Mark 11:1-11

Mark 11:1-11
Passion/Palm Sunday: Liturgy of the Palms B
NL 236


When they were approachingI Jerusalem,II at BethphageIII and Bethany,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “approaching” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
II “Jerusalem” = Hierosoluma. From Hebrew yerushalaim (probably foundation of peace); {from yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach) + shalem (to make amends, to be complete or sound)}. This is Jerusalem, dwelling of peace.
III “Bethphage” = Bethphage. 3x in NT – all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. From Aramaic beth phagy (Bethphage, house of unripe figs). This is Bethphage, house of unripe or early figs.
IV “Bethany” = Bethania. 12x in NT. From Aramaic beth anya (house of affliction, misery, wretchedness). This is Bethany.

near the MountV of Olives,VI he sentVII twoVIII of his disciplesIX 

Notes on verse 1b

V “Mount” = oros. Perhaps from oro (to rise); perhaps akin to airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is mountain or hill.
VI “Olives” = Elaia. 15x in NT. This is olive or olive tree. Sometimes, its refers to the chosen people.
VII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
VIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
IX “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

2 and saidX to them, “GoXI into the villageXII ahead of you, and immediatelyXIII as you enterXIV it,

Notes on verse 2a

X “said” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XI “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XII “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
XIII “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XIV “enter” = eisporeuomai. 18x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, die; refers to transporting things from one place to another; focuses on the personal significance of the destination); {from poros (passageway)}. This is to enter or journey in in a literal or figurative sense.

you will findXV tiedXVI there a coltXVII that has never been ridden;XVIII

Notes on verse 2b

XV “find” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
XVI “tied” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
XVII “colt” = polos. 12x in NT– all in Jesus’s Palm Sunday entry into Jerusalem. This is foal, colt, or young donkey.
XVIII “has never been ridden” = literally “upon which no person yet has sat.” {untranslated} = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders. “Ridden” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.

untieXIX it and bringXX it. If anyone says to you, ‘Why are you doingXXI this?’ just say this, ‘The LordXXII needsXXIII it and will send it back here immediately.’” 

Notes on verses 2c-3

XIX “untie” = luo. This is to loose, release, or untie. Figuratively, it can mean to break, destroy, or annul. This is releasing what had been withheld.
XX “bring” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XXI “doing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
XXII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XXIII “needs” = chreia + echo. Literally, “has need.” Chreia is from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution. Echo is to have, hold, or possess.

They went awayXXIV and found a colt tied near a door,XXV outside in the street.XXVI As they were untying it, some of the bystandersXXVII said to them, “What are you doing, untying the colt?” 

Notes on verses 4-5

XXIV “went away” = aperchomai. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (to come or go). This is to depart, follow, or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
XXV “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XXVI “street” = amphodon. 1x in NT. From the same as amphoteroi (both, around, all); {from ampho (on both sides)} + hodos (way, road, path, journey). This is a place where two ways or roads meet. It could also be a road that runs around some place.
XXVII “bystanders” = ho + ekei + histemi. Literally, “those standing there.” Histemi is related to “sent” in v1. See note VII above.

They told them what JesusXXVIII had said; and they allowedXXIX them to take it. Then they brought the colt to Jesus and threw their cloaksXXX onXXXI it; and he satXXXII on it. 

Notes on verses 6-7

XXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXIX “allowed” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
XXX “cloaks” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XXXI “threw…on” = epiballo. 18x in NT. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to place on, fall, lay, throw over, think about, waves crashing, emotions emerging.
XXXII “sat” = kathizo. Same as “ridden” in v2. See note XVIII above.

ManyXXXIII people spreadXXXIV their cloaks on the road,XXXV and othersXXXVI spread leafy branchesXXXVII that they had cutXXXVIII in the fields.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 8

XXXIII “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
XXXIV “spread” = stronnuo. 6x in NT. This is to spread, strew, make a bed.
XXXV “road” = hodos. Related to “street” in v4. See note XXVI above.
XXXVI “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XXXVII “leafy branches” = stoibas. 1x in NT. From steibo (to step, stamp). This is a tree branch or bough that is stamped flat.
XXXVIII “cut” = kopto. 8x in NT. This is to cut, strike, cut off. It can also mean beating the chest to lament and so to mourn.
XXXIX “fields” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”

Then those who went aheadXL and those who followedXLI were shouting,XLII

Notes on verse 9a

XL “went ahead” = proago. Related to “go” in v2. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note XI above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
XLI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
XLII “shouting” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.

    Blessed isXLIV the one who comesXLV in the nameXLVI of the Lord!

Notes on verse 9b

XLIII “hosanna” = hosanna. Related to “Jesus” in v6. 6x in NT. From Hebrew yasha (see note XXVIII above) + na (particle used for requests or for urging; can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh). This is Hosanna – save, we pray. It started as a call for help, but later became a cry of happiness (anticipating the help coming). It can be save now, please save, or oh, save.
XLIV “blessed is” = eulogeo. Related to “said” in v2. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note X above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
XLV “comes” = erchomai. Related to “went away” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XLVI “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

10     Blessed is the coming kingdomXLVII of our ancestorXLVIII David!XLIX
Hosanna in the highestL heaven!”

Notes on verse 10

XLVII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XLVIII “ancestor” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XLIX “David” = Dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
L “highest” = hupistos. 13x in NT. From hupsos (height, high position, heaven, dignity, eminence; elevation, altitude; to be exalted); from hupsi (on high, aloft); from huper (over, above, beyond) This is highest, heights, heaven. It can also refer to God as Most High or the Supreme One.

11 Then he enteredLI Jerusalem and went into the temple;LII and when he had looked aroundLIII at everything,LIV

Notes on verse 11a

LI “entered” = eiserchomai. Related to “went away” in v4 & “comes” in v9. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XXIV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
LII “temple” = hieron. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to a god). This is the word for temple.
LIII “looked around” = periblepo.  7x in NT- 6x in Mark & 1x in Luke. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to survey, look around closely, gaze about.
LIV “everything” = pas. This is all or every.

as itLV wasLVI already late,LVII he went outLVIII to Bethany with the twelve.LIX

Notes on verse 11b

LV “it” = ho + hora. Literally, “the hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LVI “was” = eimi. This is to be or exist.
LVII “late” = opse. 3x in NT. From opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is after, late, in the end, in the evening.
LVIII “went out” = exerchomai. Related to “went away” in v4 & “comes” in v9 & “entered” in v11. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XXIV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
LIX “twelve” = dodeka. Related to “two” in v1. From duo (see note VIII above) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

Image credit: “Triumphant Entry” by LUMO Project.

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