Matthew 1

Matthew 1


An accountA of the genealogyB of JesusC the Messiah,D the son of David,E the son of Abraham.F

Notes on verse 1

A “account” = biblos. 10x in NT– 5x in reference to books of the Bible, 3x of the book of life, 1x of genealogical account of Jesus, 1x of books of magic. Perhaps from bublos (papyrus); from Phoenician Byblos (a Phoenician city that exported papyrus for writing); {from gb (well, origin) + I (God)}; from Proto-Canaanite g-b-l (Gubla – maybe meaning to border). This is the inside bark of papyrus so it could refer to anything that was written on – a scroll, book, record, roll. It could also have an association with the sacred. See
B “genealogy” = genesis. 5x in NT. From ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is origin, lineage, birth, genealogy, or life. It can be figurative for nature. This is where the word “genesis” comes from.
C “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
D “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
E “David” = dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
F “Abraham” = abraam. From Hebrew Abraham (exalted father); from the same as Abiram (exalted father, a high father – lofty) {from ab (father literal or figurative) + rum (rise, bring up, being high, extol, exalt, haughty; to raise in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Abraham, father of many nations or father of a multitude.

Abraham was the father ofG Isaac,H and Isaac the father of Jacob,I and Jacob the father of JudahJ and his brothers,K 

Notes on verse 2

G “was the father of” = gennao. Related to “genealogy” in v1. From genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note B above). This is to beget, give birth to, or bring forth. Properly, it refers to procreation by the father, but was used of the mother by extension. Figuratively, this can mean to regenerate.
H “Isaac” = isaak. From Hebrew yitschaq (Isaac, “he laughs”); from tsachaq (to laugh, mock, play, make sport; this is laughing out loud whether in joy or in a scornful way). Isaac, meaning “he laughs.”
I “Jacob” = iakob. From Hebrew yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
J “Judah” = ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
K “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.

and Judah the father of PerezL and ZerahM by Tamar,N and Perez the father of Hezron,O and Hezron the father of Aram,P 

Notes on verse 3

L “Perez” = phares. 3x in NT. From Hebrew perets (a breach or a gap; a break, literal or figurative); from parats (to make a breach, burst out, compel, disperse; to break out literally or figuratively). This is Perez, meaning “breach.”
M “Zerah” = zara. 1x in NT. From Hebrew zerach (Zerah, Zerach); from the same as zerach (dawning, rising, shining); from zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is Zerah or Zara, meaning “dawning.”
N “Tamar” = thamar. 1x in NT. From Hebrew tamar (Tamar; person and a place); from the same as tomer (palm tree, the trunk of that tree, a post); from tamar (root may mean being erect; a date palm or other palm tree). This is Tamar or Thamar, meaning “palm tree.”
O “Hezron” = hesrom. 3x in NT. From Hebrew chetsron (Hezron; person and a place); from the same as chatser (village, settlement).This is Hezron or Esrom, meaning “village.”
P “Aram” = aram. Related to “Abraham” in v1. 4x in NT. From Hebrew ram (Ram, meaning “high”); from rum (see note F above). Ram or Aram, a name meaning “high.”

and Aram the father of Aminadab,Q and Aminadab the father of Nahshon,R and Nahshon the father of Salmon,S 

Notes on verse 4

Q “Aminadab” = aminadab. 3x in NT. From Hebrew amminadab (Ammniadab, meaning “my kin is noble”); {from im (with, alike, near); {from amam (to darken, associate, hide)} + nadib (noble, generous, willing, voluntary); {from nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer)}}. This is Amminadab, meaning “my kin is noble.”
R “Nahshon” = naasson. 3x in NT. From Hebrew nachshon (Nachshon, meaning “enchanter”); from the same as nachash (to practice divination, learn by experience; to hiss as in whispering a spell). This is Nahshon or Naasson, meaning “enchanter.”
S “Salmon” = salmon. 2x in NT. From Hebrew salmon (Salmon, meaning “investiture”); from salmah (cloak, clothes, dress, wrapper); from simlah (mantle, clothes, wrapper); perhaps from semel (image, figure, likeness). This is Salmon, meaning “investiture.”

and Salmon the father of BoazT by Rahab,U and Boaz the father of ObedV by Ruth,W and Obed the father of Jesse,X 

