Leviticus 22

Leviticus 22


The LordI spokeII to Moses,III saying: 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“DirectIV AaronV and his sonsVI

Notes on verse 2a

IV “direct” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v1. See note II above.
V “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Aaron
VI “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.

to dealVII carefully with the sacred donationsVIII of the Israelites,IX

Notes on verse 2b

VII “deal” = nazar. 10x in OT. This is to dedicate, set apart, fast, keep self from impurity, refrain from worship. It is to consecrate for a holy purpose.
VIII “sacred donations” = qodesh. This is set apart and so sacred. God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart. Things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy, etc.
IX “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v2. See note VI above. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

which they dedicateX to me, so that they may not profaneXI my holyXII name:XIII I am the Lord. 

Notes on verse 2c

X “dedicate” = qadash. Related to “sacred donations” in v2. From qodesh (see note VIII above). This is set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified. This is something or someone that is set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean.
XI “profane” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.
XII “holy” = qodesh. Same as “sacred donations” in v2. See note VIII above.
XIII “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.

Say to them, ‘If anyoneXIV among allXV your offspringXVI throughout your generationsXVII comesXVIII near the sacred donations,

Notes on verse 3a

XIV “anyone” = kol + ish. Kol is from kalal (to complete). This is all or every. Ish is perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
XV “all” = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XVI “offspring” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
XVII “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
XVIII “comes” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.

which the Israelites dedicate to the Lord, while he is in a state of uncleanness,XIX that personXX shall be cut offXXI from my presence:XXII I am the Lord.’ 

Notes on verse 3b

XIX “uncleanness” = tum’ah. From tame (becoming unclean, foul, defiled; polluted, particularly in a ritual or moral sense). This is filthiness or uncleanness. It can refer to ritual or moral impurity.
XX “person” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XXI “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
XXII “presence” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

No oneXXIII of Aaron’s offspring who has a defiling skin diseaseXXIV or suffers a dischargeXXV may eatXXVI of the sacred donations until he is clean.XXVII Whoever touchesXXVIII anythingXXIX

Notes on verse 4a

XXIII “one” = ish + ish. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XXIV “has a defiling skin disease” = tsara. From tsaraath (leprosy or a mark). This is to have leprosy or be a leper.
XXV “suffers a discharge” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
XXVI “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
XXVII “is clean” = taher. This is properly being bright, which implies being pure or clean. This word can also mean purge, cleanse, or purify. It can be clean in a ritual sense or a moral one (i.e. moral or holy).
XXVIII “touches” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
XXIX “anything” = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.

made uncleanXXX by a corpseXXXI or a manXXXII who has hadXXXIII an emissionXXXIV of semen,XXXV 

Notes on verse 4b

XXX “unclean” = tame. Related to “uncleanness” in v3. From tame (see note XIX above). This is unclean, ill, or ritually impure.
XXXI “corpse” = nephesh. Same as “person” in v3. See note XX above.
XXXII “man” = ish. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XXXIII “had” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXIV “emission” = shekabah. 9x in OT. From shakab (to lie down, lodge; lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons). This is an act of lying so it could be a layer, the act of copulation, or an emission.
XXXV “semen” = zera. Same as “offspring” in v3. See note XVI above.

and whoeverXXXVI touches anyXXXVII swarming thingXXXVIII by which he may be made uncleanXXXIX or any human beingXL by whom he may be made unclean—whateverXLI his uncleanness may be— 

Notes on verse 5

XXXVI “whoever” = ish. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XXXVII “any” = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XXXVIII “swarming thing” = sherets. 15x in OT. From sharats (to swarm, creep, abound, breed a lot, wriggle). This is things that teem or swarm – insects, moving creatures.
XXXIX “made unclean” = tame. Related to “uncleanness” in v3 & “unclean” in v4. See note XIX above.
XL “human being” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.
XLI “whatever” = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.

