Mark 10:42-45

Mark 10:42-45
NL 208


42 So JesusA calledB them and saidC to them,

Notes on verse 42a

A “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
B “called” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
C “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.

“You knowD that among the gentilesE those whom they recognizeF as their rulersG

Notes on verse 42b

D “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
E “gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
F “recognize” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
G “rulers” = archo. 2x in NT. This is to rule, begin, have first rank, or have political power.

lord it overH them, and their greatI ones are tyrants overJ them. 

Notes on verse 42c

H “lord…over” = katakurieuo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, throughout) + kurieuo (to rule, have authority or dominion); {from kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy)}. This is to exercise lordship authority, over dominion. It can also mean to overpower or master. It is having control and authority for that control. Generally the negative sense of control – to subjugate.
I “great” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
J “are tyrants over” = katexousiazo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, according to, by way of) + exousiazo (to wield power or authority over, to master or control; to have authority to act); {from exousia (power to act, authority, right, influence, moral authority, conferred power, privilege, freedom); from exesti (to be permitted or lawful); {from ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist)}}. This is having power or authority over – to use authority oppressively, to dominate or bring down.

43 But it isK not so among you; instead, whoever wishesL to becomeM great among you must be your servant,N 

Notes on verse 43

K “is” = eimi. Related to “are tyrants over” in v42. See note J above.
L “wishes” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
M “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
N “servant” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”

44 and whoever wishes to be firstO among you must be slaveP of all.Q 

Notes on verse 44

O “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
P “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
Q “all” = pas. This is all or every.

45 For the SonR of ManS cameT not to be servedU

Notes on verse 45a

R “Son” = Huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
S “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
T “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
U “be served” = diakoneo. Related to “servant” in v43. From diakonos (see note N above). This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.

but to serve and to giveV his lifeW a ransomX for many.”Y

Notes on verse 45b

V “give” = didomi. This is to give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
W “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
X “ransom” = lutron. 2x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is ransom, the money used to free slaves. It is also a sacrifice of expiation. Figuratively, it can be atonement.
Y “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.

Image credit: “Hail, Ceasar! We Who are about to Die Salute You” by Jean Léon Gérôme, 1859.

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