Notes on verse 5

T “Boaz” = boos. 3x in NT. From Hebrew boaz (Boaz, meaning “quickness”). This is Boaz, meaning “quickness.”
U “Rahab” = rhachab. 1x in NT. From Hebrew rachab (Rahab); from rachab (wide, spacious, vast, proud, roomy); from rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; to extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is Rahab or Rachab, meaning “proud.”
V “Obed” = obed. 3x in NT. 3x in NT. From Hebrew obed (Obed, meaning “worshipper” or “serving”); from abad (to work, serve, or compel; any kind of work or service including religious devotion); to till or cultivate, enslave or keep in bondage). This is Obed, meaning “worshipper” or “serving.”
W “Ruth” = rhouth. 1x in NT. From Hebrew ruth (Ruth meaning “friendship” or “friend”); from reuth (neighbor, another, friend); from raah (to associate with, keep company, cultivate). This is Ruth, meaning “friendship” or “friend.”
X “Jesse” = iessai. 5x in NT. From Hebrew yishay (Jesse); perhaps from the same as yesh (being, existence, substance). This is Jesse, perhaps meaning “God exists.” See

and Jesse the father of KingY David. And David was the father of SolomonZ by the wife of Uriah,AA and Solomon the father of Rehoboam,BB and Rehoboam the father of Abijah,CC and Abijah the father of Asaph,DD 

Notes on verses 6-7

Y “king” = basileus. Probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
Z “Solomon” = solomon.12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”
AA “Uriah” = ourias. Related to “Jesus” in v1. 1x in NT. From Hebrew uriyah (Uriah meaning “flame of the Lord”); {from ur (flame, light, the east); {from or (to be light, shine literal or figurative)} + Yah (God, the Lord – shortened form of the holy name of God); {from YHVH (see note C above)}}. This is Uriah, meaning “flame of the Lord.”
BB “Rehoboam” = rhoboam. Related to “Rahab” in v5 & “Aminadab” in v4. 2x in NT. From Hebrew rechabam (Rechabam, meaning “a people are enlarged”); {from rachab (see note U above)} + am (people or nation; tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively a flock of animals.); {from amam (see note Q above)}.This is Rehoboam, meaning “a people are enlarged.”
CC “Abijah” = abia. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6. 3x in NT. From Hebrew abiyyah (Abiyyah, meaning “the Lord is my father” or “worshipper of the Lord”); {from ab (see note F above) + yah (see note AA above)}. This is Abijah or Abia, meaning “the Lord is my father” or “worshipper of the Lord”.
DD “Asaph” = asaph. 2x in NT. From Hebrew asaph (Asaph, meaning “gatherer” or “collector”); from asaph (to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove). This is Asa or Asaph, meaning “gatherer” or “collector.”

and Asaph the father of Jehoshaphat,EE and Jehoshaphat the father of Joram,FF and Joram the father of Uzziah,GG and Uzziah the father of Jotham,HH and Jotham the father of Ahaz,II and Ahaz the father of Hezekiah,JJ 

Notes on verses 8-9

EE “Jehoshaphat” = iosaphat. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” in v7. 2x in NT. From Hebrew yehoshaphat (Jehoshaphat, Yehoshaphat, meaning “the Lord has judged”); {from YHVH (see note C above) + shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern)}. This is Jehoshaphat, meaning “the Lord has judged.”
FF “Joram” = ioram. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Aram” in v3 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7. 2x in NT. From Hebrew Yoram (Joram or Jehoram, “the Lord is exalted”); {from YHVH (see note C above) + rum (see note F above)}. This is Joram or Jehoram, meaning “the Lord is exalted.”
GG “Uzziah” = ozias. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7 & “Joram” in v8. 2x in NT. From Hebrew uzziyyah (Uzziah, “my strength is the Lord”); {from oz (strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security; also social or political power) + Yah (see note AA above)}. This is Uzziah or Ozias, meaning “my strength is the Lord.”
HH “Jotham” = ioatham. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7 & “Joram” and “Uzziah” in v8. 2x in NT. From Hebrew yotham (Jotham, Yotham, “the Lord is perfect”); {from YHVH (see note C above) + tam (complete, integrity, peaceful, perfect, blameless person, undefiled, upright; complete, generally from a moral perspective; gentle or dear.); {from tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense)}}. This is Jotham, meaning “the Lord is perfect.”
II “Ahaz” = achaz. 2x in NT. From Hebrew achaz (Ahaz, meaning “he has grasped” or “possessor”); from achaz (to grasp, catch, seize, take and hold in possession). This is Ahaz, meaning “he has grasped” or ”possessor.”
JJ “Hezekiah” = hezekias. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7 & “Joram” and “Uzziah” in v8 & “Jotham” in v9. 2x in NT. From Hebrew chizqiyyah (Hezekiah, “the Lord has strengthened”); {from chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden) + Yah (see note AA above)}. This is Hezekiah or Ezekias, “the Lord has strengthened”

