It could also be a village or hamlet that is walled in); from chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround); from chatsotsrah (trumpet). This is Hazor, Chatsor – meaning “village.”
XVI “commander” = sar. This is chief, leader, ruler, lord, official, governor, prince, military leader. It refers to someone at the top of a rank or class.
XVII “army” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.

was Sisera,XVIII who livedXIX in Harosheth-ha-goiim.XX 

Notes on verse 2c

XVIII “Sisera” = Sisera. Perhaps from Hittite verb (to meditate) OR related to sus (root may mean to skip as in jump for joy; a crane or a swift bird; a horse as leaping) + raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is Sisera, perhaps meaning “meditation, “keen and swift,” or “see the horse.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Sisera.html#.X2FO22hKhPY
XIX “lived” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XX “Harosheth-ha-goiim” = Charosheth + goy. Charosheth is 3x in OT – all in Judges 4. From the same as cheresh (cheresh); {akin to charash (manufacturer, craftsman, worker); from charash (to scratch, which implies etching or plowing; to manufacture regardless of materials used; figuratively, to devise or conceal; secrecy – hence, being silent, left alone, or speechless)} OR from the same as charosheth (a cutting or carving – something done skillfully). This is Harosheth. Literally, “carving of the nations” or “silence of the Gentiles” or “manufactory of the Gentiles.” Goy is from the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Harosheth.html

Then the Israelites cried out to the Lord for help,XXI for he had nineXXII hundredXXIII chariotsXXIV of ironXXV

Notes on verse 3a

XXI “cried out…for help” = tsaaq. This is to cry out or call together, to shriek. It can mean, by implication, calling for an assembly.
XXII “nine” = tesha. Perhaps from sha’ah (to gaze at, gaze around, regard – to look to, especially for help; to consider or be compassionate; to look at in amazement or while confounded). This is nine, perhaps as looking to the next number associated with fullness (10).
XXIII “hundred” = meah. This is hundred or some number times one hundred (i.e. hundredfold or the base of two hundred, three hundred, etc.).
XXIV “chariots” = rekeb. From rakab (to ride an animal or in some vehicle; also, bringing on a horse). This is a vehicle, wagon, or chariot. It can be cavalry or an individual rider.
XXV “iron” = barzel. From the same as Birzoth (a name meaning holes). Root may mean to pierce. This is iron as something used as a cutting implement. It can also specifically mean ax head.

and had oppressedXXVI the Israelites cruellyXXVII twentyXXVIII years.XXIX

Notes on verse 3b

XXVI “oppressed” = lachats. 19x in OT. This is to press or squeeze. Figuratively, it is oppress, afflict, or distress.
XXVII “cruelly” = chozqah. 6x in OT. From chozeq (strength, power); from chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strength, force, vigorously. It usually has a negative sense of vehemence.
XXVIII “twenty” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
XXIX “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.

At that timeXXX Deborah,XXXI aXXXII prophet,XXXIII

Notes on verse 4a

XXX “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
XXXI “Deborah” = Deborah. 10x in OT. From dabar (to speak, declare, discuss) OR from the same as deborah (bee); {from dabar (see above)}. This is Deborah, meaning “bee” or “formalizer.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Deborah.html#.X2Y6QGhKhPY
XXXII {untranslated} = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
XXXIII “prophet” = nebiah. 6x in OT– of Miriam, Deborah, Huldah, Noadiah, and Isaiah’s wife. From nabi (prophet, prophecy, speaker; someone inspired). This is to prophesy. Older usages referred to raving, religious ecstasy that sometimes went along with music. In later usage, it was religious teachings that sometimes held prediction. Prophesying is speaking the truth of what is and where it will lead. This word is specifically used for female prophet.

wifeXXXIV of Lappidoth,XXXV was judgingXXXVI Israel.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIV “wife” = ishshah. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXXI above.
XXXV “Lappidoth” = Lappidoth. 1x in OT. From the same as lappid (root may mean to shine; torch, lamp, flash of lightning). This is Lappidoth, meaning “torch” or “lightning.”
XXXVI “judging” = shaphat. This is to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, or govern. It can refer to God judging or to human judges. This is pronouncing a verdict in favor or against so it implies consequences or punishment. It can also mean to litigate or govern as one with authority.
XXXVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.

