Luke 22:24-30

Luke 22:24-30
A Women’s Lectionary – Proper 26


24 A disputeA also aroseB among them as to which one of them was to beC regardedD as the greatest.E 

Notes on verse 24

A “dispute” = philoneikia. 1x in NT. From philoneikos (contentious, one who loves to dispute); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + neikos (strife, quarrel); {probably akin to nikos (victory, triumph – especially a conquest); from nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful)}}}. This is one who loves to dispute, quarrelsomeness.
B “arose” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
C “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
D “regarded” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
E “greatest” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.

25 But he said to them, “The kingsF of the gentilesG lord it overH them,

Notes on verse 25a

F “kings” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
G “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
H “lord…over” = kurieuo. 7x in NT. From kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy). This is to be lord of, rule, lord over.

and those in authority overI them are calledJ benefactors.K 

Notes on verse 25b

I “in authority over” = exousiazo. Related to “be” in v24. 4x in NT. From exousia (power to act or weight; denotes moral authority or influence; can mean domain, liberty, freedom, capacity, mastery, right, force, or strength); {from exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (see note C above)}} This is to have authority over, wield power, have control, be authorized to act.
J “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
K “benefactors” = euergetes. 1x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + the same as ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}. This is someone who does good, a philanthropist or benefactor.

26 But not so with you; rather, the greatest among you must becomeL like the youngestM and the leaderN

Notes on verse 26a

L “become” = ginomai. Same as “arose” in v24. See note B above.
M “youngest” = neos. This is young, new, fresh, or youthful. This is brand new as opposed to novel (which is kainos in Greek).
N “leader” = hegeomai. From ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, guide, go). This is to think, suppose, have an opinion. It is to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority. It can refer to one who commands in an official capacity. This word shares a root with the word “hegemony.”

like one who serves.O 27 For who is greater, the one who is at the tableP or the one who serves? Is it not the one at the table? But I am amongQ you as one who serves.

Notes on verses 26b-27

O “serves” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); {perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute); {related to dio (put to flight)}}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
P “is at the table” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
Q “among” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.

28 “You are those who have stoodR by me in my trials,S 29 and I conferT on you, just as my FatherU has conferred on me, a kingdom,V 

Notes on verses 28-29

R “stood” = diameno. 5x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remain or continue.
S “trials” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
T “confer” = diatithemi. 7x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place separately – to make a will or covenant. It is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished.
U “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
V “kingdom” = basileia. Related to “kings” in v25. From basileus (see note F above). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.

30 so that you may eatW and drinkX at my tableY in my kingdom, and you will sitZ on thronesAA

Notes on verse 30a

W “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
X “drink” = pino. This is to drink, literally or figuratively.
Y “table” = trapeza. 15x in NT. Probably from tessares (four; figuratively, can mean total inclusion or universality) + peze (by foot or land) or pezos (by foot or land); {from pous (foot)}. This is a table – whether for eating or conducting business. Literally, four feet. This is where the word “trapeze” comes from.
Z “sit” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
AA “thrones” = thronos. Probably from thanos (bench); from thrao (to sit). This is throne or seat – the place where the king sits. So, it is used figuratively to mean power, dominion, or a potentate. This is where the word “throne” comes from.

judgingBB the twelveCC tribesDD of Israel.EE

Notes on verse 30b

BB “judging” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
CC “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.
DD “tribes” = phule. From phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow). This is clan, tribe, lineage. It is those who descend from a shared ancestor.
EE “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

Image credit: “Jesus and the 12 apostles in Domus Galileae.” Photo by Avishai Teicher, 2011.

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