Mark 8

Mark 8


In those daysI when there was again a greatII crowd withoutIII anything to eat,IV he calledV his disciplesVI and saidVII to them, 

Notes on verse 1a

I “days” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
II “great” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
III {untranslated} = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
IV “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
V “called” = proskaleo. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to oneself, summon.
VI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VII “said” = lego. This is to say, speak, or tell.

2 “I have compassionVIII for the crowd, because they have beenIX with me now for threeX days and haveXI nothing to eat. 

Notes on verse 2

VIII “have compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT– 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
IX “been” = prosmeno. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remain, adhere to continue, remain together in a place or with someone. Figuratively, to persevere in something.
X “three” = treis. This is three.
XI “have” = echo. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note III above.

3 If I send them awayXII hungryXIII to their homes,XIV they will faintXV on the wayXVI—and some of them have comeXVII from a great distance.” 

Notes on verse 3

XII “send…away” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
XIII “hungry” = nestis. 2x in NT. From ne (not) + the same as esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust); {akin to edo (to eat)}. This is hungry, fasting, fasting for religious reasons.
XIV “homes” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XV “faint” = ekluo. Related to “send…away” in v3. 5x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + luo (see note XII above). This is to loose, release, relax, be faint, to be exhausted. It is to relax in a literal or figurative sense.
XVI “way” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XVII “come” = heko. This is to come or arrive as at a final destination or goal. It can also mean being present in a literal or figurative sense.

4 His disciples replied, “How canXVIII one feedXIX these people with breadXX here in the desert?”XXI 

He askedXXII them, “How many loavesXXIII do you have?”

They said, “Seven.”XXIV 

Notes on verses 4-5

XVIII “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
XIX “feed” = chortazo. 16x in NT. From chortos (food, grass, grain, hay; a place for feeding, a court, garden; by implication, a pasture or vegetation). This is to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy. It carries the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food.
XX “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XXI “desert” = eremia. 4x in NT. From eremos (properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated; could be a deserted area or a desert place; secluded, solitary, or lonesome; any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally). This is solitude or an uninhabited place like a desert or desolate region.
XXII “asked” = erotao. From eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of). This is asking a question or making an earnest request. It is used between someone with whom the asker is close in some sense. So, they anticipate special consideration for their request.
XXIII “loaves” = artos. Same as “bread” in v4. See note XX above.
XXIV “seven” = hepta. This is seven or seventh. Figuratively, seven is the number of completeness or perfection.

6 Then he orderedXXV the crowd to sit downXXVI on the ground;XXVII

Notes on verse 6a

XXV “ordered” = paraggello. From para (from beside, by) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to send a message, order, notify, command. It is a charge – a proper command as a military term that has followed proper channels. It can also mean to entreat solemnly.
XXVI “sit down” = anapipto. 12x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is to fall back, recline, lie down. One reclined at the dinner table.
XXVII “ground” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

and he tookXXVIII the seven loaves, and after giving thanksXXIX he brokeXXX them and gaveXXXI them to his disciples to distribute;XXXII and they distributed them to the crowd. 

Notes on verse 6b

XXVIII “took” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXIX “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
XXX “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.
XXXI “gave” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXII “distribute” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to se beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).

They had also a fewXXXIII small fish;XXXIV and after blessingXXXV them, he ordered that these too should be distributed. 

Notes on verse 7

XXXIII “few” = oligos. This is few or small – it can be a short time or extent, low light, amount, or worth.
XXXIV “small fish” = ichthudion. 2x in NT. From ichthus (fish; an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek). This is little fish. See
XXXV “blessing” = eulogeo. Related to “giving thanks” in v6 & “said” in v1. From eu (see note XXIX above) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note VII above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.

They ate and were filled;XXXVI and they took upXXXVII the broken piecesXXXVIII left over,XXXIX seven basketsXL full. 