the person who touches any such shall be unclean until evening and shall not eat of the sacred donations unless he has washedXLII his bodyXLIII in water.XLIV When the sunXLV setsXLVI he shall be clean, and afterwardXLVII he may eat of the sacred donations, for they are his food.XLVIII 

Notes on verses 6-7

XLII “washed” = rachats. This is to wash, wash away – it can be complete or partial.
XLIII “body” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
XLIV “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
XLV “sun” = shemesh. This is sun or toward the east. Its root may mean being brilliant. Figuratively, this could be a ray or an arch.
XLVI “sets” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XLVII “afterward” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.
XLVIII “food” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

That which diedXLIX or was tornL by wild animals he shall not eat, becoming unclean by it: I am the Lord. They shall keepLI my charge,LII

Notes on verses 8-9a

XLIX “that which died” = nebelah. From nabel (to fall away, faint, wither, languish, sink; figuratively, being senseless, foolish, or wicked; to despise, disgrace, or fall to nothing, to be seen with contempt). This is a body, whether human or animal. It can also refer to an idol.
L “torn” = terephah. 9x in OT. From tereph (prey, food, meat, leaf; something that has been torn – a morsel); from taraph (to tear or pluck off into pieces, to rend or catch; to supply with food). This is torn flesh, particularly torn and/or eaten by animals.
LI “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LII “charge” = mishmereth. Related to “keep” in v9.  From mishmar (jail, guard, watch, guard post); from shamar (see note LI above). This is a guard or watch or guard post. It is used figuratively for obligation, duty, or observance, including religious observance.

so that they may not incurLIII guiltLIV and dieLV because of it for having profaned them: I am the Lord; I sanctifyLVI them.

Notes on verse 9b

LIII “incur” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
LIV “guilt” = chet. From chata (to miss, sin, bear blame, to forfeit, lack). This is sin, fault, or punishment of sin.
LV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
LVI “sanctify” = qadash. Same as “dedicate” in v2. See note X above.

10 “No LVIIlaypersonLVIII shall eat of the sacred donations. No boundLIX or hired servantLX of the priestLXI shall eat of the sacred donations, 

Notes on verse 10

LVII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
LVIII “layperson” = zur. This is to come from somewhere else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.
LIX “bound” = toshab. 14x in OT. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is sojourner, settler, tenant. Someone who lives in a foreign land – not native born.
LX “hired servant” = sakir. 17x in OT. From sakar (to hire, earn). This is someone who earns a wage, a laborer. It could be one a day by day basis or for a longer term.
LXI “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

11 but if a priest acquiresLXII anyoneLXIII by purchase,LXIV the person may eat of them, and those who are bornLXV in his houseLXVI may eat of his food. 

Notes on verse 11

LXII “acquires” = qanah. This is to acquire, create, purchase, own. Its root may mean to smith or to produce.
LXIII “anyone” = nephesh. Same as “person” in v3. See note XX above.
LXIV “by purchase” = qinyan + keseph. Qinyan is related to “acquires” in v11. 10x in OT. From qanah (see note LXII above). This is possession, substance, creation, wealth. Keseph is From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
LXV “those who are born” = yalid. 13x in OT. From yalad (to bear, bring forth; can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage). This is born, children, or otherwise referring to descendants.
LXVI “house” = bayit. Related to “sons” in v2. Probably from banah (see note VI above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.

12 If a priest’s daughterLXVII marriesLXVIII a layman,LXIX she shall not eat of the offeringLXX of the sacred donations, 13 but if a priest’s daughter isLXXI widowedLXXII

Notes on verses 12-13a

LXVII “daughter” = bat. Related to “sons” in v2 & “house” in v11. From ben (see note VI above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVIII “marries” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LXIX “layman” = ish + zur. Ish is the same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above. Zur is the same as “layperson” in v10. See note LVIII above.
LXX “offering” = terumah. From rum (to be high, rise, exalted, become proud, display, offer, present, set apart, extol; to rise in a literal or figurative sense). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.
LXXI “is” = hayah. Same as “marries” in v12. See note LXVIII above.
LXXII “widowed” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.

or divorced,LXXIII without offspring, and returnsLXXIV to her father’sLXXV house, as in her youth,LXXVI she may eat of her father’s food. No LXXVIIlayperson shall eat of it. 

