Judith 8:9-10, 32-34 & 13:3-14, 17-18

Judith 8:9-10, 32-34 & 13:3-14, 17-18
Easter Vigil – A Women’s Lectionary

Text: https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=judith+8&version=NRSV & https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=judith+13&version=NRSV
Interlinear: https://en.katabiblon.com/us/index.php?text=lxx&book=Jdt&ch=8&reader=Max & https://en.katabiblon.com/us/index.php?text=lxx&book=Jdt&ch=13&reader=Max

8:9 When Judith heardI the harshII wordsIII spoken by the peopleIV against the ruler,V

Notes on verse 8:9a

I “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
II “harsh” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
III “words” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
IV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
V “ruler” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.

because they were faintVI for lackVII of water,VIII

Notes on verse 8:9b

VI “were faint” = oligopsuchesan. From oligopsucheo (to be faint, distressed, anxious); {from oligos (few, small, short, brief, puny) + psuche (breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul; that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections; this isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality; not life as a general concept, but specific to people); from psucho (to breathe, blow)}. This is to be faint. See https://morphological_el.en-academic.com/901028/%E1%BD%A0%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%B3%CE%BF%CF%88%E1%BD%BB%CF%87%CE%B7%CF%83%CE%B1%CE%BD & https://www.wordsense.eu/%E1%BD%80%CE%BB%CE%B9%CE%B3%CE%BF%CF%88%CF%85%CF%87%CE%AD%CF%89/
VII “lack” = spanei. From spanis (lack, need, poverty). This is scarcity. See https://morphological_el.en-academic.com/431715/%CF%83%CF%80%E1%BD%B1%CE%BD%CE%B5%CE%B9 & https://lsj.gr/wiki/%CF%83%CF%80%CE%AC%CE%BD%CE%B9%CF%82
VIII “water” = hudor. Perhaps from huetos (rain); from huo (to rain). This is water literal or figurative. It is one of the roots that “hydrogen” and “hydroelectric” come from.

and when she heard allIX, X that UzziahXI said to them,

Notes on verse 8:9c

IX “all” = pas. This is all or every.
X {untranslated} = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
XI “Uzziah” = Ozias. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Uzziyyah (Uzziah, “my strength is the Lord”); {from oz (strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security; also social or political power)} + Yah (God, the Lord – shortened form of the holy name of God); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)}}. This is Uzziah or Ozias, meaning “my strength is the Lord.”

and how he promised them under oathXII to surrenderXIII the townXIV to the AssyriansXV after fiveXVI days,XVII 

Notes on verse 8:9d

XII “promised…under oath” = omnuo. This is to swear, to make an oath.
XIII “surrender” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XIV “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XV “Assyrians” = Assouriois. From the same as Akkadian Ashshur (“City of God Ashshur”) OR perhaps from Hebrew ashar (to go straight, advance, proceed, direct, guide, be level, be honest, be blessed or happy). This is Assyrian. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyria#Nomenclature.
XVI “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
XVII “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

10 she sentXVIII her maid,XIX who was in charge ofXX all

Notes on verse 8:10a

XVIII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
XIX “maid” = abran. From habros (delicate, graceful) OR related to Hebrew chaber (friend, comrade). This is a made or female slave. See https://www.motorera.com/greek/lexicon/ab.html & https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E1%BC%85%CE%B2%CF%81%CE%B1
XX “was in charge of” = ephistemi. Related to “sent” in v8:10. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + histemi (see note XVIII above). This is to stand upon, happen, be present. Usually, it is used in a literal sense.

she possessed,XXI to summonXXII Uzziah and Chabris and Charmis, the eldersXXIII of her town.

Notes on verse 8:10b

XXI “possessed” = huparcho. Related to “ruler” in v8:9. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + archo (see note V above). This is to begin or be ready, to exist or possess. It is what one already has or possesses.
XXII “summon” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
XXIII “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.

32 Then JudithXXIV saidXXV to them, “ListenXXVI to me.

Notes on verse 8:32a

XXIV “Judith” = Ioudith. From Hebrew Yehudith (Judith – a Judean); from Yehudi (Jew or Jewish – one descended from Judah); from Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judith. It means “Jewish” or praised.” See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Judith & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Judith.html  
XXV “said” = lego. Related to {untranslated} in v8:9. See note X above.
XXVI “listen” = akouo. Same as “heard” in v8:9. See note I above.