Notes on verse 8

XXXVI “were filled” = chortazo. Same as “feed” in v4. See note XIX above.
XXXVII “took up” = airo. Related to “bread” in v4. See note XX above.
XXXVIII “broken pieces” = klasma. Related to “broke” in v6. 9x in NT. From klao (see note XXX above). This is a fragment or broken piece.
XXXIX “left over” = perisseuma. 5x in NT. From perisseuo (more than what is ordinary or necessary; abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond; super-abounding in number or quality); from perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundance, overflow, more than was expected up to the limit – a super-plus.
XL “baskets” = spuris. 5x in NT. Perhaps from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); probably from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is a reed basket used to carry food.

9 Now there were about four thousandXLI people. And he sent them away. 10 And immediatelyXLII he gotXLIII into the boatXLIV with his disciples and wentXLV to the districtXLVI of Dalmanutha.XLVII

Notes on verses 9-10

XLI “four thousand” = tetrakischilioi. 5x in NT. From tessares (four) + chilioi (thousand literal and figurative; can mean total inclusion). This is four thousand.
XLII “immediately” = eutheos. Related to “giving thanks” in v6 & “blessing” in v7 & “distribute” in v6. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked); {perhaps from eu (see note XXIX above) + tithemi (see note XXXII above)}. This is directly, soon, at once.
XLIII “got” = embaino. 17x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + baino (to walk, to go). This is to step onto – embark on a boat.
XLIV “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
XLV “went” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
XLVI “district” = meros. From meiromai (to get your allotment or portion). This is a part, a share, or a portion.
XLVII “Dalmanutha” = Dalmanoutha. 1x in NT. Perhaps from Illyrian delme (sheep). This is Dalmanutha, whose location is uncertain. It may mean “of the shepherds’ way” or “shady place.” See

11 The PhariseesXLVIII cameXLIX and beganL to argue withLI him,

Notes on verse 11a

XLVIII “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XLIX “came” = exerchomai. Related to “went” in v10. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note XLV above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
L “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
LI “argue with” = suzeteo. 10x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to seek together so a joint investigation, to argue, discuss, or debate.

askingLII him for a signLIII from heaven,LIV to testLV him. 

Notes on verse 11b

LII “asking” = zeteo. Related to “argue with” in v11. See note LI above.
LIII “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LIV “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LV “test” = peirazo. From peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is to test, try, tempt, or make proof of. It is to test, scrutinize, or assay something. It could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline.

12 And he sighed deeplyLVI in his spiritLVII and said, “Why does this generationLVIII ask for a sign? TrulyLIX I tell you, no sign will be given to this generation.” 

Notes on verse 12

LVI “sighed deeply” = anastenazo.1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + stenazo (to sigh, complain, express grief; pressure or pain from bring something about as in childbirth); {from steno (to sigh, groan) or from stenos (narrow, confined, constricted; confined because of obstacles); {from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast)}}. This is to sigh or groan.
LVII “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LVIII “generation” = genea. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
LIX “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.

13 And he leftLX them, and getting into the boat again, he went acrossLXI to the other side.LXII 14 Now the disciples had forgottenLXIII to bringLXIV any bread; and they had only oneLXV loaf with them in the boat. 

Notes on verses 13-14

LX “left” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LXI “went across” = aperchomai. Related to “went” in v10 & “came” in v11. From apo (from, away from) + erchomai (see note XLV above). This is to depart, follow,  or go off in a literal or figurative sense.
LXII “other side” = peran. Related to “test” in v11. See note LV above.
LXIII “forgotten” = epilanthanomai. 8x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is to overlook, forget, neglect. It can particularly refer to the impact of not noticing something.
LXIV “bring” = lambano. Same as “took” in v6. See note XXVIII above.
LXV “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

15 And he cautionedLXVI them, saying, “Watch outLXVII—bewareLXVIII of the yeastLXIX of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod.”LXX 

Notes on verse 15

LXVI “cautioned” = diastello. Related to “sighed deeply” in v12. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + stello (to set, arrange, prepare, provide for); {probably from histemi (see note LVI above)}. This is to set apart, distinguish, give a commission, order, set apart for service.
LXVII “watch out” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LXVIII “beware” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LXIX “yeast” = zume. 13x in NT. Perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected.
LXX “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aoide (song, ode, legend, tale); {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}} OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See

