Leviticus 10

Leviticus 10


Now Aaron’sI sonsII NadabIII

Notes on verse 1a

I “Aaron’s” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
II “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
III “Nadab” = Nadab. From nadab (to offer voluntarily, incite, impel; to volunteer to be a soldier or offer freely). This is Nadab, a name meaning “liberal” or “willing” or “volunteer” or “generous” or “noble.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Nadab.html

and AbihuIV eachV tookVI his censer,VII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “Abihu” = Abihu. 12x in OT. From ab (father in a literal or figurative sense – grandfather, chief, ancestor) + hu (third person pronoun – he, she, it). This is Abihu, a name meaning “he is father” or “worshipper of God.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Abihu.html 
V “each” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
VI “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
VII “censer” = machtah. From chathah (to take, snatch up, carry fire). This is a censer or firepan that holds burning coals.

putVIII fireIX in it, and laidX incenseXI on it,

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “put” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
IX “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
X “laid” = sim. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XI “incense” = qetoreth. From the same as qitor (thick smoke, vapor). This is smoke, incense, the scent of the sacrifice as it burned.

and they offeredXII unholyXIII fire beforeXIV the Lord,XV such as he had not commandedXVI them. 

Notes on verse 1c

XII “offered” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XIII “unholy” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.
XIV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XV “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XVI “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).

And fire came outXVII from the presenceXVIII of the Lord and consumedXIX them, and they diedXX beforeXXI the Lord. 

Notes on verse 2

XVII “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XVIII “presence” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.
XIX “consumed” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XX “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XXI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.

Then MosesXXII said to Aaron, “This is what the Lord meantXXIII when he said,

‘Through those who are nearXXIV me
    I will show myself holy,XXV

Notes on verse 3a

XXII “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
XXIII “meant” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XXIV “near” = qarob. Related to “offered” in v1. From qarab (see note XII above). This is near whether nearby, related, near in time, or allied.
XXV “show…holy” = qadash. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean

and beforeXXVI allXXVII the peopleXXVIII
    I will be glorified.’”XXIX

And Aaron was silent.XXX

Notes on verse 3b

XXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.
XXVII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XXVIII “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
XXIX “be glorified” = kabad. To be heavy, weighty, or severe. It can also be positive abounding in, rich, or honorable. The Hebrew word for “glory,” kabod, is taken from this root.
XXX “was silent” = damam. This is to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die.

Moses summonedXXXI MishaelXXXII and Elzaphan,XXXIII sons of UzzielXXXIV

Notes on verse 4a

XXXI “summoned” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
XXXII “Mishael” = Mishael. 7x in OT. From mah (who, what, which, whoever) + el (God, a god). This is Mishael, a name meaning “who is what God is?”
XXXIII “Elzaphan” = Elitsaphan. Related to “Mishael” in v4. 6x in OT. From el (see note XXXII above) + tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk). This is Elzaphan or Elizaphan, a name meaning “God has protected” or “God of treasure” or “God hides” or “God has concealed.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Elizaphan.html
XXXIV “Uzziel” = Uzziel. Related to “Mishael” and “Elzaphan” in v4. 16x in OT. From oz (strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security; also social or political power); {from azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word) + el (see note XXXII above)}. This is Uzziel, a name meaning, “my strength is God” or “strength of God.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Uzziel.html

the uncleXXXV of Aaron, and said to them, “Come forwardXXXVI and carryXXXVII your kinsmenXXXVIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXXV “uncle” = dod. This may come from a word that means to boil. It is love or lover. It can also refer to one who is beloved, like an uncle, or a love-token.
XXXVI “come forward” = qarab. Same as “offered” in v1. See note XII above.
XXXVII “carry” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
XXXVIII “kinsmen” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

away from the frontXXXIX of the sanctuaryXL to a place outsideXLI the camp.”XLII 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXIX “front” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.
XL “sanctuary” = qodesh. Related to “show…holy” in v3. See note XXV above.
XLI “place outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
XLII “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.

They came forward and carried them by their tunicsXLIII outXLIV of the camp, as Moses had ordered.XLV 

Notes on verse 5

XLIII “tunics” = kethoneth. Root may mean to cover. This is a tunic, coat, or other kind of garment.
XLIV “out” = chuts. Same as “place outside” in v4. See note XLI above.
XLV “ordered” = dabar. Same as “meant” in v3. See note XXIII above.