Notes on verse 13b

LXXIII “divorced” = garash. This is to cast out or expel. It can be to exile someone or to divorce them.
LXXIV “returns” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
LXXV “father’s” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVI “youth” = naur. From naar (child or a servant; a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence); perhaps from naar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is youth or childhood.
LXXVII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.

14 If a man eats of the sacred donation unintentionally,LXXVIII he shall addLXXIX one-fifthLXXX of its value to it and giveLXXXI the sacred donation to the priest. 

Notes on verse 14

LXXVIII “unintentionally” = shegagah. 19x in OT. From shagag (to go astray, sin, be deceived; to sin through ignorance). This is an inadvertent sin or a sin that came from an error/mistake.
LXXIX “add” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
LXXX “one-fifth” = chamishi. From chamesh (five). This is fifth or one-fifth.
LXXXI “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

15 No one shall profane the sacred donations of the Israelites, which they offerLXXXII to the Lord, 16 causing them to bearLXXXIII guiltLXXXIV requiring a guilt offering,LXXXV by eating their sacred donations, for I am the Lord; I sanctify them.”

Notes on verses 15-16

LXXXII “offer” = rum. Related to “offering” in v12. See note LXX above.
LXXXIII “bear” = nasa. Same as “incur” in v9. See note LIII above.
LXXXIV “guilt” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
LXXXV “guilt offering” = ashmah. 19x in OT. From asham (guilt, sin, wrong, or offense; a sin or guilt offering); from asham (to be guilty, suffer, be punished; to destroy, condemn, be desolate, perish). This is wrongdoing, transgression, fault, or sin. It could also be a sin offering.

17 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 18 “Speak to Aaron and his sons and all the Israelites and say to them: When anyoneLXXXVI of the house of Israel or of the aliensLXXXVII residing in Israel presentsLXXXVIII an offering,LXXXIX whetherXC in payment of a vowXCI

Notes on verses 17-18a

LXXXVI “anyone” = ish + ish. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
LXXXVII “aliens” = ger. From gur (to abide or sojourn; to leave the road to lodge or for any other reason). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
LXXXVIII “presents” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
LXXXIX “offering” = qorban. Related to “comes” in v3. From qarab (see note XVIII above). This is an oblation or offering, which is to say, a sacrifice.
XC {untranslated} = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XCI “vow” = neder. From nadar (to vow or promise). This is a vow – literally, that which was promised.

or asXCII a freewill offeringXCIII that is offeredXCIV to the Lord as a burnt offering,XCV 

Notes on verse 18b

XCII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
XCIII “freewill offering” = nedabah. From nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing). This is a freewill offering, something giving spontaneously.
XCIV “offered” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
XCV “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

19 to be acceptableXCVI on your behalf it shall be a maleXCVII without blemish,XCVIII

Notes on verse 19a

XCVI “acceptable” = ratson. From ratsah (to be pleased with, delight, take pleasure in, or accept with favor; to approve or consent regarding something; can be used specifically of satisfying debts or being pardoned). This is delight shown in favor, good will, something that is accepted or acceptable.
XCVII “male” = zakar. From zakar (to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention). This is male. Properly, perhaps, it means one who is remembered, which is to say a male.
XCVIII “without blemish” = tamim. From tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is entire in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be complete, full, intact, or without defect. Alternately, it could refer to being sound, having integrity, being sincere or perfect.

of the cattleXCIX or the sheepC or the goats.CI 20 You shall not offerCII anything that has a blemish,CIII for it will not be acceptable on your behalf.

Notes on verses 19b-20

XCIX “cattle” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
C “sheep” = keseb. 13x in OT. From kebes (root may mean to dominate; a young male sheep at the age of butting other sheep). This is apparently the same word as kebes, but with the consonants mixed up. It is a young lamb or sheep.
CI “goats” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.
CII “offer” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CIII “blemish” = mum. This is a blemish or defect, whether in a literal sense or a moral one.