She used to sitXXXVIII underXXXIX the palmXL of Deborah betweenXLI RamahXLII

Notes on verse 5a

XXXVIII “sit” = yashab. Same as “lived” in v2. See note XIX above.
XXXIX “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XL “palm” = tomer. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as tamar (root may mean being erect; a date palm or other palm tree; the root of Tamar’s name). This is palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post.
XLI “between” = bayin. Related to “Jabin” in v2. From bin (see note XII above). This is among, between, interval.
XLII “Ramah” = Ramah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively) OR from ramah (properly, to loosen; figuratively, to deceive to various degrees). This is Ramah, meaning “height” or “lofty place” or “deceit” or “established” or “loose.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ramah.html

andXLIII BethelXLIV in the hill countryXLV of Ephraim,XLVI

Notes on verse 5b

XLIII {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v5. See note XLI above.
XLIV “Bethel” = Bethel. Related to “Israelites” in v1 & to “Israelites” in v1. From bayit (house, household, palace, dungeon); {from banah (see note I above)} + El (see note I above). This is Bethel, literally meaning “house of God.”
XLV “hill country” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
XLVI “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.

and the Israelites came upXLVII to her for judgment.XLVIII She sentXLIX and summonedL

Notes on verses 5c-6a

XLVII “came up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
XLVIII “judgment” = mishpat. Related to “judging” in v4. From shaphat (see note XXXVI above). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.
XLIX “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
L “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.

BarakLI sonLII of AbinoamLIII from KedeshLIV

Notes on verse 6b

LI “Barak” = Baraq. 13x in OT. From the same as baraq (lightning; figuratively, a gleaming or glittering; concretely, a flashing sword); from baraq (to flash, a flash of lightning). This is Barak or Baraq, meaning “flash of lightning.”
LII “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
LIII “Abinoam” = Abinoam. 4x in OT. From ab (father literal or figurative) + noam (pleasantness, beauty, favor, agreeableness, delight, splendor, or grace); {from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abinoam meaning “my father is delight” or “father of pleasantness” so “gracious.”
LIV “Kedesh” = Qedesh. 12x in OT. From the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is Kedesh or Qedesh, meaning “sanctuary” or “sanctum.”

in NaphtaliLV and saidLVI to him, “The Lord, the GodLVII of Israel, commandsLVIII you,

Notes on verse 6c

LV “Naphtali” = Naphtali. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
LVI “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
LVII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v1 & “Bethel” in v5. See note I above.
LVIII “commands” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

LIXPositionLX yourself at MountLXI Tabor,LXII

Notes on verse 6d

LIX {untranslated} = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LX “position” = mashak. This is to draw, drag, or pull. It can mean sow, march, remove, draw along, continue, extend, or prolong.
LXI “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LXII “Tabor” = Tabor. 10x in OT. Perhaps Aramaic tebar (to break, be fragile); related to Hebrew shabar (break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear; bursting in a literal or figurative sense). This is Tabor, meaning “broken region.”

takingLXIII tenLXIV thousandLXV LXVIfrom the tribeLXVII of Naphtali and the tribe of Zebulun.LXVIII 

Notes on verse 6e

LXIII “taking” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
LXIV “ten” = eser. Related to “twenty” in v3. See note XXVIII above.
LXV “thousand” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
LXVI {untranslated} = ish. Related to {untranslated} in v4. See note XXXII above.
LXVII “tribe” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
LXVIII “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”

I will draw outLXIX Sisera, the generalLXX of Jabin’s army, to meet you by the WadiLXXI KishonLXXII

Notes on verse 7a

LXIX “draw out” = mashak. Same as “position” in v6. See note LX above.
LXX “general” = sar. Same as “commander” in v2. See note XVI above.
LXXI “Wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
LXXII “Kishon” = Qishon. 6x in OT– regarding this incident and Elijah’s contest with the priests of Baal in 1 Kings 18. From qush (to ensnare, bend, set a trap); perhaps from yaqosh (ensnare, lay bait, lure, trapper; to snare literally or figuratively). This is Kishon or Qishon, meaning “winding.”

with his chariots and his troops,LXXIII and I will giveLXXIV him into your hand.’”

Barak said to her, “If you will goLXXV with me, I will go, but if you will not go with me, I will not go.” 

And she said, “I will surely goLXXVI with you; nevertheless,LXXVII

Notes on verses 7b-9a

LXXIII “troops” = hamon. From hamah (to growl, cry out, be moved, murmur, hum, mourn, rage, clamor). This is a sound, noise, roar, rumbling, wealth, crowd, disquietude.
LXXIV “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
LXXV “go” = halak. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LIX above.
LXXVI “surely go” = halak + halak. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LIX above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXVII “nevertheless” = ephes. From aphes (to finish, fail, stop, come to nothing, disappear). This is an end, ceasing, no further. It is often used to refer to the ends of the earth.

the roadLXXVIII on which you are going will not leadLXXIX to your glory,LXXX for the Lord will sell Sisera into the hand of a woman.”LXXXI Then Deborah got upLXXXII and went with Barak to Kedesh. 

