Mark 15:16-39

Mark 15:16-39
NL 238


16 Then the soldiersI ledII him into the courtyard of the palaceIII

Notes on verse 16a

I “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
II “led” = apago. 16x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive, go). This is to lead away, take away, or bring. Figuratively, it can refer to being led astray or put to death.
III “courtyard of the palace” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.

(that is,IV the governor’s headquarters),V and they called togetherVI

Notes on verse 16b

IV “is” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
V “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
VI “called together” = sugkaleo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to summon or call together.

the wholeVII cohort.VIII 17 And they clothedIX him in a purpleX cloak,

Notes on verses 16bc-17a

VII “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
VIII “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
IX “clothed” = endidusko. 2x in NT– 1x when the soldiers dressed Jesus in purple at the crucifixion in Mark 15:17 & 1x of the rich man dressed in purple in Luke 16:19. From enduo (to clothe, put on in a literal or figurative sense); {from en (in, on, at, by, with, within) + duno (to enter, sink into; can also be set like the sun); {from duo (to sink)}}. This is to be clothed in or put on.
X “purple” = porphura. 4x in NT– 2x of the purple cloak the soldiers put on Jesus at the crucifixion, 1x of the rich man in Luke 16 & 1x of the purple goods from Babylon in Revelation 18:12. Perhaps from phuro (to mix something dry with something wet). This is purple dye, cloth, or a garment from that cloth. Its shade ranged from violet to scarlet to blue. The dye was made from a snail. The color symbolized royalty, wealth, or power.

and after twistingXI some thornsXII into a crownXIII they put it onXIV him. 

Notes on verse 17b

XI “twisting” = pleko. 3x in NT– all in Gospel parallels of soldiers mocking Jesus. This is to twist, braid, or weave together.
XII “thorns” = akanthinos. 2x in NT. From akantha (thorn bush, thorn); from ake (point, edge). This is thorny or made from thorns.
XIII “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in heaven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
XIV “put…on” = peritithemi. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.

18 And they beganXV salutingXVI him, “Hail,XVII KingXVIII of the Jews!”XIX 

Notes on verse 18

XV “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
XVI “saluting” = aspazomai. Perhaps from a (with, together with) + a form of spao (to draw, draw out, pull). This is to welcome, salute, or greet. It can also be to embrace or acclaim.
XVII “hail” = chairo. From char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting. This is the root verb that the Greek word for “grace” comes from (charis).
XVIII “King” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XIX “Jews” = Ioudaios. From Ioudas (Judah, Judas); from Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Jewish, a Jew, or Judea.

19 They struckXX his headXXI with a reed,XXII spat uponXXIII him,

Notes on verse 19a

XX “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.
XXI “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
XXII “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
XXIII “sat upon” = emptuo. 6x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + ptuo (to spit). This is to spit at.

and knelt downXXIV in homageXXV to him. 20 After mockingXXVI him, they strippedXXVII him of the purple cloak

Notes on verses 19b-20a

XXIV “knelt down” = tithemi + ho + gonu. Tithemi is related to “put…on” in v17. See note XIV above. Gonu is 12x in NT. This is knee.
XXV “homage” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
XXVI “mocking” = empaizo. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + paizo (to play like a child does – can include singing and dancing); {from pais (child, youth, servant, slave); perhaps from paio (to strike or sting)}. This is to mock, ridicule, jeer.
XXVII “stripped” = ekduo. Related to “clothed” in v17. 6x in NT– 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (see note IX above). This is to strip off or take off.

and put his ownXXVIII clothesXXIX onXXX him. Then they led him outXXXI to crucifyXXXII him.

Notes on verse 20b

XXVIII “own” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XXIX “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
XXX “put…on” = enduo. Related to “clothed” in v17 & “stripped” in v20. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (see note IX above)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
XXXI “led…out” = exago. Related to “led” in v16. 12x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + ago (see note II above). This is to lead out or forth. It can be one being led to their death.
XXXII “crucify” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.