16 They saidLXXI to one another, “It is because we have no bread.” 

17 And becoming awareLXXII of it, Jesus said to them, “Why are you talkingLXXIII about having no bread? Do you still not perceiveLXXIV or understand?LXXV

Notes on verses 16-17a

LXXI “said” = dialogizomai. Related to “said” in v1 & “blessings” n v7. 16x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion. It can be multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion.
LXXII “becoming aware” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
LXXIII “talking” = dialogizomai. Same as “said” in v16. See note LXXI above.
LXXIV “perceive” = noeo. Related to “becoming aware” in v17. 14x in NT. From nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (see note LXXII above)}. This is to think, understand, conceive, realize, see. It is one who thinks things through sufficiently to reach a conclusion or value judgment. It is also one’s moral reasoning.
LXXV “understand” = suniemi. Related to “left” in v13. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (see note LX above). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.

AreLXXVI your heartsLXXVII hardened?LXXVIII 18 Do you have eyes,LXXIX and failLXXX to see?LXXXI

Notes on verses 17b-18a

LXXVI “are” = echo. Same as {untranslated} in v1. See note III above.
LXXVII “hearts” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LXXVIII “hardened” = poroo. 5x in NT. From poros (a stone, callous). This is to harden, petrify, of rock. Figuratively, this can be insensitive, callous, or dense.
LXXIX “eyes” = ophthalmos. Related to “watch out” in v15.
LXXX “fail” = ou. Literally, “not.”
LXXXI “see” = blepo. Same as “beware” in v15. See note LXVIII above.

Do you have ears,LXXXII and fail to hear?LXXXIII And do you not remember?LXXXIV 

Notes on verse 18b

LXXXII “ears” = ous. This is the physical ear, or the perception of hearing, whether physical or cognitive.
LXXXIII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXXXIV “remember” = mnemoneuo. Related to “been” in v2. From mnemon (mindful) OR from mneme (memory or mention); {from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence) or mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); or form meno (see note IX above) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); from masso (to knead, squeeze)}. This is to remember, recollect. It does not necessarily imply remembering something that you forgot – it could be simply calling something to mind. It can mean to punish or rehearse.

19 When I broke the fiveLXXXV loaves for the five thousand,LXXXVI how many basketsLXXXVII fullLXXXVIII of broken pieces did you collect?”LXXXIX

They said to him, “Twelve.”XC 

Notes on verse 19

LXXXV “five” = pente. This is five. It may be symbolically associated with the Temple or redemption.
LXXXVI “five thousand” = pentakischilioi. Related to “five” in v19 & “four thousand” in v9. 6x in NT. From pentakis (five times); {from pente (see note LXXXV above)} + chilioi (see note XLI above). This is five thousand.
LXXXVII “baskets” = kophinos. 6x in NT. This is a basket, perhaps made of wicker.
LXXXVIII “full” = pleres. 16x in NT. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.
LXXXIX “collect” = airo. Same as “took up” in v8. See note XXXVII above.
XC “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

20 “And the seven for the four thousand, how many basketsXCI fullXCII of broken pieces did you collect?”

And they said to him, “Seven.” 

21 Then he said to them, “Do you not yet understand?

22 They cameXCIII to Bethsaida.XCIV

Notes on verses 20-22a

XCI “baskets” = spuris. Same as “baskets” in v8. See note XL above.
XCII “full” = pleroma. Related to “full” in v19. 18x in NT. From pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); from pleres (see note LXXXVIII above). This is fullness, supply, completion, superabundance, or multitude.
XCIII “came” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v10. See note XLV above.
XCIV “Bethsaida” = Bethsaida. 7x in NT. From Aramaic bet (house) + tsaida (hunting); related to Hebrew bayit (house, family); {from banah (to build)} + tsayid (hunting, catch, the chase); {from tsud (to hunt, to lie in wait in order to catch an animal; used figuratively for capturing people)} OR from Aramaic bet (house) + chasda (grace); related to Hebrew chesed (favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed; when done by humanity to God, it is piety); {from chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here)}. This is Bethsaida, meaning either house of fish or house of grace.