I am about to doXXVII somethingXXVIII that will go downXXIX through all generationsXXX of our descendants.XXXI 

Notes on verse 8:32b

XXVII “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXVIII “something” = pragma. 11x in NT. From prasso (to do or practice – something done on an on-going basis or by habit; to accomplish, attend, or commit). This is an action, matter, or business. It is something done on a regular basis that is done in order to get something done.
XXIX “go down” = aphikneomai. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + the same as hikanos (sufficient, suitable, adequate, competent, ample); {from hiko or hikneomai (to reach, come to, attain) OR from hiketes (a suppliant)}. This is to arrive go forth, spread a rumor.
XXX “generations” = genea + genea. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
XXXI “descendants” = huios + genos. Huios is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship. Genos is related to “generations” in v8:32. See note XXX above.

33 StandXXXII at the town gateXXXIII tonight so that I may go outXXXIV with my maid; and within the days after which you have promisedXXXV to surrender the town to our enemies,XXXVI

Notes on verse 8:33a

XXXII “stand” = histemi. Related to “sent” and “was in charge of” in v8:10. See note XVIII above.
XXXIII “gate” = pule. 10x in NT. This is gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress. It is often used for an exit way. Figuratively, it can refer to authority and power.
XXXIV “go out” = exerchomai. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
XXXV “promised” = lego. Same as “said” in v8:32. See note XXV above.
XXXVI “enemies” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.

the LordXXXVII will deliverXXXVIII IsraelXXXIX by my hand.XL 

Notes on verse 8:33b

XXXVII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXXVIII “deliver” = episkeptomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + the base of skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully); perhaps related to skapto (to dig or excavate)}. This is to look at, look out for, see, select, visit.
XXXIX “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
XL “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

34 Only, do not try to find outXLI what I am doing;XLII for I will not tell you until I have finishedXLIII what I am about to do.”XLIV

Notes on verse 8:34

XLI “find out” = exeraunao. Related to “words” in v8:9. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + eraunao (to search or examine); {perhaps from ereo (see note III above)}. This is to look for diligently, to explore.
XLII “what…doing” = praxis. Related to “something” in v8:32. 6x in NT. From prasso (see note XXVIII above). This is an action, deed, business, practice, or function. It implies ongoing activity or responsibility.
XLIII “finished” = teleo. From telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one). This is to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end.
XLIV “do” = poieo. Same as “do” in v8:32. See note XXVII above.

13:3 Now Judith had told her maidXLV to stand outside the bedchamberXLVI and to waitXLVII for her to come out,XLVIII as she did on the other days;

Notes on verse 13:3a

XLV “maid” = doule. 3x in NT– 2x of Mary, 1x of Pentecost. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is female slave or bondservant.
XLVI “bedchamber” = koiton. 1x in NT. From koite (a bed, sex, cohabitation); from keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is a bedroom or a chamberlain.
XLVII “wait” = epitrein. This is to watch for, observe, or wait. See https://books.google.com/books?id=63sDEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA253&lpg=PA253&dq=%22%E1%BC%90%CF%80%CE%B9%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%81%CE%B5%E1%BF%96%CE%BD%22+meaning&source=bl&ots=0MDI_yKCaI&sig=ACfU3U1qu77W8Bz_0TGXXlM5l_TkP-KxlA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjUt-qOtuD2AhVumWoFHbxGCFIQ6AF6BAgTEAM#v=onepage&q=%E1%BC%90%CF%80%CE%B9%CF%84%CE%B7%CF%81%CE%B5%E1%BF%96%CE%BD&f=false
XLVIII “come out” = exodos. 3x in NT. From ek (from out, from out of) + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is a departure, death, or exodus. It is where the word “exodus” come from.

for she saidXLIX she would be going out for her prayers.L She had said the same thingLI to Bagoas.LII 

Notes on verse 13:3b

XLIX “said” = phemi. From phao (to shine). This is to declare, say, or use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view.
L “prayers” = proseuche. From proseuchomai (to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate; more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s); {from pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray)}. This is prayer, worship, or a place where one prays.
LI “thing” = rhema. Same as “words” in v8:9. See note III above.
LII “Bagoas” = Bagoa. From Old Persian Bagavahya (literally “better through Baga”). This is Bagoas. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CE%92%CE%B1%CE%B3%CF%8E%CE%B1%CF%82

So everyoneLIII went out,LIV and no one, either smallLV or great,LVI was leftLVII in the bedchamber.