10 and Hezekiah the father of Manasseh,KK and Manasseh the father of Amos,LL and Amos the father of Josiah,MM 11 and Josiah the father of JechoniahNN and his brothers, at the time of the deportationOO to Babylon.PP

Notes on verses 10-11

KK “Manasseh” = manasses. 3x in NT. From Hebrew menashsheh (Manasseh, “causing to forget”; Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.); from nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh or Manasses, meaning “causing to forget.”
LL “Amos” = amos. 3x in NT. From Hebrew amots (Amos, meaning “strong”); from amets (to be strong, stout, alert, or bold; to harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish; physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness). This is Amos, meaning “strong.”
MM “Josiah” = iosias. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7 & “Joram” and “Uzziah” in v8 & “Jotham” and “Hezekiah” in v9. 2x in NT. From Hebrew yoshiyyah (Josiah, “the Lord supports”); {from yah (see note AA above) + asheyah (buttress, pillar)}. This is Josiah, Josech, or Josias, meaning “the Lord supports.”
NN “Jechoniah” = iechonias. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7 & “Joram” and “Uzziah” in v8 & “Jotham” in v9 & “Josiah” in v10. 2x in NT. From Hebrew yekonyah (Jeconiah, meaning “the Lord will establish”); {from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous) + yah (see note AA above) + asheyah (see note MM above)}. This is Jeoniah, Jechoniah, or Jechonias, meaning “the Lord will establish.”
OO “deportation” = metoikesia. 4x in NT. From metoikeo (to change one’s residence); {from meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is literally a change of dwelling, but can also mean migration or deportation.
PP “Babylon” = babulon. 12x in NT. See Hebrew babel (Babylon or Babel); {perhaps from balal (to anoint, mix, overflow)} OR from Akkadian Bbilim; perhaps from earlier Sumerian name Ca-dimirra (gate of god). This is Babylon, meaning “gate of god” or “gate of gods.” See

12 And after the deportation to Babylon: Jechoniah was the father of Salathiel,QQ and Salathiel the father of Zerubbabel,RR 13 and Zerubbabel the father of Abiud,SS and Abiud the father of Eliakim,TT and Eliakim the father of Azor,UU 

Notes on verses 12-13

QQ “Salathiel” = salathiel. 3x in NT. From Hebrew shealtiel (Shealtiel, meaning “I have asked of God); {from shaal (to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request; can also mean demand) + el (God, a god)}. This is Shealthiel or Salathiel, meaning “I have asked of God.”
RR Zerubbabel” = zorobabel. Related to “Babylon” in v11. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Zerubbabel (Zerubbabel, meaning “begotten in Babylon” or “descended of Babylon”); {perhaps from zarab (to burn, flow away) + babel (see note PP above)}. This is Zerubbabel, meaning “begotten in Babylon” or “descended of Babylon.”
SS “Abiud” = abioud. Related to “Abraham” in v1 & “Abijah” in v7. 2x in NT. From Hebrew abihud (Abihud, “my father is majesty” or “father of renown”); {from ab (see note above) + hod (splendor, majesty, glory, beauty, grandeur)}. This is Abiud or Abihud, meaning “my father is majesty” or “father of renown.”
TT “Eliakim” = eliakim. Related to “Salathiel” in v12. 3x in NT. From Hebrew elyaqim (Eliakim, “God sets up”); {from el (see note QQ above) + qum (to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense)}. This is Eliakim, “God sets up.”
UU “Azor” = azor. 2x in NT. From Hebrew azzur (Azzur, meaning “helpful”); from azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid). This is Azzur, meaning “helpful.”

14 and Azor the father of Zadok,VV and Zadok the father of Achim,WW and Achim the father of Eliud,XX 15 and Eliud the father of Eleazar,YY and Eleazar the father of Matthan,ZZ and Matthan the father of Jacob, 

