Matthew 13

Matthew 13


That same day JesusI went out of the houseII and satIII beside the sea.IV 

Notes on verse 1

I “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
II “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
III “sat” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.
IV “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

2 Such great crowds gatheredV around him that he got into a boatVI and sat there, while the whole crowd stoodVII on the beach.VIII 

Notes on verse 2

V “gathered” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
VI “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
VII “stood” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
VIII “beach” = aigialos. Perhaps related to “sea” in v1. 6x in NT. From aix (a wave) OR from aisso (to rush) + hals (see note IV above). This is seashore, beach, land, lakeshore.

3 And he told them many things in parables,IX saying: “Listen!X A sowerXI went out to sow.XII 

Notes on verse 3

IX “parables” = parabole. From paraballo (literally to throw beside, compare, arrive, liken); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a parable, comparison, adage. Quite often a tale told or a metaphor to establish a point, but it could be a true story.
X “listen” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XI “sower” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.
XII “sow” = speiro. Same as “sower” in v3. See note XI above.

And as he sowed, someXIII seeds fell on the path,XIV and the birdsXV came and ate them up.XVI 

Notes on verse 4

XIII {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XIV “path” = hodos. This is way, road, path, or journey. It can imply progress along a route.
XV “birds” = peteinon. 14x in NT. From petomai (to fly). This is something with wings i.e. a bird.
XVI “ate…up” = katesthio. 15x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to eat up, to consume totally so that there is nothing left. It can also be to annoy, injure, or squander.

OtherXVII seeds fell on rocky ground,XVIII where they did not have much soil, and they sprang upXIX quickly,XX since they had no depthXXI of soil. 

Notes on verse 5

XVII “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
XVIII “rocky ground” = petrodes. Related to “listen” in v3. 4x in NT. From petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; a cave or stony ground) + –odes (similar to) OR from petra (see above) + eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); {from eido (see note X above)}. This is rocky or stony.
XIX “sprang up” = exanatello. 2x in NT– both in Parable of the Sower in Matthew 13 and Mark 4. From ek (from, from out of) + anatello (rise, shine, or dawn; most often used of the sun; figuratively, achieving a goal or reaching consummation after completing the needed steps); {from ana (up, again, back, anew) + tello (to cause to arise); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax)}. This is to rise up from as a plant springing up from the ground – to germinate.
XX “quickly” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.
XXI “depth” = bathos. 8x in NT. From bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from the same root as basis (step, foot). This is depth, fullness, profundity, or immensity. This is where the term “bathysphere” comes from, but not the English word “bath.”

6 But when the sunXXII rose,XXIII they were scorched;XXIV and since they had no root,XXV they withered away.XXVI 

Notes on verse 6

XXII “sun” = helios. This is sun, which would imply light in general or the east.
XXIII “rose” = anatello. Related to “sprang up” in v5. See note XIX above.
XXIV “scorched” = kaumatizo. 4x in NT. From kauma (heat, burn, a glow); from kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is to burn up or scorch.
XXV “root” = rhiza. 17x in NT. This is a root literally or figuratively so it would be the root of what comes from it – shoot, source, descendant. This is where the word “rhizome” comes from.
XXVI “withered away” = xeraino. 15x in NT. From xeros (dry, arid, withered; can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken). This is to dry up, wither, ripen, pine.

Other seeds fell among thorns,XXVII and the thorns grew up and chokedXXVIII them. Other seeds fell on goodXXIX soil and brought forthXXX grain,XXXI someXXXII a hundredfold, some sixty, some thirty. 9 Let anyone with ears listen!”XXXIII

Notes on verses 7-9

XXVII “thorns” = akantha. 14x in NT. From akmen (even now, still yet); from the same as akmazo (ripe, to be vigorous); from akme (point, edge); related to ake (a point). This is thorn or thorn bush.
XXVIII “choked” = pnigo. 3x in NT. Perhaps from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is to choke, wheeze, strangle, or drown.
XXIX “good” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XXX “brought forth” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXI “grain” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
XXXII {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XIII above.
XXXIII “listen” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.

10 Then the disciplesXXXIV came and asked him, “Why do you speak to them in parables?” 

11 He answered, “To you it has been givenXXXV to knowXXXVI the secretsXXXVII of the kingdomXXXVIII of heaven,XXXIX but to them it has not been given. 