Notes on verse 13:4a

LIII “everyone” = pas + prosopon. Pas is the same as “all” in v8:9. See note IX above. Prosopon is from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
LIV “went out” = aperchomai. Related to “go out” in v8:33. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XXXIV above). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LV “small” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
LVI “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
LVII “was left” = kataleipo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing). This is to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve.

Then Judith, standing beside his bed,LVIII said in her heart,LIX “O Lord GodLX of all might,LXI

Notes on verse 13:4b

LVIII “bed” = kline. 9x in NT. From klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is couch, bed, mat. Either a couch laid on to eat or for sleeping.
LIX “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
LXI “might” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

lookLXII in this hourLXIII on the workLXIV of my hands for the exaltationLXV of Jerusalem.LXVI 

Notes on verse 13:4c

LXII “look” = epiblepo. 3x in NT– including the Magnificat “God has looked with favor on the lowliness of God’s servant” in Luke 1:48. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look at, to regard with favor, to pay focused attention or give special regard to something, to gaze at with pity, to be partial to.
LXIII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LXIV “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.
LXV “exaltation” = hupsoma. 2x in NT. From hupsoo (to elevate in a literal or figurative sense; to raise up or set something in a high place or to exalt or make something great); from hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond). This is something that is lifted up. So, it could be height, barrier, or bulwark. It could also be a lofty thing or elevated place – altitude, presumption.
LXVI “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalam (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.

Now indeed is the timeLXVII to helpLXVIII your heritageLXIX

Notes on verse 13:5a

LXVII “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
LXVIII “help” = antilambano. 3x in NT. From anti (over against, instead of, corresponding to) + lambano (to take or receive actively or aggressively – with initiative and not passively). This is to take instead of, take hold of, help, share in, partake of, enjoy. Properly, to take hold in a way that is proportional or fitting – acting in a way that corresponds to what is needed in the situation. In terms of helping, this is giving the help that matches what is really needed.
LXIX “heritage” = kleronomia. 14x in NT. From kleronomos (heir); {from kleros (lot, portion, heritage; that share assigned to you; also a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will); {perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread)} + the same as nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is inheritance, heritage, or possession.

and to carry outLXX my designLXXI to destroyLXXII the enemies who have risen upLXXIII against us.”

Notes on verse 13:5b

LXX “carry out” = poieo. Same as “do” in v8:32. See note XXVII above.
LXXI “design” = epitedeuma. From epitedeuo (to do or practice something). This is a pursuit, design, or calling. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E1%BC%90%CF%80%CE%B9%CF%84%CE%AE%CE%B4%CE%B5%CF%85%CE%BC%CE%B1  & https://hellas.bab2min.pe.kr/hk/epitthhdeuw?l=en&form=epethdeusen*
LXXII “destroy” = thrausma. This is something broken, i.e. a fragment or piece. See https://vocab.perseus.org/lemma/39520/?filter=urn:cts:greekLit:tlg0085.tlg002.opp-grc3
LXXIII “risen up” = epanistemi. Related to “sent” and “was in charge of” in v8:10 & “stand” in v8:33. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); {from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note XVIII above)}. This is stand up or rise against – used figuratively for attacking.

6 She went upLXXIV to the bedpostLXXV near Holofernes’ head,LXXVI and took downLXXVII his swordLXXVIII that hung there. 

Notes on verse 13:6

LXXIV “went up” = proserchomai. Related to “go out” in v8:33 & “went out” in v13:4. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note XXXIV above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
LXXV “bedpost” = kanon + ho + kline. Kanon is 4x in NT. From kanna (a straight reed). This is a ruler, line, standard, doctrine, rule, boundary, sphere of activity. Kline is the same as “bed” in v13:4. See note LVIII above.
LXXVI “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
LXXVII “took down” = kathaireo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer); {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to take down, destroy, yank down, demolish in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVIII “sword” = akinakes. This is a short straight sword. See https://morphological_el.en-academic.com/561125/%E1%BC%80%CE%BA%CE%B9%CE%BD%E1%BD%B1%CE%BA%CE%B7%CE%BD

She came closeLXXIX to his bed, took holdLXXX of the hairLXXXI of his head, and said, “Give me strengthLXXXII today, O Lord God of Israel!” 

Notes on verse 13:7

LXXIX “came close” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
LXXX “took hold” = drasomai. 1x in NT. Perhaps related to drakon (a dragon or other mythical snake-like monster; figuratively, it refers to Satan; dragons were thought to be able to see their prey from great distances); from derkomai (to look). This is to grasp, catch, entrap.
LXXXI “hair” = kome. Perhaps from komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is hair.
LXXXII “give…strength” = krataioo. 4x in NT. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is to strengthen, confirm, empower, or prevail.