Notes on verse 9b

LXXVIII “road” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
LXXIX “lead” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note VI above.
LXXX “glory” = tipharah. From paar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is beautiful, splendor, adornment, honor, bravery.
LXXXI “woman” = ishshah. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XXXI above.
LXXXII “got up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.

10 Barak summonedLXXXIII Zebulun and Naphtali to Kedesh, and ten thousand warriorsLXXXIV went upLXXXV behindLXXXVI him, and Deborah went upLXXXVII with him.

Notes on verse 10

LXXXIII “summoned” = zaaq. This is to cry or call out. It can be a call to assemble or gather together. By analogy, this could refer to a herald who announces a public gathering. It could also be a shriek from pain or danger.
LXXXIV “warriors” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXVI above.
LXXXV “went up” = alah. Same as “came up” in v5. See note XLVII above.
LXXXVI “behind” = regel. This is foot, endurance, or journey. It is a foot as the means of walking and so it implies a step or a greater journey. It can be used euphemistically for private parts.
LXXXVII “went up” = alah. Same as “came up” in v5. See note XLVII above.

11 Now HeberLXXXVIII the KeniteLXXXIX had separatedXC from the other Kenites, 

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXVIII “Heber” = Cheber. 11x in OT. From chabar (to unite, ally, attach, touch; to join in a literal or figurative sense; also, specially, using magic knots or spells to fascinate or connect). This is Heber of Cheber, a name meaning, “community,” “fellowship,” “associate,” or “companion.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Heber.html
LXXXIX “Kenite” = Qeni. 13x in OT. From Qayin (Cain, the name or Kenite – the people or their territory; meaning “spear,” “smith,” “acquisition,” or “political leader.”); from the same as qayin (spear); from qun (to chant a lament, to play a musical note). This is Kenite. It may mean “nestling,” “people of the spear,” or “senatorial.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Cain.html & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Kenite.html
XC “separated” = parad. This is to divide, break through, scatter, sever, stretch, to spread oneself, or to be out of joint.

that is, the descendantsXCI of HobabXCII the father-in-lawXCIII of Moses,XCIV

Notes on verse 11b

XCI “descendants” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v1. See note I above.
XCII “Hobab” = Chobab. 2x in OT. From chabab (to love, to cherish). This is Hobab or Chobab, meaning “cherished.”
XCIII “father-in-law” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.
XCIV “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

and had encampedXCV as far away as Elon-bezaanannim,XCVI which is near Kedesh.

12 When Sisera was toldXCVII that Barak son of Abinoam had gone upXCVIII to Mount Tabor, 

Notes on verses 11c-12

XCV “encamped” = natah + ohel. Natah is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection. Ohel is perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
XCVI “Elon-bezaannnim” = Elon + tsaanannim. Elon is 10x in OT. From ayil (strength; things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks); from the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is terebinth, oak, or another kind of tree that is strong. Tsaanannim is 2x in OT– 1x in Joshua 19 & 1x in Judges 4. From tsaan (to lay packs on animals and so to wander or travel). This is Zaanannim, a place whose name may mean “removals” or “migrations.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Zaanannim.html
XCVII “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
XCVIII “gone up” = alah. Same as “came up” in v5. See note XLVII above.

13 Sisera called outXCIX allC his chariots, nine hundred chariots of iron, and all the troopsCI who were with him, from Harosheth-ha-goiim to the Wadi Kishon. 

14 Then Deborah said to Barak, “Up!CII For this is the dayCIII on which the Lord has given Sisera into your hand.

Notes on verses 13-14a

XCIX “called out” = zaaq. Same as “summoned” in v10. See note LXXXIII above.
C “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
CI “troops” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
CII “up” = qum. Same as “got up” in v9. See note LXXXII above.
CIII “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

Has not the Lord gone outCIV beforeCV you?”

So Barak went downCVI from Mount Tabor with ten thousand warriors followingCVII him. 