And Moses said to Aaron and to his sons EleazarXLVI and Ithamar,XLVII “Do not dishevelXLVIII your hairXLIX

Notes on verse 6a

XLVI “Eleazar” = Elazar. Related to “Mishael” and “Elzaphan” and “Uzziel” in v4. From el (see note XXXII above) + azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Eleazar or Elazar, a name meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper” or “whom God helps.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Eleazar.html 
XLVII “Ithamar” = Ithamar. From i (coastland, island, or region. It is a desirable place to live – dry land, coast); {perhaps from avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after)} + tamar (root may mean being erect; a date palm or other palm tree; the root of Tamar’s name); {from the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post)}. This is Ithamar, a name meaning “land of palms” or “coast of the palm tree” or “palm coast.” See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Ithamar.html
XLVIII “dishevel” = para. 16x in OT. This is to loosen, let alone, uncover, avoid, dismiss, or perish.
XLIX “hair” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

and do not tearL your vestments,LI or you will die, and wrath will strikeLII all the congregation;LIII

Notes on verse 6b

L “tear” = param. 3x in OT – all in Leviticus. This is to tear or rend as when one rips clothing.
LI “vestments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.
LII “wrath will strike” = qatsaph. This is angry or provoked to wrath. It suggests a bursting into anger.
LIII “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.

but your kindred,LIV the wholeLV houseLVI of Israel,LVII may mournLVIII the burningLIX that the Lord has sent.LX 

Notes on verse 6c

LIV “kindred” = ach. Same as “kinsmen” in v4. See note XXXVIII above.
LV “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v3. See note XXVII above.
LVI “house” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v1. Perhaps from banah (see note II above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
LVII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “Mishael” and “Elzaphan” and “Uzziel” in v4 & “Eleazar” in v6. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note XXXII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LVIII “mourn” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
LIX “burning” = serephah. 13x in OT. From saraph (to burn or kindle). This is burning, fire, or cremation.
LX “sent” = saraph. Related to “burning” in v6. See note LIX above.

You shall not go outsideLXI the entranceLXII of the tentLXIII of meeting,LXIV lestLXV you die,

Notes on verse 7a

LXI “go outside” = yatsa. Same as “came out” in v2. See note XVII above.
LXII “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
LXIII “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
LXIV “meeting” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v6. From yaad (see note LIII above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
LXV “lest” = pen. Related to “before” in v1. Perhaps from panah (see note XIV above). This is lest, if, or.

for the anointingLXVI oilLXVII of the Lord is on you.” And they didLXVIII as Moses had ordered.LXIX

Notes on verse 7b

LXVI “anointing” = mishchah. From mashach (to smear or anoint; to run oil on, to consecrate). This is the act of anointing, ointment, or a consecrated thing.
LXVII “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.
LXVIII “did” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXIX “ordered” = dabar. Related to “meant” in v3. From dabar (see note XXIII above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.

And the Lord spokeLXX to Aaron, “DrinkLXXI no wineLXXII or strong drink,LXXIII neither you nor your sons,

Notes on verses 8-9a

LXX “spoke” = dabar. Same as “meant” in v3. See note XXIII above.
LXXI “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
LXXII “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
LXXIII “strong drink” = shekar. From shakar (to be filled with drink, merry, tipsy; satiated in a positive sense or drunken in a negative sense; also figuratively influence). This is a beverage that intoxicates, liquor, a strong wine. It could also be someone who is a drunk.

when you enterLXXIV the tent of meeting, that you may not die; it is a statuteLXXV foreverLXXVI throughout your generations.LXXVII 

Notes on verse 9b

LXXIV “enter” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
LXXV “statute” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
LXXVI “forever” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LXXVII “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

10 You are to distinguishLXXVIII betweenLXXIX the holyLXXX andLXXXI the commonLXXXII

Notes on verse 10a

LXXVIII “distinguish” = badal. This is to divide, distinguish, select, differ, sever. It is to divine in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIX “between” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
LXXX “holy” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v4. See note XL above.
LXXXI {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v10. See note LXXIX above.
LXXXII “common” = chol. 7x in OT. From chalal (to defile, pollute). This is profaneness or common use. Literally, it is exposed and therefore profane.

and between the uncleanLXXXIII andLXXXIV the clean,LXXXV 

Notes on verse 10b

LXXXIII “unclean” = tame. From tame (to defile, be unclean, pollute in a ritual or ethical sense). This is unclean, ill, or ritually impure.
LXXXIV {untranslated} = bayin. Same as “between” in v10. See note LXXIX above.
LXXXV “clean” = tahor. From taher (bright, which implies being pure or clean; to purge, cleanse, or purify; clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy)). This is clean or pure in a literal, ritual, or ethical sense.