Some people broughtXCV a blind manXCVI to him and beggedXCVII him to touchXCVIII him. 

Notes on verse 22b

XCV “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI “blind man” = tuphlos. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (to raise smoke, smolder, slowly consume without flame). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
XCVII “begged” = parakaleo. Related to “called” in v1. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (see note V above). This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
XCVIII “touch” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.

23 He tookXCIX the blind man by the handC and ledCI him out of the village;CII and when he had put saliva on his eyesCIII and laidCIV his hands on him, he askedCV him, “Can you see anything?” 

Notes on verse 23

XCIX “took” = epilambanomai. Related to “took” in v6. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (see note XXVIII above). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
C ”hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CI “led” = ekphero. Related to “brought” in v22. 8x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + phero (see note XCV above). This is to lead, produce, carry out.
CII “village” = kome. This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
CIII “eyes” = omma. Related to “eyes” in v18 & “watch out” in v15. 2x in NT. Probably akin to ops (eye, face) OR from optanomai (to appear, be seen); {perhaps from horao (see note LXVII above)}. This is eye or sight.
CIV “laid” = epitithemi. Related to “distribute” in v6 & “immediately” in v10. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (see note XXXII above). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.
CV “asked” = eperotao. Related to “asked” in v5. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (see note XXII above). This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.

24 And the man looked upCVI and said, “I can see people,CVII but they lookCVIII like trees, walking.”CIX 

Notes on verse 24

CVI “looked up” = anablepo. Related to “beware” in v15. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (see note LXVIII above). This is to look up or regain sight.
CVII “people” = anthropos. Related to “eyes” in v18 & “watch out” in v15 & “eyes” in v23. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (see note CIII above). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
CVIII “look” = horao. Same as “watch out” in v15. See note LXVII above.
CIX “walking” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

25 Then Jesus laid his hands on his eyes again; and he looked intentlyCX and his sight was restored,CXI and he sawCXII everythingCXIII clearly.CXIV 

Notes on verse 25

CX “looked intently” = diablepo. Related to “beware” in v15 & “looked up” in v24. 3x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + blepo (see note LXVIII above). This is to look through. It can mean to see accurately, to gaze with focus, or to have sight restored.
CXI “restored” = apokathistemi. Related to “sighed deeply” in v12 & “cautioned” in v15. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note LVI above)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
CXII “saw” = emblepo. Related to “beware” in v15 & “looked up” in v24 & “looked intently” in v25. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (see note LXVIII above). This is to look at, gaze, consider, stare, see clearly, look with particular interest.
CXIII “everything” = hapas. From hama (at once, together with) +pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.
CXIV “clearly” = telaugos. 1x in NT. From tele (afar) + auge (light, radiance, dawn) OR from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is clearly from far, plainly.

26 Then he sent him awayCXV to his home, saying, “Do not even goCXVI into the village.”CXVII

Notes on verse 26

CXV “sent…away” = apostello. Related to “sighed deeply” in v12 & “cautioned” in v15 & “restored” in v25. From apo (from, away from) + stello (see note LXVI above). This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXVI “go” = eiserchomai. Related to “went” in v10 & “came” in v11 & “went across” in v13. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note XLV above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
CXVII Some manuscripts add, “or tell anyone in the village.”

27 JesusCXVIII went onCXIX with his disciples to the villages of CaesareaCXX Philippi;CXXI and on the way he asked his disciples, “Who do people say that I am?” 

Notes on verse 27

CXVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
CXIX “went on” = exerchomai. Same as “came” in v11. See note XLIX above.
CXX “Caesarea” = Kaisareia. 17x in NT. From kaisar (Caesar, at first a last name, then taken as a title by Roman emperors); from Latin (Caesar); perhaps from Punic caesai (elephant) OR from Latin a cesiis oculis (because of the blue eyes) OR from Latin a caesarie (because of the hair) OR from Latin a caeso matris utero (born by Caesarean section) OR from Latin caedo (to cut). This is Caesarea – part of the name of two cities in Palestine. See
CXXI “Philippi” = Philippos. From Philippos (Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses); {from philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse)}. This is Philippi, a city in Macedonia.

