Romans 8:1-11

Romans 8:1-11
Ordinary A33


There is therefore now no condemnationA for those who are in ChristB Jesus.C, D 

Notes on verse 1

A “condemnation” = katakrima. 3x in NT. From katakrino (judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn; a decisive judgment of guilt; also to damn someone); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging)}. This is penalty, the sentence of condemnation that comes after one is found guilty, the punishment that comes after being condemned.
B “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
C “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
D Some manuscripts add “not those who walk according to the flesh but according to the Spirit” as in v4.

For the lawE of the SpiritF of lifeG in Christ Jesus has set you freeH from the law of sinI and of death. 

Notes on verse 2

E “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
F “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
G “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
H “set…free” = eleutheroo. 7x in NT. From eleutheros (a free person, at liberty, not a slave; properly, unshackled – figuratively, it is one who has the freedom to choose their destiny. Also, it is one who does not have obligation or liability); probably from erchomai (to come or go). This is to liberate, set free, release from bondage. It can mean to clear someone from liability. Figuratively, it is freeing someone from bondage to sin.
I “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

For GodJ has done what the law, weakenedK by the flesh,L could not do:M by sendingN his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and to deal with sin, he condemnedO sin in the flesh, 

Notes on verse 3

J “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
K “weakened” = astheneo. From asthenes (not having strength or weak in a moral sense; sick); {from a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor); {from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)}}. This is sick, feeble, languishing, impotent. Can also refer to moral weakness.
L “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refer to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
M “could not do” = adunatos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + dunatos (mighty or powerful; ability of persons, possibility of things; what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits); {from dunamai (to be able, have power or ability)}. This is powerless, unable, impotent, or impossible. It is weak in a literal or figurative sense.
N “sending” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
O “condemned” = katakrino. Related to “condemnation” in v1. 18x in NT. See note A above.

so that the just requirementP of the law might be fulfilledQ in us, who walkR not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. For those who live according to the flesh set their mindsS on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit.

Notes on verses 4-5

P “just requirement” = dikaioma. 10x in NT. From dikaioo (to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit; properly, approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment; upright, render just or innocent); from dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is justification or righteousness – it can be a second chance for a criminal, a verdict for or against, an act that is legally proper, or a statute or decision. It is something pronounced righteous by God.
Q “be fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
R “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
S “minds” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action. It refers to one’s insight or inner perspective expressing itself through behavior.

To set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mindT on the Spirit is life and peace.U For this reason the mind that is set on the flesh is hostileV to God; it does not submitW to God’s law—indeed it cannot, 8 and those who are in the flesh cannot pleaseX God.

Notes on verses 6-8

T “mind” = phronema. Related to “minds” in v5. 4x in NT. From phroneo (see note S above). This is thought, purpose, mindset, inner perspective. It can also mean acting on gut insight.
U “peace” = eirene. Perhaps from eiro (to join, tie together to form a whole). This is one, peace, quietness, rest, peace of mind, harmony. Peace was a common farewell among Jews (i.e. shalom) and this well-wishing included a blessing of health and wholeness for the individual. This word also indicates wholeness and well-being – when everything that is essential is joined together properly. This is peace literally or figuratively. By implication, it is prosperity (but not in the sense of excessive wealth. Prosperity would have meant having enough from day to day.)
V “hostile” = echthra. 6x in NT. From echthros (hated, an enemy; someone at enmity – deep, personal hatred that cannot be reconciled because it is determined to cause harm; often refers to Satan); from echthos (hatred). This is enmity, hostility, or alienation.
W “submit” = hupotasso. From hupo (by, under, about, under one’s authority) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to place under. So it is to subject, submit, obey, or subordinate.
X “please” = aresko. 17x in NT. Root means to fit together. This is to please or be agreeable. It implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval. It is often used for moral agreement. It can mean being agreeable or trying to be agreeable. Used 9x of pleasing people in a negative way, 5x of pleasing people in a positive way, and 3x of pleasing God.

But you are not in the flesh; you are in the Spirit, since the Spirit of God dwellsY in you. Anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 10 But if Christ is in you,Z though the bodyAA is dead because of sin, the Spirit is life because of righteousness.BB 

Notes on verses 9-10

Y “dwells” = oikeo. 9x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). Properly, this means making a home or living at home. So, this is dwell or indwell, remain, reside, or cohabit.
Z {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
AA “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
BB “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Related to “just requirement” in v4. From dikaios (see note P above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.

11 If the Spirit of him who raisedCC Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will give lifeDD to your mortalEE bodies also through his Spirit that dwellsFF in you.

Notes on verse 11

CC “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
DD “give life” = zoopoieo. Related to “life” in v6. 11x in NT. From the same as zoon (something alive, animal); {from zao (see note G above)} + poieo (to do, make, act). This is to make alive, vivify. It could be vitalize or revitalize.
EE “mortal” = thnetos. Related to “death” in v6. 6x in NT. From thnesko (to die in a spiritual or physical sense; also being mortal). This is mortal, subject to death.
FF “dwells” = enoikeo. Related to “dwells” in v9. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + oikeo (see note Y above). This is to live in a state or condition, to inhabit or be settled in in a literal or figurative sense.

Image credit: Altar at the St. Konrad Catholic Church in Ingolstadt, Germany.

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