Notes on verses 10-11

XXXIV “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XXXV “given” = didomi. Same as “brought forth” in v8. See note XXX above.
XXXVI “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience
XXXVII “secrets” = musterion. From mustes (an initiate); from mueo (to initiate someone into the secrets or mysteries of an order; to instruct learn, be disciples; properly, shutting your mouth and eyes to experience mystery); from muo (shutting eyes or mouth). This is a mystery or a secret doctrine that requires initiation to learn. In the New Testament, the plans of God were hidden until they were revealed in Christ through the Gospel. It is also used of Christian revelation in a broad sense rather than referring to something that cannot be known. This is the root of the word “mystery.”
XXXVIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XXXIX “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

12 For to those who have, more will be given, and they will have an abundance;XL but from those who have nothing, even what they have will be taken away.XLI 13 The reason I speak to them in parables is that ‘seeingXLII they do not perceive,XLIII and hearingXLIV they do not listen, nor do they understand.’XLV 

Notes on verses 12-13

XL “have an abundance” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
XLI “taken away” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
XLII “seeing” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XLIII “perceive” = blepo. Same as “seeing” in v13. See note XLII above.
XLIV “hearing” = akouo. Same as “listen” in v9. See note XXXIII above.
XLV “understand” = suneimi. From sun (with, together with) + hiemi (to send, put). This is to put together – used figuratively to mean understand, consider, gain insight. It is bringing together facts or notions and synthesizing them into a whole. It is making a summary to arrive at a final conclusion that includes how to apply the insight to life. It can also imply acting piously or being wise.

14 With them indeed is fulfilledXLVI the prophecyXLVII of IsaiahXLVIII that says:

Notes on verse 14a

XLVI “fulfilled” = anapleroo. 6x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + pleroo (to fill, make full or complete; properly, filling something up to the maximum extent or induvial capacity; used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill); {from pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with)}. This is to fill up, supply, occupy, fulfil. It is adding what is missing so that something can be full.
XLVII “prophecy” = propheteia. 19x in NT. From prophetes (prophet or poet; one who speaks with inspiration from God); {from pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}}. This is prophecy or prediction. It is when a prophet reveals the truth that they received.
XLVIII “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note I above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note I above)}}. This is Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord.”

‘You will indeedXLIX listen, but never understand,
    and you will indeedL look, but never perceive.LI

Notes on verse 14b

XLIX “indeed” = akoe. Related to “listen” in v9. From akouo (see note XXXIII above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
L “indeed” = blepo. Same as “seeing” in v13. See note XLII above.
LI “perceive” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

15 For this people’sLII heartLIII has grown dull,LIV
    and their ears are hardLV of hearing,

Notes on verse 15a

LII “people’s” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LIII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
LIV “grown dull” = pachuno. 2x in NT. From pachus (thick) OR from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is to fatten or thicken. Figuratively, it can mean being insensitive, stupid, unfeeling, obtuse.
LV “hard” = bareos. Related to “depth” in v5 & “kingdom” in v11. 2x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority); perhaps from basis (see note XXXVIII above). This is heavily, scarcely, done sluggishly or with difficulty.

        and they have shutLVI their eyes;LVII
        so that they might not lookLVIII with their eyes,
    and listen with their ears,
and understand with their heart and turnLIX
    and I would healLX them.’

Notes on verse 15b

LVI “shut” = kammuo. Related to “secrets” in v11. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + muo (see note XXXVII above) OR from kata (see above) + musterion (see note XXXVII above). This is to shut down, close one’s eyes.
LVII “eyes” = ophthalmos. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
LVIII “look” = horao. Same as “perceive” in v14. See note LI above.
LIX “turn” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
LX “heal” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.

16 But blessedLXI are your eyes, for they see, and your ears, for they hear. 17 TrulyLXII I tell you, many prophetsLXIII and righteousLXIV people longedLXV to seeLXVI what you see,LXVII but did not see it, and to hear what you hear, but did not hear it.