28 And they answered him, “JohnCXXII the Baptist;CXXIII and others,CXXIV Elijah;CXXV and still others, one of the prophets.”CXXVI 

Notes on verse 28

CXXII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v27. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note CXVIII above) + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John, meaning “the Lord has been gracious.”
CXXIII “Baptist” = Baptistes. 12x in NT. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is baptizer or Baptist. The term is only used for John the Baptist.
CXXIV “others” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
CXXV “Elijah” = Elias. Related to “Jesus” in v27 & “John” in v28. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note CXVIII above)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”
CXXVI “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

29 He asked them, “But who do you say that I am?”

PeterCXXVII answered him, “You are the Messiah.”CXXVIII 

30 And he sternly orderedCXXIX them not to tell anyone about him.

Notes on verses 29-30

CXXVII “Peter” = Petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CXXVIII “Messiah” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CXXIX “sternly ordered” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.

31 Then he began to teachCXXX them that the SonCXXXI of ManCXXXII mustCXXXIII undergo great suffering,CXXXIV

Notes on verse 31a

CXXX “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
CXXXI “Son” = huios. This is son, descendant – a son whether natural born or adopted. It can be used figuratively for other forms of kinship.
CXXXII “Man” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v24. See note CVII above.
CXXXIII “must” = dei. From deo (to tie, bind, compel; declare unlawful). This is what is necessary or proper. It is what is needed or what one should do – a duty or something inevitable. This refers to something absolutely necessary.
CXXXIV “suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.

and be rejectedCXXXV by the elders,CXXXVI the chief priests,CXXXVII

Notes on verse 31b

CXXXV “rejected” = apodokimazo. 9x in NT.  From apo (from, away from) + dokimazo (to test, examine, prove; to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable; to test in a literal or figurative sense); {from dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}}. This is rejected or disqualified following a test. It is rejected after rigorous investigation and so seen as useless or unworthy.
CXXXVI “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early church.
CXXXVII “chief priests” = archiereus. Related to “began” in v11. From archo (see note L above) + hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); {from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god)} This is a high or chief priest.

and the scribes,CXXXVIII and be killed,CXXXIX and after three days riseCXL again. 

Notes on verse 31c

CXXXVIII “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXXXIX “be killed” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
CXL “rise” = anistemi. Related to “sighed deeply” in v12 & “cautioned” in v15 & “restored” in v25 & “sent…away” in v26. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note LVI above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

32 He said all thisCXLI quite openly.CXLII, CXLIII And Peter tookCXLIV him aside and began to rebukeCXLV him. 

Notes on verse 32

CXLI “this” = logos. Related to “said” in v1 & “blessings” in v7 & “said” in v16. From lego (see note VII above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXLII “openly” = parresia. Related to “everything” in v25. From pas (see note CXIII above) + rhesis (speech); {from rheo (say, speak of, command)}. This is confidence, openness, boldness, outspokenness. It can imply assurance – free speech.
CXLIII Literally, “and openly he was speaking the word.”
CXLIV “took” = proslambano. Related to “took” in v6 & “took” in v23. 12x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + lambano (see note XXVIII above). This is to take aside, accept, receive, or welcome. It can be to take in a friendly or hospitable sense or to eat (i.e. take food).
CXLV “rebuke” = epitimao. Same as “sternly ordered” in v30. See note CXXIX above.

33 But turningCXLVI and looking at his disciples, he rebuked Peter and said, “GetCXLVII behindCXLVIII me, Satan!CXLIX For you are setting your mindCL not on divineCLI things but on humanCLII things.”