Notes on verse 14b

CIV “gone out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CVI “went down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
CVII “following” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

15 And the Lord threwCVIII Sisera and all his chariots and all his armyCIX into a panicCX beforeCXI Barak;

Notes on verse 15a

CVIII “threw” = hamam. 14x in OT. This is being noisy, confused, thrown into confusion, trouble, cause a commotion, disturb, rout, damage, destroy.
CIX “army” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
CX Some manuscripts say “with the edge of the sword” = peh + chereb. Peh is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises. Chereb is from charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CXI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14. See note CV above.

Sisera got downCXII from his chariotCXIII and fled awayCXIV on foot,CXV 

Notes on verse 15b

CXII “got down” = yarad. Same as “went down” in v14. See note CVI above.
CXIII “chariot” = merkabah. Related to “chariots” in v3. From merkab (chariot, saddle, covering; any seat in a vehicle); from rakab (see note XXIV above). This is a chariot.
CXIV “fled away” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CXV “foot” = regel. Same as “behind” in v10. See note LXXXVI above.

16 while Barak pursuedCXVI the chariotsCXVII andCXVIII the armyCXIX to Harosheth-ha-goiim.

Notes on verse 16a

CXVI “pursued” = radaph + achar. Radaph is to chase after, pursue, hunt, or persecute. It is running after someone or something, generally with hostile motives. Achar is the same as “following” in v14. See note CVII above.
CXVII “chariots” = rekeb. Same as “chariots” in v3. See note XXIV above.
CXVIII {untranslated} = achar. Same as “following” in v14. See note CVII above.
CXIX “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v15. See note CIX above.

All the armyCXX of Sisera fellCXXI by theCXXII sword;CXXIII

Notes on verse 16b

CXX “army” = machaneh. Same as “army” in v15. See note CIX above.
CXXI “fell” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CXXII {untranslated} = peh. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note CX above.
CXXIII “sword” = chereb. Same as {untranslated} in v15. See note CX above.

not oneCXXIV was left.CXXV

17 Now Sisera had fled away on foot to the tentCXXVI of JaelCXXVII wife of Heber the Kenite,

Notes on verses 16c-17a

CXXIV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
CXXV “was left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.
CXXVI “tent” = ohel. Same as “encamped” in v11. See note XCV above.
CXXVII “Jael” = Yael. 6x in OT. From the same as yael (a mountain goat or an ibex – a creature that climbs); perhaps from ya’al (to gain, profit, do good, ascend, be useful or valuable; benefitted). This is Jael or Yael. It may mean “mountain goat” or “he who gets somewhere because he’s good at something useful.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jael.html

for there was peaceCXXVIII between King Jabin of Hazor andCXXIX the clanCXXX of Heber the Kenite. 

Notes on verse 17b

CXXVIII “peace” = shalom. From shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health. It is to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly. Abstractly, it includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity (not in excessive wealth, but in having enough).
CXXIX {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v5. See note XLI above.
CXXX “clan” = bayit. Related to “Israelites” in v1 & “Bethel” in v5. Probably from banah (see note I above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

18 Jael came outCXXXI to meetCXXXII Sisera and said to him, “Turn aside,CXXXIII my lord,CXXXIV turn aside to me; have no fear.”CXXXV

Notes on verse 18a

CXXXI “came out” = yatsa. Same as “gone out” in v14. See note CIV above.
CXXXII “meet” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.
CXXXIII “turn aside” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
CXXXIV “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
CXXXV “have…fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.

So he turned aside to her into the tent, and she coveredCXXXVI him with a rug.CXXXVII 

19 Then he said to her, “PleaseCXXXVIII give me a littleCXXXIX waterCXL

Notes on verses 18b-19a

CXXXVI “covered” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
CXXXVII “rug” = semikah. 1x in OT. Perhaps from samak (to lean, rest, support, brace, uphold, sustain, or establish; to lean on in a positive or negative sense). This is a rug or thick mantle.
CXXXVIII “please” = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
CXXXIX “little” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.
CXL “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.

to drink,CXLI for I am thirsty.”CXLII So she openedCXLIII a skinCXLIV of milkCXLV and gave him a drink and covered him. 

Notes on verse 19b

CXLI “give…to drink” = shaqah. This is to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown. It can be used for watering plants or giving water to flocks.
CXLII “am thirsty” = tsame. 10x in OT. This is to thirst in a literal or figurative sense.
CXLIII “opened” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
CXLIV “skin” = nod. 6x in OT. This is a wineskin or a jug or leather bag. It is used to hold liquids.
CXLV “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.