Then she struckLXXXIII his neckLXXXIV twiceLXXXV with all her might,LXXXVI and cut offLXXXVII his head. 

Notes on verse 13:8

LXXXIII “struck” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).
LXXXIV “neck” = trachelos. 7x in NT. Probably from trachus (rough, uneven). This is the neck or throat. It can also refer to an embrace. It shares a root with the word “trachea.”
LXXXV “twice” = dis. 7x in NT. From duo (two, both). This is twice, entirely, again.
LXXXVI “might” = ischus. 10x in NT. Perhaps from is (force) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is strength, might, power, force, or ability. It is power that engages immediate resistance.
LXXXVII “cut off” = aphaireo. Related to “took down” in v13:6. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + haireo (to take, choose, or prefer) {probably related to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is remove, take away, cut in a literal or figurative sense.

Next she rolledLXXXVIII his bodyLXXXIX off the bedXC

Notes on verse 13:9a

LXXXVIII “rolled” = apokulio. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kulio (to roll, wallow); {from kulindo (to roll, roll along); from kuma (wave, billow, curve, bend); from kuo (to swell as one pregnant)}. This is to roll away or back.
LXXXIX “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XC “bed” = otromen. From stronnumi (to spread, make a bed). This is a prepared bed or bedding. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%83%CF%84%CF%81%CF%89%CE%BC%CE%BD%CE%AE

and pulled downXCI the canopyXCII from the posts.XCIII SoonXCIV afterward she went out and gaveXCV Holofernes’ head to her maid,XCVI 

Notes on verse 13:9b

XCI “pulled down” = aphaireo. Same as “cut off” in v13:8. See note LXXXVII above.
XCII “canopy” = konopion. From konops (gnat, mosquito). This is a canopy. It is where the word “canopy” comes from. See https://lsj.gr/index.php?title=%CE%BA%CF%89%CE%BD%CF%8E%CF%80%CE%B9%CE%BF%CE%BD&mobileaction=toggle_view_desktop
XCIII “posts” = stulos. Related to “sent” and “was in charge of” in v8:10 & “stand” in v8:33 & “risen up” in v13:5. 4x in NT. Perhaps from stuo (to stiffen); perhaps related to histemi (see note XVIII above). This is a post or pillar. Figuratively, it is a support.
XCIV “soon” = oligos. Related to “were faint” in v8:9. See note VI above.
XCV “gave” = paradidomi. Same as “surrender” in v8:9. See note XIII above.
XCVI “maid” = abran. Same as “maid” in v8:10. See note XIX above.

10 who placedXCVII it in her foodXCVIII bag.XCIX Then the twoC of them went out together, as they were accustomedCI to do for prayer.

Notes on verse 13:10a

XCVII “placed” = emballo. 1x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw on, subject to.
XCVIII “good” = broma. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIX “bag” = pera. 6x in NT. This is a wallet or leather pouch – can carry food or money.
C “two” = duo. Related to “twice” in v13:8. See note LXXXV above.
CI “accustomed” = ethismos. This is accustomed or habits. See https://lsj.gr/wiki/%E1%BC%90%CE%B8%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%BC%CF%8C%CF%82

They passed throughCII the camp,CIII circledCIV around the valley,CV

Notes on verse 13:10b

CII “passed through” = dierchomai. Related to “go out” in v8:33 & “went out” in v13:4 & “went up” in v13:6. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (see note XXXIV above). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
CIII “camp” = parembole. Related to “placed” in v13:10. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + emballo (to throw in, subject to); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + ballo (see note XCVII above)}. This is a juxtaposition, camp, barracks.
CIV “circled” = kukloo. 5x in NT. From the same as kuklo (circle, surrounding); from kuklos (circle, ring). This is to encircle, surround, gather. It is where the word “cycle” comes from.
CV “valley” = pharagx. 1x in NT. Perhaps from peran (over, beyond, across); {akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from periro (to pierce)} OR rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is valley, ravine, gap, or winter-torrent.

and went upCVI the mountainCVII to Bethulia,CVIII and cameCIX to its gates. 