Notes on verse 33

CXLVI “turning” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CXLVII “get” = hupago. Related to “ordered” in v6. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note XXV above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
CXLVIII “behind” = opiso. Related to “eyes” in v18 & “watch out” in v15 & “eyes” in v23 & “people” in v24. From the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back); from optanomai (see note CIII above). This is back, behind, after.
CXLIX “Satan” = Satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
CL “setting…mind” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action.
CLI “divine” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
CLII “human” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v24. See note CVII above.

34 He called the crowd with his disciples, and said to them, “If any wantCLIII to becomeCLIV my followers,CLV let them denyCLVI themselves and take up their crossCLVII and followCLVIII me. 

Notes on verse 34

CLIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CLIV “become” = erchomai. Same as “went” in v10. See note XLV above.
CLV “my followers” = opiso + ego. Literally, “come after me.” Opiso is the same as “behind” in v33. See note CXLVIII above.
CLVI “deny” = aparneomai. Related to “openly” in v32. 11x n NT– 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
CLVII “cross” = stauros. Related to “sighed deeply” in v12 & “cautioned” in v15 & “restored” in v25 & “sent…away” in v26 & “rise” in v31. From the same as histemi (see note LVI above). This is an upright stake, cross. Literally refers to the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die.
CLVIII “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.

35 For those who want to saveCLIX their lifeCLX will loseCLXI it, and those who lose their life for my sake, and for the sake of the gospel,CLXII will save it. 

Notes on verse 35

CLIX “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CLX “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CLXI “lose” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
CLXII “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “ordered” in v6 & “get” in v33 & “giving thanks” in v6 & “blessing” in v7 & “immediately” in v10. From eu (see note XXIX above) + aggelos (see note XXV above). This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.

36 For what will it profitCLXIII themCLXIV to gainCLXV the wholeCLXVI worldCLXVII and forfeitCLXVIII their life? 37 Indeed, what can theyCLXIX give in returnCLXX for their life? 

Notes on verses 36-37

CLXIII “profit” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.
CLXIV “them” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v24. See note CVII above.
CLXV “gain” = kerdaino. 17x in NT. From kerdos (profit, gain, advantage). This is to gain, win, or acquire. It is a word from the sphere of bartering and trading. Figuratively, it can mean trading up.
CLXVI “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CLXVII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
CLXVIII “forfeit” = zemioo. 6x in NT. From zemia (damage, loss, failed deal; business matter ending in fine or penalty or loss); probably related to damazo (to tame or subdue). This is to damage, cause a loss, punish, forfeit, be damaged or cast away.
CLXIX “they” = anthropos. Same as “people” in v24. See note CVII above.
CLXX “in return” = antallagma. 2x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + allasso (to change, transform) {from allos (other, another; another of a similar kind or type)}. This is to exchange, an equivalent, a ransom.

38 Those who are ashamedCLXXI of me and of my wordsCLXXII in this adulterousCLXXIII and sinfulCLXXIV generation,

Notes on verse 38a

CLXXI “are ashamed” = epaishunomai. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + aischuno to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is to be ashamed or disgraced. It is a personal humiliation or dishonor – a shame that matches an error.
CLXXII “words” = logos. Same as “this” in v32. See note CXLI above.
CLXXIII “adulterous” = moichalis. 7x in NT. From moichos (adulterer; a man who has been with a married woman; used figuratively of an apostate). This is adulteress or adultery. It can also refer to idolaters.
CLXXIV “sinful” = hamartolos. Related to “district” in v10. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (see note XLVI above)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

of them the Son of Man will also be ashamed when he comes in the gloryCLXXV of his FatherCLXXVI with the holyCLXXVII angels.”CLXXVIII

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXV “glory” = doxa. Related to “rejected” in v31. From dokeo (see note CXXXV above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
CLXXVI “Father” = pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.
CLXXVII “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CLXXVIII “angels” = aggelos. Related to “ordered” in v6 & “get” in v33 & “gospel” in v35. See note XXV above.

Image credit: “Jesus Healing the Blind” – at the Basilica Catedrale di Santa Maria Nouva di Monreale in Sicily, 12th century.

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