Notes on verses 14-15

VV Zadok” = sadok. 2x in NT. From Hebrew tsadoq (Zadok, a personal name); from tsadaq (to be just or righteous, do justice); from tsedeq (rightness, righteousness, just cause, vindication; that which is right in a natural, moral, or legal sense; abstractly equity; figuratively prosperity). This is Zadok or Sadoc, meaning “righteous.” It is where the Sadducees took their name from.
WW “Achim” = achim. Related to “Abraham” and “Jesus” in v1 & “Uriah” in v6 & “Abijah” and “Jehoshaphat” in v7 & “Joram” and “Uzziah” in v8 & “Jotham” and “Hezekiah” in v9 & “Josiah” in v10 & “Jechoniah” in v11 & Eliakim” in v13. 2x in NT. Probably from Hebrew similar to yoqim (Yoqim, Jokim, meaning “the Lord raises up”); {from YHVH (see note C above) + qum (see note TT above)}. This is Achim, meaning “the Lord raises up.”
XX “Eliud” = elioud. Related to “Salathiel” in v12 & “Eliakim” and “Abioud” in v13. 2x in NT. From el (see note QQ above) + hod (see note SS above). This is Eliud or Elioud, meaning “God of majesty.”
YY “Eleazar” = eleazar. Related to “Salathiel” in v12 & “Eliakim” in v13 & “Azor” in v13 & “Eliud” in v14. 2x in NT. From Hebrew elazar (Eleazar, “God has helped” or “God is helper”); {from el (see note QQ above) + azar (see note UU above)}. This is Eleazar, meaning “God has helped” or “God is helper.”
ZZ “Matthan” = matthan. 2x in NT. From Hebrew mattan (Mattan); from the same as mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively). This is Matthan, meaning “giving” or “gift.”

16 and Jacob the father of JosephAAA the husbandBBB of Mary,CCC of whom Jesus was born, who is called the Messiah.

17 So all the generationsDDD from Abraham to David are fourteen generations; and from David to the deportation to Babylon, fourteen generations; and from the deportation to Babylon to the Messiah, fourteen generations.

Notes on verses 16-17

AAA “Joseph” = ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
BBB “husband” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
CCC “Mary” = maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
DDD “generations” = genea. Related to “genealogy” in v1 & “was the father of” in v2. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (see note B above). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.

18 Now the birthEEE of Jesus the Messiah took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been engagedFFF to Joseph, but before they lived together, she was foundGGG to be with childHHH from the HolyIII Spirit.JJJ 

Notes on verse 18

EEE “birth” = genesis. Same as “genealogy” in v1. See note B above.
FFF “engaged” = mnesteuo. 3x in NT – all in reference to Mary and Joseph’s engagement. From mnaomai (to be mindful, remember); from meno (to stay, abide, remain, wait, continue, endure; to stay in a certain place or state). This is to be engaged or betrothed. This was more than engagement as we would think of it. To be engaged was more like two-thirds married. For example, if there was sexual infidelity at this stage, it was still considered adultery.
GGG “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
HHH “with child” = gaster + echo. Literally “in womb having.” Gaster is 9x in NT. It is used for belly, womb, or pregnant.
III “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
JJJ “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

19 Her husband Joseph, being a righteous manKKK and unwillingLLL to expose her to public disgrace,MMM plannedNNN to dismissOOO her quietly.PPP 

Notes on verse 19

KKK “righteous man” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
LLL “unwilling” = me + thelo. Literally “not willing.” Thelo is to will, wish, desire, intend, or to be willing. It speaks to intentions for action from subjective impulse. These are not wistful desires, but ones that will be acted on soon.
MMM “expose…to public disgrace” = deigmatizo. 2x in NT. May be related to “righteous man” in v19. From deigma (example, specimen, type – something that is shown); from deiknumi (see note J above). This is to expose or make a show of. To hold someone or something up as an example. By implication, it can mean to disgrace someone.
NNN “planned” = boulomai. This is will, intend, desire, or wish. This word refers to planning that is focused and intended to achieve a specific goal.
OOO “dismiss” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, dissolve, untie; used figuratively to mean break, destroy, or annul; so, this is to break something apart so that it doesn’t hold together any more). This is properly to release, let go, discharge, or dismiss. It is used for an annulment as in a divorce – to free fully.
PPP “quietly” = lathra. 4x in NT. From lanthano (to escape notice, be hidden or concealed, to act without realizing it, to shut your eyes to something; to be hidden literally or figuratively). This is secretly or privately.