Notes on verse 13:10c

CVI “went up” = prosanabaino. 1x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + anabaino (to come up in a literal or figurative sense – ascent, rise, climb, enter); {from ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + baino (to walk, to go)}. This is to go up, move, ascend, be promoted, move to a higher status seat.
CVII “mountain” = oros. Related to “took down” in v13:6 & “cut off” in v13:8. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (see note LXXVII above). This is mountain or hill.
CVIII “Bethulia” = Beituloua. Related to “Israel” in v8:33 & “Uzziah” in v8:9. Perhaps related to Bethel (Bethel, lit “house of God”); {from bayit (house, household, palace, dungeon); {from banah (to build, make, set up, obtain children; to build literally or figuratively)} + el (see note XXXIX above)} OR from betulah (virgin) + Yah (see note XI above). This is Bethulia. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethulia#:~:text=5%20Notes-,Etymology,so%20literally%20%22Yhwh’s%20virgin%22.
CIX “came” = erchomai. Related to “go out” in v8:33 & “went out” in v13:4 & “went up” in v13:6 & “passed through” in v13:10. See note XXXIV above.

11 From a distance Judith called outCX to the sentriesCXI at the gates, “Open,CXII open the gate! God, our God, is with us, still showingCXIII his powerCXIV in Israel and his strengthCXV against our enemies, as he has done today!”CXVI

Notes on verse 13:11

CX “called out” = lego. Same as “said” in v8:32. See note XXV above.
CXI “sentries” = phulasso. This is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly. This is being on guard in a literal or figurative sense.
CXII “open” = anoigo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + oigo (to open). This is to open in  literal or figurative sense.
CXIII “showing” = poieo. Same as “do” in v8:32. See note XXVII above.
CXIV “power” = ischus. Same as “might” in v13:8. See note LXXXVI above.
CXV “strength” = kratos. Related to “give…strength” in v13:7. 12x in NT. See note LXXXII above.
CXVI “today” = semeron. Related to “days” in v8:9. From hemera (see note XVII above.). This is today, now, at present.

12 WhenCXVII the peopleCXVIII of her town heard her voice,CXIX they hurriedCXX down to the town gate and summonedCXXI the elders of the town. 

Notes on verse 13:12

CXVII {untranslated} = ginomai. Related to “generations” and “descendants” in v8:32. See note XXX above.
CXVIII “people” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
CXIX “voice” = phone. Probably from phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
CXX “hurried” = spoudazo…katabaino. Spoudazo is 11x in NT. From spoude (haste, diligence, earnestness, effort; being swift to demonstrate one’s enthusiasm; doing what one is told right away and with full effort); from speudo (to hurry, urge on, await); probably from pous (foot in a figurative or literal sense). This is hurrying with eagerness or zeal. It is doing everything you can, diligently and quickly, fervently. Katabaino is related to “went up” in v13:10. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note CVI above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXI “summoned” = sugkaleo. Related to “summon” in v8:10. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kaleo (see note XXII above). This is to summon or call together.

13 They all ran together,CXXII both small and great, for it seemed unbelievableCXXIII that she had returned.CXXIV They opened the gate and welcomedCXXV them.

Notes on verse 13:13a

CXXII “ran together” = suntrecho. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trecho (to run, make progress, rush; running like an athlete in a race; figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way). This is to run, hurry together. Figuratively, it can be to gather quickly or rush headlong.
CXXIII “unbelievable” = paradoxos. 1x in NT. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion)}. This is strange, unbelievable, astonishing. It is where the word “paradox” comes from.
CXXIV “returned” = erchomai. Same as “came” in v13:10. See note CIX above.
CXXV “welcomed” = hupodechomai. 4x in NT– including Martha and Zacchaeus welcoming Jesus into their homes in Luke 10:38 & Luke 19:6. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense).  This is to welcome someone as a guest, to entertain them, to have someone in your personal care.

Then they litCXXVI a fireCXXVII to give light,CXXVIII and gathered aroundCXXIX them. 

Notes on verse 13:13b

CXXVI “lit” = hapto. 5x in NT. This is to touch, cling, light on fire.
CXXVII “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
CXXVIII “give light” = phausis. This is lighting or illumination. See https://lsj.gr/wiki/%CF%86%CE%B1%E1%BF%A6%CF%83%CE%B9%CF%82
CXXIX “gathered around” = perikukloo. Related to “circled” in v13:10. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + kukloo (see note CIV above). This is to encircle, surround, or blockade.