21 They compelledXXXIII a passer-by,XXXIV who was comingXXXV in from the country,XXXVI

Notes on verse 21a

XXXIII “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT– 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
XXXIV “passer-by” = parago. Related to “led” in v16 & “led…out” in v20. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (see note II above). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
XXXV “coming” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XXXVI “country” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”

to carryXXXVII his cross;XXXVIII it was SimonXXXIX of Cyrene,XL

Notes on verse 21b

XXXVII “carry” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
XXXVIII “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucify” in v20. See note XXXII above.
XXXIX “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
XL “Cyrene” = Kurenaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This is from Cyrene. See

the fatherXLI of AlexanderXLII and Rufus.XLIII 22 Then they broughtXLIV JesusXLV 

Notes on verses 21c-22a

XLI “father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
XLII “Alexander” = Alexandros. 6x in NT. From alexo (to ward off) + aner (man, male, sir, husband). This is Alexander, meaning “man-defender.”
XLIII “Rufus” = Rhouphos. 2x in NT. From Sabellian Rufrae or Rufrium (proper names); related to Latin ruber (red, ruby). This is Rufus, meaning “red.” See
XLIV “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “Jesus” = autos. Literally, “him.”

to the placeXLVI called GolgothaXLVII (which meansXLVIII Place of a SkullXLIX). 

Notes on verse 22b

XLVI “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
XLVII “Golgotha” = Golgotha. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
XLVIII “means” = eimi + methermeneuo. Eimi is the same as “is” in v16. See note IV above. Methermeneuo is 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of); {perhaps from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name}. This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
XLIX “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.

23 And they offeredL him wineLI mixed with myrrh,LII but he did not takeLIII it. 

Notes on verse 23

L “offered” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
LI “wine” = oinos. Perhaps from Hebrew yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is wine. It is where the word “oenophile” comes from.
LII “mixed with myrrh” = smurnizo. 1x in NT. From smurna (myrrh, perfume as incense; ointment for embalming or figurative for romantic desire); perhaps from muron (ointment, perfume, or anointing oil; probably olive oil mixed with spices and scents such as myrrh). This is to be similar to myrrh or to mix with myrrh. It was given to those sentenced to death to help numb their pain.
LIII “take” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.

24 And they crucified him and dividedLIV his clothes among them, castingLV lotsLVI to decide what each should take.LVII

Notes on verse 24

LIV “divided” = diamerizo. 12x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); {from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment)}. This is to divide up, distribute, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
LV “casting” = ballo. This is to throw, cast, rush, place, or drop. It is throwing, but it could be with more or less velocity and with more or less force/violence.
LVI “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
LVII “take” = airo. Same as “carry” in v21. See note XXXVII above.

25 It was nine o’clock in the morningLVIII when they crucified him. 26 LIXThe inscriptionLX of the chargeLXI against him read,LXII “The King of the Jews.” 

Notes on verses 25-26

LVIII “nine o’clock in the morning” = hora + tritos. Literally, “third hour.” Hora is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from. Tritos is from treis (three). This is third.
LIX {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “is” in v16. See note IV above.
LX “inscription” = epigraphe. 5x in NT. From epigrapho (to write on, inscribe, read; a literal inscription or a mental one); {from epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (to write, describe)}. This is some kind of title or label like an inscription or superscription.
LXI “charge” = aitia. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.
LXII “read” = epigrapho. Related to “inscription” in v26. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, against, what is fitting) + grapho (see note LX above). This is to write on, inscribe, read. It can be a literal inscription or a mental one.

27 And with him they crucified twoLXIII rebels,LXIV oneLXV

Notes on verse 27a

LXIII “two” = duo. This is two or both.
LXIV “rebels” = lestes. 15x in NT– 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barabbas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
LXV “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

on his rightLXVI and one on his left.LXVII [28 And the scriptureLXVIII was fulfilledLXIX

Notes on verses 27b-28a

LXVI “right” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
LXVII “left” = euonumos. 9x in NT. From eu (good, well, rightly) + onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation; thought to include something of the essence of the person and not separate from the person); {may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience)}. This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.
LXVIII “scripture” = graphe. Related to “inscription” and “read” in v26. From grapho (see note LX above). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.
LXIX “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

that says,LXX “And he was countedLXXI among the lawless.”LXXII]

Notes on verse 28b

LXX “says” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
LXXI “counted” = logizomai. Related to “says” in v28. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (see note LXX above). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXII “lawless” = anomos. 10x in NT. From a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}. This is literally without law. So, it could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile). It can be lawless, wicked, or a transgressor.