20 But just when he had resolved to doQQQ this,RRR an angelSSS of the LordTTT appeared to him in a dreamUUU

Notes on verse 20a

QQQ “resolved to do” = enthumeomai. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + thumos (passion, wrath; passion that drives action; so, behavior that comes from strong impulses or feelings and is expressed; e.g. rage, fierceness, indignation); from the same as thuella (whirlwind, storm); from thuo (breathe violently, rage, seethe; also used for offering sacrifice, particularly animal sacrifice since there is a rush of smoke and fire to immolate it). This word refers to passionate thoughts that agitate or move the mind that are then reflected on and weighed.
RRR {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be away, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
SSS “angel” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove) [also from ago (lead, bring, carry, guide)]. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
TTT “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
UUU “dream” = onar. 6x in NT. This is a dream while asleep and not day dreaming. Dreamers include: Joseph husband of Mary, wise men, and Pilate’s wife.

and said, “Joseph, son of David, do not be afraidVVV to takeWWW Mary as your wife,XXX for the child conceivedYYY in her is from the Holy Spirit. 

Notes on verse 20b

VVV “be afraid” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
WWW “take” = paralambano. From para (from beside, by) + lambano (to take, receive, get; to actively take or receive – emphasizes the individual’s choice. Not meant in a passive receiving or violent taking sense). This is to receive, take, acknowledge with initiative. It can also mean to associate with. By analogy, it can mean taking an office and figuratively it can be used for learning.
XXX “wife” = gune. Related to “genealogy” in v1 & “was the father of” in v2 & “generations” in v17. Perhaps from ginomai (see note B above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
YYY “conceived” = gennao. Same as “was the father of” in v2. See note G above.

21 She will bearZZZ a son, and you are to name himAAAA Jesus, for he will saveBBBB his peopleCCCC from their sins.”DDDD 

Notes on verse 21

ZZZ “bear” = tikto. 18x in NT. This is used of creating new life whether as a mother or a plant or the earth as a whole. It can be rendered bright forth, bear, give birth, labor, produce, or yield. It can also refers to the pains of childbirth.
AAAA “you are to name him” = Literally “you will call his name” – kaleo + ho + onoma + autos. Kaleo is summon, name, call forth. Onoma may be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
BBBB “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
CCCC “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
DDDD “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

22 AllEEEE this took placeFFFF to fulfillGGGG what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet:HHHH

Notes on verse 22

EEEE “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, entire. This is a situation in which every part is there and they work together in sync. This is where the word “whole” comes from.
FFFF “took place” = ginomai. Related to “genealogy” in v1 & “was the father of” in v2 & “generations” in v17 & “birth” in v18 & perhaps “wife” in v19 & “conceived” in v20. See note B above.
GGGG “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
HHHH “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

23 “Look,IIII the virginJJJJ shall conceiveKKKK and bear a son,

Notes on verse 23a

IIII “look” = idou. Same as the untranslated word in v20 (see note RRR above).
JJJJ “virgin” = Parthenos. 15x in NT. This is maiden, virgin, or chaste. It is used of the ten bridesmaids as well as Paul’s opinion concerning virgins in 1 Corinthians 7. This word can also be used for virgin men. Here, it describes a woman who has gone through puberty but is as yet unmarried.
KKKK “conceive” = gaster + echo. Literally “in womb having” as in v20. See note HHH above.

    and they shall name himLLLL Emmanuel,”MMMM
which means,NNNN “GodOOOO is with us.” 

Notes on verse 23b

LLLL “shall name him” = kaleo + ho + onoma + autos. Literally “will call his name.” See note ZZZ above.
MMMM “Emmanuel” = emmanouel. Related to “Aminadab” in v4 & “Salathiel” in v12 & “Eliakim” and “Azor” in v13 & “Eliud” in v14 & “Eleazar” in v15. 1x in NT. From Hebrew immanu-el. 2x in OT. From im (see note Q above) + nu (a prefix for first person plural i.e. us) + el (see note QQ above). This is literally “with us God.”
NNNN “means” = methermeneuo. 8x in NT. From meta (with, among, beyond) + hermeneuo (to interpret, translate, explain the meaning of; this may be from Hermes, the god of language and a proper name). This is to explain beyond i.e. to translate or interpret.
OOOO “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

24 When Joseph awokePPPP from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commandedQQQQ him; he took her as his wife, 25 but had no marital relationsRRRR with her until she had borne a son; and he named him Jesus.

Notes on verses 24-25

PPPP “awoke” = egeiro. “awoke” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
QQQQ “commanded” = prostasso. 7x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tasso (to arrange, appoint, determine). This is to allot, place, appoint, or instruct. This is allotting with a focus on the one who is making the allotment decisions. Figuratively, this can also mean to enjoin.
RRRR “had…marital relations” = ginosko. Perhaps related to “name” in v21. See note ZZZ above.

Image credit: “Joseph’s Dream” a Fresco at the Parish Church of Castelseprio, Italy by the Master of Castelseprio from the second half of the 10th century.

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