Notes on verses 16-17

LXI “blessed” = makarios. From makar (happy); from mak– (to become long or large). This is blessed, happy, fortunate. It is when God’s grace/abundance is extended.
LXII “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
LXIII “prophets” = prophetes. Related to “prophecy” in v14. See note XLVII above.
LXIV “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
LXV “longed” = epithumeo. 16x in NT. From epi (on, upon, fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}. This is desire, lust, longing for, setting one’s heart on. It is a longing whether good or bad. In either case, passion and yearning is set on the object of desire.
LXVI “see” = horao. Same as “perceive” in v14. See note LI above.
LXVII “see” = blepo. Same as “seeing” in v13. See note XLII above.

18 “Hear then the parable of the sower. 19 When anyone hears the wordLXVIII of the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil oneLXIX comes and snatches awayLXX what is sown in theLXXI heart; this is what was sown on the path. 

Notes on verses 18-19

LXVIII “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
LXIX “evil one” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
LXX “snatches away” = harpazo. Related to “grain” in v8 & “taken away” in v12. 14x in NT. 14x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (see note XXXI above); probably related to airo (see note XLI above). This is to grab with force, seize, pluck, get through robbery, snatch up. This is taking something openly and violently – not subtly or in secret.
LXXI “the” = autos. Literally “his.”

20 As for what was sown on rocky ground, this is the one who hears the word and immediatelyLXXII receives it with joy;LXXIII 21 yet such a person has no root,LXXIV but enduresLXXV only for a while,LXXVI

Notes on verses 20-21a

LXXII “immediately” = eutheos. Same as “quickly” in v5. See note XX above.
LXXIII “joy” = chara. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad or cheerful; a greeting); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
LXXIV {untranslated} = en + heautou. Literally “in himself.”
LXXV “endures” = eimi. Literally “is.”
LXXVI “a while” = proskairos. 4x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with, among) + kairos (season, opportunity, occasion; spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time). This is for a season, fleeting, temporary, or something that only lasts for a short time.

and when troubleLXXVII or persecutionLXXVIII arisesLXXIX on account of the word, that person immediately falls away.LXXX 

Notes on verse 21b

LXXVII “trouble” = thlipsis. From thlibo (to press in on and make narrow, rub together, constrict; figuratively to oppress or afflict). This is pressure that hems us in – used often of internal pressure that makes us feel like we have no other options and are confined or restricted. So, this is persecution, affliction, trouble, distress, and anguish. There is a different word, stenoxoria, that refers to external pressure that we feel from what’s going on.
LXXVIII “persecution” = diogmos. 10x in NT. From dioko to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight). This is chase, pursuit, or persecution. It is hunting someone like an animal.
LXXIX “arises” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
LXXX “falls away” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.

22 As for what was sown among thorns, this is the one who hears the word, but the caresLXXXI of the worldLXXXII and the lureLXXXIII of wealthLXXXIV chokeLXXXV the word, and it yields nothing.LXXXVI 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXI “cares” = merimna. 6x in NT. Perhaps from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is a portion removed from the whole. Figuratively, it is care, worry, or anxiety that tears a person apart.
LXXXII “world” = aion. Literally “this age.” From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
LXXXIII “lure” = apate. 7x in NT. Perhaps from apatao (to deceive, seduce, cheat, delude; focuses on the method used to lure astray). This is deception, cheating, treachery, fraud.
LXXXIV “wealth” = ploutos. Related to “boat” in v2. From polus (much, many, abundant) OR pleo (see note VI above) OR pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is abundance, wealth, or riches. It could refer to money/possessions or spiritual abundance. It can also be used for a valuable bestowment.
LXXXV “choke” = sumpnigo. Related to “choke” in v7. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + pnigo (see note XXVIII above). This is to choke, crowd, press against, cut off, strangle, drown.
LXXXVI “yields nothing” = akarpos + ginomai. Literally “it becomes unfruitful.” Akarpos is related to “grain” in v8. 7x in NT. From a (not, without) + karpos (see note XXXI above). This is barren in a literal of figurative sense – unfruitful, without profit. Ginomai is the same as “arises” in v21. See note LXXIX above.

23 But as for what was sown on good soil, this is the one who hears the word and understands it, who indeed bears fruitLXXXVII and yields,LXXXVIII in one caseLXXXIX a hundredfold, in another sixty, and in another thirty.”

Notes on verse 23

LXXXVII “bears fruit” = karpophoreo. Related to “grain” in v8 & “nothing” in v22. 8x in NT. From karpophoros (); {from karpos (see note XXXI above) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to be fertile or bear fruit in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVIII “yields” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
LXXXIX {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XIII above.