20 He said to her, “StandCXLVI at the entranceCXLVII of the tent, andCXLVIII if anybodyCXLIX comesCL

Notes on verse 20a

CXLVI “stand” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
CXLVII “entrance” = pethach. Related to “opened” in v19. From pathach (see note CXLIII above). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
CXLVIII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “lead” in v9. See note LXXIX above.
CXLIX “anybody” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXVI above.
CL “comes” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.

and asksCLI you,CLII ‘IsCLIII anyoneCLIV here?’ say, ‘No.’”CLV 

Notes on verse 20b

CLI “asks” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
CLII {untranslated} = amar. Same as “said” in v6. See note LVI above.
CLIII “is” = yesh. This is being, existence, or substance.
CLIV “anyone” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXVI above.
CLV “no” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.

21 But Jael wife of Heber tookCLVI a tent pegCLVII and tookCLVIII a hammerCLIX in her hand

Notes on verse 21a

CLVI “took” = laqach. Same as “bringing” in v6. See note LXIII above.
CLVII “peg” = yathed. This may come from a word that means to pin securely. This is a peg, a tent peg, a pin.
CLVIII “took” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
CLIX “hammer” = maqqebeth. 2x in OT. From naqab (to pierce, bore holes, puncture; to make a hole more or less forcefully; also to curse or libel). This is a hole, excavation, quarry, or hammer.

and wentCLX softlyCLXI to him and droveCLXII the peg into his temple,CLXIII

Notes on verse 21b

CLX “went” = bo. Same as “comes” in v20. See note CL above.
CLXI “softly” = lat. 7x in OT. From lut (to wrap, envelop) OR from lat (softly, muffled); {from l (to, for, of) + at (gentleness, charmer) or from la’at (to cover)}. This is mystery, covered, secret arts, incantation.
CLXII “drove” = taqa. This is to clap, clatter, thrust, sound an instrument, hammer a nail, be a bondsman.
CLXIII “temple” = raqqah. 5x in OT. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is literally thinness, which refers to the temple of one’s head or the cheeks.

until it went downCLXIV into the groundCLXV—he was lying fast asleepCLXVI from wearinessCLXVII—and he died. 

22 Then,CLXVIII as Barak came in pursuitCLXIX of Sisera,

Notes on verses 21c-22a

CLXIV “went down” = tsanach. 3x in OT– 1x in Joshua & 2x in Judges. This is to go down, fasten, drive down.
CLXV “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
CLXVI “lying fast asleep” = radam. 7x in OT. This is asleep or sleeper. It refers to a heavy sleep – being stupefied either of sleep or death.
CLXVII “weariness” = uph. This is to fly, flee, be weary. It can also mean to cloak with wings or darkness.
CLXVIII “then” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CLXIX “came in pursuit” = radaph. Same as “pursued” in v16. See note CXVI above.

Jael went outCLXX to meet him and said to him, “Come,CLXXI and I will showCLXXII you the manCLXXIII whom you are seeking.”CLXXIV

Notes on verse 22b

CLXX “went out” = yatsa. Same as “gone out” in v14. See note CIV above.
CLXXI “come” = halak. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LIX above.
CLXXII “show” = raah. Related to “Sisera” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CLXXIII “man” = ish. Same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LXVI above.
CLXXIV “seeking” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.

So he wentCLXXV into her tent, and thereCLXXVI was Sisera lyingCLXXVII dead,CLXXVIII with the tent peg in his temple.

Notes on verse 22c

CLXXV “went” = bo. Same as “comes” in v20. See note CL above.
CLXXVI “there” = hinneh. Same as “then” in v22. See note CLXVIII above.
CLXXVII “lying” = naphal. Same as “fell” in v16. See note CXXI above.
CLXXVIII “dead” = mut. Same as “died” in v1. See note VIII above.

23 So on that day God subduedCLXXIX King Jabin of Canaan beforeCLXXX the Israelites. 24 Then the hand of the Israelites bore harder and harderCLXXXI on King Jabin of Canaan, until they destroyedCLXXXII King Jabin of Canaan.

Notes on verses 23-24

CLXXIX “subdued” = kana. Related to “Canaan” in v2. See note XIII above.
CLXXX “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v14. See note CV above.
CLXXXI “bore harder and harder” = halakhalak + qasheh. Halak is the same as {untranslated} in v6. See note LIX above. The word is repeated twice – the second time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”. Qasheh is from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is hard, severe, heavy, obstinate, hard-hearted.
CLXXXII “destroyed” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.

Image credit: “Jael” at the Dormition Church on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. Photo by Fr. Gaurav Shroff, 2011.

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