11 and you are to teachLXXXVI the IsraelitesLXXXVII all the statutesLXXXVIII that the Lord has spoken to them throughLXXXIX Moses.”

Notes on verse 11

LXXXVI “teach” = yarah. This is to throw, shoot, be stunned. It is to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach. This is the same root that “Jerusalem” and “Torah” draw from.
LXXXVII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v1. See note II above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v6. See note LVII above.
LXXXVIII “statutes” = choq. Related to “statute” in v9. See note LXXV above.
LXXXIX “through” = yad. Literally, “by the hand of.” This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

12 Moses spoke to Aaron and to his remainingXC sons, Eleazar and Ithamar, “Take the grain offeringXCI that is leftXCII from the Lord’s offerings by fire,XCIII 

Notes on verse 12a

XC “remaining” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
XCI “grain offering” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
XCII “is left” = yathar. Same as “remaining” in v12. See note XC above.
XCIII “offerings by fire” = ishsheh. Related to “fire” in v1. From eshshah (a fire); from esh (see note IX above). This is an offering by fire or a burnt offering. More broadly, it can refer to any kind of sacrifice.

and eatXCIV it unleavenedXCV besideXCVI the altar,XCVII for it is most holy;XCVIII 

Notes on verse 12b

XCIV “eat” = akal. Same as “consumed” in v2. See note XIX above.
XCV “unleavened” = matstsah. From matsats (to drain out). This is unleavened bread – bread that is sweet rather than becoming sour with the flavor of yeast. Can also be used to refer to the festival of Passover, the staple food of which is commonly transliterate matzoh from this word.
XCVI “beside” = etsel. From atsal (to reserve, refuse, join, separate, keep). This is nearby, toward, joining.
XCVII “altar” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
XCVIII “most holy” = qodesh + qodesh. Literally, “holy of holies.” Qodesh is the same as “sanctuary” in v4. See note XL above.

13 you shall eat it in a holyXCIX place,C because it is your dueCI and your sons’ due, from the offerings by fire to the Lord, for soCII I am commanded. 

Notes on verse 13

XCIX “holy” = qadosh. Related to “show…holy” in v3 & “sanctuary” in v4. From qodesh (see note XL above). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
C “place” = maqom. From qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CI “due” = choq. Same as “statutes” in v11. See note LXXXVIII above.
CII “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

14 But the breastCIII that is elevatedCIV and the thighCV that is raised,CVI you and your sons and daughtersCVII as well may eat in any clean place,

Notes on verse 14a

CIII “breast” = chazeh. 13x in OT. Perhaps from chazah (to gaze at – to see or behold; perceiving as a mental process or looking at something with pleasure; seeing a vision). This is an animal breast.
CIV “elevated” = tenuphah. From nuph (to rock back and forth, wave, sprinkle, quiver, beckon, offer, present). This is something that is waved or swung. So, it could be an elevation offering that is offered in that way. It can also refer to someone presenting a weapon in a threatening manner or to imply greater tumult.
CV “thigh” = shoq. 19x in OT. Perhaps from shuq (to overflow, run after). This is leg, thigh, or hip.
CVI “raised” = terumah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.
CVII “daughters” = bat. Related to “sons” in v1 & “house” in v6. From ben (see note II above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.

for theyCVIII have been assignedCIX to you andCX your childrenCXI from the sacrificesCXII of well-beingCXIII of the Israelites. 

Notes on verse 14b

CVIII “they” = choq. Same as “statutes” in v11. See note LXXXVIII above.
CIX “assigned” = natan. Same as “put” in v1. See note VIII above.
CX {untranslated} = choq. Same as “statutes” in v11. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXI “children” = ben. Same as “sons” in v1. See note II above.
CXII “sacrifices” = zebach. Related to “altar” in v12. From zabach (see note XCVII above). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CXIII “well-being” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.