29 Those who passed byLXXIII deridedLXXIV him, shakingLXXV their heads

Notes on verse 29a

LXXIII “passed by” = paraporeuomai. 5x in NT. From para (from beside, by) + poreuomai (to go, travel, journey, or die; transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination)}. This is to pass long, journey near, go past.
LXXIV “derided” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
LXXV “shaking” = kineo. 8x in NT. This is to move, excite, or provoke. It is to stir in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “kinetic” comes from.

and saying, “Aha!LXXVI You who would destroyLXXVII the templeLXXVIII and buildLXXIX it

Notes on verse 29b

LXXVI “aha” = oua. 1x in NT. This is an exclamation of wonder or surprise like ah or ha. It can have a derisive sense to it.
LXXVII “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
LXXVIII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
LXXIX “build” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.

in threeLXXX days,LXXXI 30 saveLXXXII yourself, and come downLXXXIII from the cross!” 

Notes on verses 29c-30

LXXX “three” = treis. Related to “nine o’clock in the morning” in v25. See note LVIII above.
LXXXI “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXXXII “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
LXXXIII “come down” = katabaino. Related to “King” in v18. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + baino (see note XVIII above). This is to come down whether from the sky to the ground or from higher ground to lower. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

31 In the same wayLXXXIV the chief priests,LXXXV along with the scribes,LXXXVI were also mocking him among themselves

Notes on verse 31a

LXXXIV “in the same way” = homoios. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is likewise or equally.
LXXXV “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “began” in v18. From archo (see note XV above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.
LXXXVI “scribes” = grammateus. Related to “inscription” and “read” in v26 & “scripture” in v28. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (see note LX above). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.

and saying,LXXXVII “He saved others;LXXXVIII he cannotLXXXIX save himself. 

Notes on verse 31b

LXXXVII “saying” = eiron. This is to speak say, answer, command.
LXXXVIII “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LXXXIX “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Dunamai is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.

32 Let the Messiah,XC the King of Israel,XCI come down from the cross now, so that we may seeXCII

Notes on verse 32a

XC “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XCI “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + El (God or god)}. This is Israel the people and the land.
XCII “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

and believe.”XCIII Those who were crucifiedXCIV with him also tauntedXCV him.

Notes on verse 32b

XCIII “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
XCIV “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “crucify” in v20 & “cross” in v21. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note XXXII above). This is to crucify together literally or figuratively.
XCV “taunted” = oneidizo. Related to “left” in v27. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (see note LXVII above). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

33 When it wasXCVI noon,XCVII darknessXCVIII

Notes on verse 33a

XCVI “was” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
XCVII “noon” = hora + hektos. Literally, “sixth hour.” Hora is the same as “nine o’clock in the morning.” See note LVIII above. Hektos is 14x in NT. From hex (six). This is sixth.
XCVIII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.

cameXCIX over the whole landC until three in the afternoon.CI 

Notes on verse 33b

XCIX “came” = ginomai. Same as “was” in v33. See note XCVI above.
C “land” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.
CI “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally, “ninth hour.” Hora is the same as “nine o’clock in the morning.” See note LVIII above. Ennatos is 10x in NT. From enatos (needy, poor, ninth); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited)} OR from ennea (nine). This is ninth.

34 At three o’clockCII JesusCIII cried outCIV with a loudCV voice,CVI

Notes on verse 34a

CII “three o’clock” = ennatos + hora. Same as “three in the afternoon” in v33. See note CI above.
CIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CIV “cried out” = boao. 12x in NT. From boe (a cry or shout). This is cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance.
CV “loud” = megas. This is big in a literal or figurative sense – great, large, exceeding, abundant, high, mighty, perfect, strong, etc.
CVI “voice” = phone. Related to “derided” in v29. Probably from phemi (see note LXXIV above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.