14 Then she said to them with a loudCXXX voice, “PraiseCXXXI God, O praise him! Praise God, who has not withdrawnCXXXII his mercyCXXXIII from the houseCXXXIV of Israel, but has destroyed our enemies by my hand this very night!”

Notes on verse 13:14

CXXX “loud” = megas. Same as “great” in v13:4. See note LVI above.
CXXXI “praise” = aineo. 8x in NT. From ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is to praise.
CXXXII “withdrawn” = aphistemi. Related to “sent” and “was in charge of” in v8:10 & “stand” in v8:33 & “risen up” in v13:5 & “posts” in v13:9. 14x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + histemi (see note XVIII above). This is to remove, repel, refrain, depart from, foment a revolt, repel.
CXXXIII “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
CXXXIV “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.

17 All the peopleCXXXV were greatlyCXXXVI astonished.CXXXVII

Notes on verse 13:17a

CXXXV “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v8:9. See note IV above.
CXXXVI “greatly” = sphodra. 11x in NT. From sphodros (exceeding, very much, all out, violent). This is exceedingly, greatly, deeply. This is going all out, with total effort, done to the fullest extent.
CXXXVII “were…astonished” = existemi. Related to “sent” and “was in charge of” in v8:10 & “stand” in v8:33 & “risen up” in v13:5 & “posts” in v13:9 & “withdrawn” in v13:14. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note XVIII above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed and flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.

They bowed downCXXXVIII and worshipedCXXXIX God, and said with one accord,CXL

Notes on verse 13:17b

CXXXVIII “bowed down” = kupto. Related to “rolled” in v13:9. 3x in NT. Perhaps from kuma (see note LXXXVIII above). This is to stoop, bend forward, bow one’s head.
CXXXIX “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
CXL “with one accord” = humothumadon. 11x in NT. From homou (together); {from homos (the same)} + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse); {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is unanimously, at the same time, sharing a passion or desire.

“BlessedCXLI are you our God, who have this day humiliatedCXLII the enemies of your people.”CXLIII

Notes on verse 13:17c

CXLI “blessed” = eulogetos. Related to {untranslated} in v8:9 & “said” In v8:32. 8x in NT. From eulogeo (speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited; praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing); {from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note X above)}}. This is blessed, spoken well of, to be praiseworthy, or adorable. This is the root that “eulogy” comes from.
CXLII “humiliated” = exoudeneo.1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + oudeis (no one, none, nothing; ruling out absolutely); {from oude (and not, neither, not even) {from ou (not, no) + de (but, and, now, indeed)} + heis (one, a person, only, some)}. This is to treat someone or something as nothing – to despise, disregard, scorn.
CXLIII “people” = laos. Same as “people” in v8:9. See note IV above.

18 Then Uzziah said to her, “O daughter,CXLIV you are blessed by the Most HighCXLV God above all other womenCXLVI on earth;CXLVII

Notes on verse 13:18a

CXLIV “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
CXLV “Most High” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.
CXLVI “women” = gune. Related to “generations” and “descendants” in v8:32 & {untranslated} in v13:12. Perhaps from ginomai (see note XXX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CXLVII “earth” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

and blessedCXLVIII be the Lord God, who createdCXLIX the heavensCL and the earth,

Notes on verse 13:18b

CXLVIII “blessed” = eulogeo. Related to {untranslated} in v8:9 & “said” in v8:32 & “blessed” in v13:17. See note CXLI above.
CXLIX “created” = ktizo. 15x in NT. Probably akin to ktaomai (to get, purchase, possess). This is to build, create, form, shape. It refers to God’s acts of creation.
CL “heavens’ = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

who has guidedCLI you to cut offCLII the head of the leaderCLIII of our enemies.

Notes on verse 13:18c

CLI “guided” = kateuthuno. Related to “blessed” in v13:17 & “blessed” in v13:18. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + euthuno (to guide, steer, make a straight direction); {from euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note CXLI above) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}}. This is to make straight i.e. take the most direct route. It can also mean to direct or guide.
CLII “cut off” = trauma. 1x in NT. Perhaps from titrosko (to wound). This is a wound. It is where the word “trauma” comes from.
CLIII “leader” = archon. Same as “ruler” in v8:9. See note V above.

Note: This passage comes from the apocrypha so I was not able to use my regular interlinear website. Some of this annotation amounts to guesswork and uses many other sources. However, most of it is still based on Strong’s concordance.

Image credit: “Judith and Maidservant with the Head and Body of Holofernes” by Johannes Josephus Aarts, between 1881 and 1931.

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