15 The thigh that is raised and the breast that is elevated they shall bring,CXIV together with the offerings by fire of the fat,CXV to raiseCXVI for an elevation offering beforeCXVII the Lord; they areCXVIII to be your due and that of your children forever, as the Lord has commanded.”

Notes on verse 15

CXIV “bring” = bo. Same as “enter” in v9. See note LXXIV above.
CXV “fat” = cheleb. This is fat, finest, marrow. It is fat in a literal or figurative sense. It refers to the richest or best part.
CXVI “raise” = nuph. Related to “elevated” in v14. See note CIV above.
CXVII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.
CXVIII “are” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note XV above.

16 Then Moses made inquiryCXIX about the goatCXX of the purification offering,CXXI

Notes on verse 16a

CXIX “made inquiry” = darash + darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXX “goat” = sa’iyr. From sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, fear, storm tossed; to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hairy, rough, male goat, shaggy. It could also refer to a devil.
CXXI “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.

andCXXII it had already been burned!CXXIII He was angryCXXIV with Eleazar and Ithamar, Aaron’s remaining sons, and said, 17 “WhyCXXV did you not eat the purification offering in the sacredCXXVI area?CXXVII

Notes on verses 16b-17a

CXXII {untranslated} = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
CXXIII “burned” = saraph. Same as “sent” in v6. See note LX above.
CXXIV “was angry” = qatsaph. Same as “wrath will strike” in v6. See note LII above.
CXXV “why” = maddua. Related to “Mishael” in v4. From mah (see note XXXII above) + yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism). This is why or how.
CXXVI “sacred” = qodesh. Same as “sanctuary” in v4. See note XL above.
CXXVII “area” = maqom. Same as “place” in v13. See note C above.

For it is most holy, and God has givenCXXVIII it to you that you may removeCXXIX the guiltCXXX of the congregation, to make atonementCXXXI on their behalf beforeCXXXII the Lord. 

Notes on verse 17b

CXXVIII “given” = natan. Same as “put” in v1. See note VIII above.
CXXIX “remove” = nasa. Same as “carry” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CXXX “guilt” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CXXXI “make atonement” = kaphar. This is to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, make atonement, placate. Specifically, it can mean to cover with bitumen.
CXXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.

18 CXXXIIIIts bloodCXXXIV was not brought into the inner partCXXXV of the sanctuary. You should certainly have eatenCXXXVI it in the sanctuary, as I commanded.” 

Notes on verse 18

CXXXIII {untranslated} = hen. Related to {untranslated} in v16. See note CXXII above.
CXXXIV “blood” = dam. Related to “was silent” in v3. Perhaps from damam (see note XXX above). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
CXXXV “inner part” = penimah. Related to “before” in v1 & “lest” in v7. 13x in OT. From panah (see note XIV above). This is within, inside, indoors, to the side.
CXXXVI “eaten” = akal + akal. Same as “consumed” in v2. See note XIX above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

19 And Aaron spoke to Moses, “See,CXXXVII todayCXXXVIII they offered their purification offering and their burnt offeringCXXXIX beforeCXL the Lord, and yet such things as these have befallenCXLI me!

Notes on verse 19a

CXXXVII “see” = hen. Same as {untranslated} in v18. See note CXXXIII above.
CXXXVIII “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXXXIX “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
CXL “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v1. See note XIV above.
CXLI “befallen” = qara. This is to meet, befall, happen upon. It can be to encounter by chance or for aggression.

If I had eaten the purification offering today, would it have been agreeableCXLII toCXLIII the Lord?” 20 And when Moses heardCXLIV that, he agreed.CXLV

Notes on verses 19b-20

CXLII “been agreeable” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CXLIII “to” = ayin. Literally, “in the sight of.” This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXLIV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CXLV “agreed” = yatab + ayin. Literally, “he was content in his sight.” Yatab is the same as “been agreeable” in v19. See note CXLII above. Ayin is the same as “to” in v19. See note CXLIII above.

Image credit: “Incense” by Karlina – Carla Sedini, 2013.

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