“Eloi,CVII Eloi, lemaCVIII sabachthani?”CIX which means, “My God,CX my God, why have you forsakenCXI me? 

Notes on verse 34b

CVII “Eloi” = Eloi. Related to “Israel” in v32. 2x in NT. From Aramaic Elah (God, a god); akin to Hebrew Eloah (God, Mighty One, power); from El (see note XCI above). This is Eloi – “my God.”
CVIII “lema” = lama. 2x in OT. From Hebrew mah (what, how, why, whatever). This is “why.”
CIX “sabachthani” = sabachthani. 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone, quite); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute). This is forsake or leave.
CX “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CXI “forsaken” = egkataleipo. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

35 When some of the bystandersCXII heardCXIII it, they said,CXIV

Notes on verse 35a

CXII “bystanders” = paristemi. Literally, “those standing by.” Related to “crucify” in v20 & “cross” in v21 & “crucified” in v32. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (see note XXXII above). This is literally to place by stand. It can mean to present, exhibit, appear, bring, stand by, or prove. It can also mean to be ready, to assist, to yield, or to commend.
CXIII “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXIV “said” = eiron. Same as “saying” in v31. See note LXXXVII above.

“Listen,CXV he is callingCXVI for Elijah.”CXVII 

Notes on verse 35b

CXV “listen” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
CXVI “calling” = phoneo. Related to “derided” in v29 & “voice” in v34. From phone (see note CVI above). This is to call out, summon, shout, address. It is making a sound whether of an animal, a person, or an instrument.
CXVII “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Israel” in v32 & “Eloi” in v34 & to “Jesus” in v34. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from El (see note XCI above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note CIII above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”

36 And someone ran,CXVIII filledCXIX a spongeCXX with sour wine,CXXI

Notes on verse 36a

CXVIII “ran” = trecho. To run, make progress, rush. This is running like an athlete in a race. Figuratively, to work quickly towards a goal in a focused way.
CXIX “filled” = gemizo. 8x in NT. From gemo (to be full, swell, at capacity, actions taken to fulfill a goal). This is to fill up or load, be swamped as a boat with water.
CXX “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT– all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CXXI “sour wine” = oxos. Related to “thorns” in v17. 6x in NT– all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (see note XII above). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.

put it onCXXII a stick,CXXIII and gave it to him to drink,CXXIV saying,CXXV “Wait,CXXVI let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.” 

37 Then Jesus gave a loud cry and breathed his last. 38 And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom. 

Notes on verses 36b-38

CXXII “put…on” = peritithemi. Same as “put…on” in v17. See note XIV above.
CXXIII “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v19. See note XXII above.
CXXIV “gave…to drink” = potizo. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
CXXV “saying” = lego. Same as “says” in v28. See note LXX above.
CXXVI “wait” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.

39 Now when the centurionCXXVII who stoodCXXVIII facingCXXIX him saw

Notes on verse 39a

CXXVII “centurion” = kenturion. 3x in NT– all in Mark (a different word for “centurion” is used elsewhere). From Latin centurio (to separate by hundreds, make military companies); from centuria (a unit of a hundred, a century; can be an infantry unit or other group of a hundred); from centum (a hundred). This is a centurion in the Roman army who has charge over a hundred infantry. See
CXXVIII “stood” = paristemi. Same as “bystanders” in v35. See note CXII above.
CXXIX “facing” = enantios. 8x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + antios (set against)} OR from enanti (before); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + anti (opposite, instead of, against)}. This is opposite or, figuratively, an adversary.

that in this way he breathed his last, he said,CXXX “TrulyCXXXI this manCXXXII was God’s Son!”CXXXIII

Notes on verse 39b

CXXX “said” = eiron. Same as “saying” in v31. See note LXXXVII above.
CXXXI “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CXXXII “man” = anthropos. Related to “Alexander” in v21 & to “see” in v32. Probably from aner (see note XLII above) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note XCII above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CXXXIII “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.

Image credit: “The Crucifixion” detail by Willem de Zwart, between 1900 and 1931.

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