21 “When anyoneCIV offersCV a sacrificeCVI of well-beingCVII to the Lord,CVIII

Notes on verse 21a

CIV “anyone” = ish. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.
CV “offers” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CVI “sacrifice” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
CVII “well-being” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.
CVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “marries” in v12. From the same as YHVH (see note I above). It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as “Lord.”

in fulfillmentCIX of a vow or as a freewill offering, from the herdCX or from the flock,CXI to be acceptable it must be perfect;CXII there shall beCXIII no blemish in it. 

Notes on verse 21b

CIX “in fulfillment” = pala. From pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing). This is to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish.
CX “herd” = baqar. Same as “cattle” in v19. See note XCIX above.
CXI “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CXII “perfect” = tamim. Same as “without blemish” in v19. See note XCVIII above.
CXIII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “anyone” in v3. See note XIV above.

22 Anything blindCXIV or injuredCXV or maimedCXVI or having a dischargeCXVII or an itchCXVIII or scabsCXIX

Notes on verse 22a

CXIV “blind” = ivvaron. 3x in OT. From ivver (blindness or someone who is blind – literally or figuratively); from avar (to blind, put out). This is blind or blindness.
CXV “injured” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVI “maimed” = charats. 12x in OT. This is to cut, sharpen, decree, wound, be alert, move. It can also be to decide or determine.
CXVII “having a discharge” = yabbal. 1x in OT. From yabal (to bring, carry, flow, lead forth). This is a sore oozing pus or a cyst.
CXVIII “itch” = garab. 3x in OT. May come from a word that means to scratch. This is an itch or scab. It could be eczema.
CXIX “scabs” = yallepheth. 2x in OT. This may come from a word that means to scrape. It is a scab or scurf.

these you shall not offerCXX to the LordCXXI or putCXXII any of them on the altarCXXIII as offerings by fireCXXIV to the Lord.CXXV 

Notes on verse 22b

CXX “offer” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXXII “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v14. See note LXXXI above.
CXXIII “altar” = mizbeach. Related to “sacrifice” in v21. From zabach (see note CVI above). This is an altar.
CXXIV “offerings by fire” = ishsheh. From eshshah (a fire); from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense). This is an offering by fire or a burnt offering. More broadly, it can refer to any kind of sacrifice.
CXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

23 An oxCXXVI or a lambCXXVII that is deformedCXXVIII or stuntedCXXIX you may presentCXXX for a freewill offering, but it will not be acceptedCXXXI for a vow. 

Notes on verse 23

CXXVI “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
CXXVII “lamb” = seh. Perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock.
CXXVIII “is deformed” = sara. 3x in OT. This is to stretch, be overgrown or extra, to be deformed.
CXXIX “stunted” = qalat. 1x in OT. This is to maim or one that is missing some parts.
CXXX “present” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
CXXXI “be accepted” = ratsah. Related to “acceptable” in v19. See note XCVI above.

24 Any animal that has its testicles bruisedCXXXII or crushedCXXXIII or tornCXXXIV or cut,CXXXV

Notes on verse 24a

CXXXII “bruised” = maak. 4x in OT. This is to pierce, squeeze, stick, handle.
CXXXIII “crushed” = kathath. 17x in OT. This is to crush into pieces, to beat with a hammer, smash, bruise.
CXXXIV “torn” = nathaq. This is to pull, tear off, drag, separate, lift, burst, root out, or snap.
CXXXV “cut” = karat. Same as “cut off” in v3. See note XXI above.

you shall not offerCXXXVI to the Lord;CXXXVII such you shall not doCXXXVIII within your land,CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 24b

CXXXVI “offer” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CXXXVIII “do” = asah. Same as “present” in v23. See note CXXX above.
CXXXIX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

25 nor shall you accept any such animals fromCXL a CXLIforeignerCXLII to offerCXLIII as food to your God;CXLIV since they are mutilated,CXLV with a blemish in them, they shall not be accepted on your behalf.”

