Luke 4:21-30

Luke 4:21-30
Ordinary C10


21 Then he beganA to sayB to them, “TodayC this scriptureD has been fulfilledE in your hearing.”F 

Notes on verse 21

A “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
B “say” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
C “today” = semeron. From hemera (day, time, daybreak); perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is today, now, at present.
D “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
E “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
F “hearing” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.

22 AllG spoke well ofH him and were amazedI

Notes on verse 22a

G “all” = pas. This is all or every.
H “spoke well of” = martureo. From martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is to bear witness, testify, give evidence. It is to testify in a literal or figurative sense.
I “were amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

at the graciousJ wordsK that cameL from his mouth.M They said, “Is not this Joseph’sN son?”O 

Notes on verse 22b

J “gracious” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
K “words” = logos. Related to “say” in v21. From lego (see note B above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
L “came” = ekporeuomai. From ek (from, from out of) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to go forth, depart from, be spoken, flow out, project. This word emphasizes the result a process or passage – how it impacts the person or thing.
M “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
N “Joseph’s” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
O “son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

23 He said to them, “DoubtlessP you will quote to me this proverb,Q ‘Doctor,R cureS yourself!’

Notes on verse 23a

P “doubtless” = pantos. Related to “all” in v22. 9x in NT. From pas (see note G above). This is entirely, all, altogether, undoubtedly.
Q “proverb” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
R “doctor” = iatros. 7x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healer i.e. physician.
S “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.

And you will say, ‘DoT here also in your hometownU the things that we have heardV you didW at Capernaum.’”X 

Notes on verse 23b

T “do” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
U “hometown” = patris. 8x in NT. From pater (father in a literal or figurative sense) OR from parasemos (marked on the side, wrongly marked a ship’s figurehead); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}}. This is belonging to one’s father or ancestors. It could be hometown, native town, country, or heaven as home.
V “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
W “did” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
X “Capernaum” = Kapernaoum. 16x in NT. From Hebrew kaphar (village with walls); {from the same as kephir (a young lion, village); from kaphar (to appease, cover, pacify, cancel)} + Nachum (Nahum, “comfortable”); {from nacham (a strong breath or sigh; to be sorry, to pity, console, comfort, or repent; also to comfort oneself with thoughts of vengeance)}. This is Capernaum, meaning “Nahum’s village.”

24 And he said, “TrulyY I tellZ you, no prophetAA is acceptedBB in the prophet’s hometown. 

Notes on verse 24

Y “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
Z “tell” = lego. Same as “say” in v21. See note B above.
AA “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
BB “accepted” = dektos. 5x in NT. From dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is favorable, welcome, approved, pleasing.

25 But the truthCC is, there were manyDD widowsEE in IsraelFF

Notes on verse 25a

CC “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested; literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic). {from a (not, without) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed)}. Truth is literally that which is not or cannot be concealed. This word covers more than the sense of true versus false. It spoke of truth as that which corresponds to reality – reality as opposed to illusion. Thus, it includes, sincerity, straightforwardness, and reality itself.
DD “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
EE “widows” = chera. Perhaps from the base of chasma (chasm, gap, gulf); from chasko (to yawn). This is widow literally or figuratively.
FF “Israel” = Israel. Related to “Elijah” in v25. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note HH below)}. This is Israel the people and the land.

in the timeGG of Elijah,HH when the heavenII was shut upJJ

Notes on verse 25b

GG “time” = hemera. Related to “today” in v21. See note C above.
HH “Elijah” = Elias. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”
II “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
JJ “shut up” = kleio. 16x in NT. This is to close, shut, or lock in a literal of figurative sense. Figuratively used for shutting out of the kingdom of heaven or the wedding banquet, the heavens shutting as in there is no rain, and also for heartlessness.

threeKK yearsLL and sixMM months, and there wasNN a severeOO faminePP over all the land;QQ 

Notes on verse 25c

KK “three” = treis. This is three.
LL “years” = etos. This is year or age.
MM “six” = hex. 13x in NT. This is six. It is part of where “hexagon” comes from.
NN “was” = ginomai. Same as “did” in v23. See note W above.
OO “severe” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
PP “famine” = limos. 12x in NT. Probably from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is hunger, famine, or lacking.
QQ “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

26 yet Elijah was sentRR to none of them except to aSS widow at ZarephathTT in Sidon.UU 

Notes on verse 26

RR “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
SS {untranslated} = gune. Related to “did” in v23. Perhaps from ginomai (see note W above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
TT “Zarephath” = Sarepta. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Tsarephath (Tsarephath, Zarephath; “melting place” or “refinement”; a city); from tsaraph (to refine, smalt, or fuse metal; the smelter, goldsmith, or silversmith; figuratively, refine in a literal or figurative sense – to test or try, make pure). This is Zarephath or Sarepta, a city that is south of Sidon.
UU “Sidon” = Sidonios. 2x in NT. From Sidon (Sidon, a Phoenician city on the sea); from Phoenician tsydon (Sidon, maybe meaning “fishery” or “fishing town”). This is Sidonian – someone from Sidon. See &

27 There were also many lepersVV in Israel in the time of the prophet Elisha,WW and none of them was cleansedXX except NaamanYY the Syrian.”ZZ 

Notes on verse 27

VV “lepers” = lepros. 9x in NT. From lepis (fish scale, skin flake); from lepo (to peel). This is scaly or leprous. It can also refer to a person with leprosy.
WW “Elisha” = Elisaios. Related to “Elijah” and “Israel” in v25. 1x in NT. From Hebrew Elisha (Elisha, meaning “God is salvation”); from Elishua (Elishua, meaning “God is salvation”); {from el (see note HH above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Elisha, meaning “God is salvation.”
XX “cleansed” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
YY “Naaman” = Neeman. 1x in NT. From Naiman (Naaman, meaning “pleasant” or “pleasantness”); from Hebrew Naaman (Naaman, a Benjaminite and Syrian); from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naaman, meaning “pleasantness” or “pleaant.”
ZZ “Syrain” = Suros. 1x in NT. From Suria (Syria); from Akkadian Ashshur (after the god Ashur, head of their gods). This is Syrian, named for the god Ashur. See;

28 When they heard this, all in the synagogueAAA were filledBBB with rage.CCC 29 They got up,DDD droveEEE him out of the town,FFF

Notes on verses 28-29a

AAA “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
BBB “filled” = pleitho. This is to fill to the highest level possible – to accomplish, supply, or complete.
CCC “rage” = thumos. 18x in NT. From thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice). This is passion, anger, rage, wrath. It refers to actions emerging from passion or impulse. It is also used for God’s wrath.
DDD “got up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.
EEE “drove” = ekballo. Related to “proverb” in v23. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note Q above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
FFF “town” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

and ledGGG him to the brow of the hillHHH on which their town was built,III so that they might hurl him off the cliff.JJJ 30 But he passedKKK through the midstLLL of them and went on his way.MMM

Notes on verses 29b-30

GGG “led” = ago. Related to “synagogue” in v28. See note AAA above.
HHH “hill” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
III “built” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
JJJ “hurl…off the cliff” = katakremnizo. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + kremnos (an overhanging like a crag or precipice); {from kremannumi (to hang, suspend, depend)}. This is to throw over a cliff, to throw headlong.
KKK “passed” = dierchomai. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to go through, come, depart, pierce, travel, traverse.
LLL “midst” = mesos. Perhaps from meta (with among, behind, beyond; implies a change following contact or action). This is middle, among, center, midst.
MMM “went on his way” = poreuomai. Related to “came” in v22. See note L above.

Image credit: “Jesus Rejected at Nazareth” by LUMO Project.

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