Notes on verse 25

CXL {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CXLI {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v2. See note VI above.
CXLII “foreigner” = nekar. From the same as neker (misfortune, disaster). This is foreign or something that is foreign i.e. strange.
CXLIII “offer” = qarab. Same as “comes” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXLIV “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v13. See note IX above.
CXLV “mutilated” = mishchath. 2x in OT. From shachat (to destroy, become ruined, behave in a corrupt way, an animal with a blemish, decay). This is a disfigurement. It could also be figurative in reference to a ritual sense of corruption.

26 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 27 “When an ox or a sheep or a goat is born,CXLVI it shall remainCXLVII sevenCXLVIII daysCXLIX

Notes on verses 26-27a

CXLVI “born” = yalad. Related to “those who are born” in v11. See note LXV above.
CXLVII “remain” = hayah. Same as “marries” in v12. See note LXVIII above.
CXLVIII “seven” = sheba. This is seven or by sevenfold. It can also be used to imply a week or an indefinite number. Symbolically, this is the number of fullness, sacredness, perfection.
CXLIX “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

withCL its mother,CLI and from the eighthCLII day on it shall be acceptable as the Lord’sCLIII offeringCLIV by fire. 

Notes on verse 27b

CL “with” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CLI “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
CLII “eighth” = shemini. From the same as shemoneh (eight; can be figurative for surplus); perhaps from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat); from shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is eighth or sheminith.
CLIII “Lord’s” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLIV “offering” = qorban. Same as “offering” in v18. See note LXXXIX above.

28 But you shall not slaughter,CLV from the herdCLVI or the flock,CLVII an animal with its youngCLVIII on the sameCLIX day. 

Notes on verse 28

CLV “slaughter” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.
CLVI “herd” = shor. Same as “ox” in v23. See note CXXVI above.
CLVII “flock” = seh. Same as “lamb” in v23. See note CXXVII above.
CLVIII “young” = ben. Same as “sons” in v2. See note VI above.
CLIX “same” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

29 When you sacrificeCLX a thanksgivingCLXI offeringCLXII to the Lord,CLXIII you shall sacrificeCLXIV it so that it may be acceptable on your behalf. 

Notes on verse 29

CLX “sacrifice” = zabach. Related to “sacrifice” in v21 & “altar” in v22. See note CVI above.
CLXI “thanksgiving” = todah. From yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise, to give thanks, or make a confession); from yad (hand, ability, power; hand in a literal sense; what one can do or the means by which one does it). This is properly extending one’s hand, which implies affirmation and adoration. It can be a song of thanksgiving, a choir of thanksgiving, confession, or praise. It can also be a thank offering.
CLXII “offering” = zebach. Same as “sacrifice” in v21. See note CVI above.
CLXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXIV “sacrifice” = zabach. Same as “sacrifice” in v29. See note CLX above.

30 It shall be eaten on the same day; you shall not leaveCLXV any of it until morning:CLXVI I am the Lord.CLXVII

31 “Thus you shall keep my commandmentsCLXVIII and observeCLXIX them: I am the Lord.CLXX 

Notes on verses 30-31

CLXV “leave” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
CLXVI “morning” = boqer. Related to “cattle” in v19. From baqar (see note XCIX above). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CLXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXVIII “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.
CLXIX “observe” = asah. Same as “present” in v23. See note CXXX above.
CLXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

32 You shall not profane my holy name, that I may be sanctified amongCLXXI the Israelites: I am the Lord;CLXXII I sanctify you, 33 I who broughtCLXXIII you out of the land of EgyptCLXXIV to be your God: I am the Lord.”CLXXV

Notes on verses 32-33

CLXXI “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CLXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXIII “brought” = yatsa. Same as “had” in v4. See note XXXIII above.
CLXXIV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CLXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

Image credit: “Konrad Łoziński” by Otwarte Klatki, 2020.

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