24 He put beforeXC them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven may be compared toXCI someoneXCII who sowed good seedXCIII in his field;XCIV 

Notes on verse 24

XC “put before” = paratithemi. 19x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is properly, to se beside or place before. So, it can mean to set or serve a meal, to deposit something with someone, to set forth an argument. It can also mean to entrust, commend, or tell a parable (as setting forth information).
XCI “may be compared to” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
XCII “someone” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XCIII “seed” = sperma. Related to “sower” in v3. From speiro (see note XI above). This is something sown so it could be seed or offspring and descendants. This is where the word “sperm” comes from.
XCIV “field” = agro. This is a field, whether one planted with crops or on which one pastures cattle. It can also be a piece of land, the country, an estate. This is where “agriculture” comes from.

25 but while everybody was asleep,XCV an enemyXCVI came and sowed weedsXCVII among the wheat,XCVIII and then went away. 

Notes on verse 25

XCV “was asleep” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
XCVI “enemy” = echthros. From echthos (hatred). This is an openly hostile person so an enemy, a foe, or a hated person. This speaks of irreconcilable hostility. It can also mean adversary and/or refer to Satan.
XCVII “weeds” = zizanion. 8x in NT. Perhaps originally a Sumerian word. This is zizanium – a plant that looks like wheat, but is worthless. It is also translated as a tare or darnel. Figuratively, this is a false believer or someone who lives apart from faith.
XCVIII “wheat” = sitos. 15x in NT. This is used for any kind of grain that you can eat. It is usually wheat, but it can also be barley and other grains.

26 So when the plantsXCIX came upC and boreCI grain, then the weeds appearedCII as well. 

Notes on verse 26

XCIX “plants” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.
C “came up” = blastano. 4x in NT. Perhaps from blastos (a sprout). This is to sprout, germinate, bud, or bring forth. It can also imply yielding fruit. This also shares a root with the word “blastocyte.”
CI “bore” = poieo. Same as “yields” in v23. See note LXXXVIII above.
CII “appeared” = phaino. Related to “prophecy” in v14 & “prophets” in v17. See note XLVII above.

27 And the slavesCIII of the householderCIV came and said to him, ‘Master,CV did you not sow good seed in your field? Where, then, did these weeds come from?’ 

Notes on verse 27

CIII “slaves” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay off debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).
CIV “householder” = oikodespotes. Related to “house” in v1. 12x in NT. From oikos (see note II above) + despotes (lord, master, despot; authority who has unrestricted power and jurisdiction) + posis (husband). This is the master of the house, head of a family, or the householder.
CV “master” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

28 He answered,CVI ‘An enemy has doneCVII this.’

The slaves said to him, ‘Then do you wantCVIII us to go and gatherCIX them?’ 

Notes on verse 28

CVI “answered” = phemi. Related to “prophecy” in v14 & “prophets” in v17. See note XLVII above.
CVII “done” = poieo. Same as “yields” in v23. See note LXXXVIII above.
CVIII “want” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
CIX “gather” = sullego. Related to “word” in v19. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lego (see note LXVIII above). This is to gather up or gather together.

29 But he replied, ‘No; for in gathering the weeds you would uprootCX the wheat along with them. 30 LetCXI both of them grow togetherCXII until the harvest;CXIII

Notes on verses 29-30a

CX “uproot” = ekrizoo. Related to “root” in v6. 4x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + rhizoo (to plant, take root, establish, become stable); {from rhiza (see note XXV above)}. This is to pull out by something’s roots or to root out.
CXI “let” = aphiemi. Related to “understand” in v13. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (see note XLV above). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CXII “grow together” = sunauxano. 1x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + auxano (growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric); {perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative)}. This is to grow together, increase.
CXIII “harvest” = therismos. 13x in NT. From therizo (to reap, gather, harvest); from theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is harvesting or reaping. By implication, it is the crop that was harvested.

and at harvest timeCXIV I will tell the reapers,CXV CollectCXVI the weeds first and bindCXVII them in bundlesCXVIII to be burned,CXIX but gather the wheat into my barn.’”CXX

Notes on verse 30b

CXIV “time” = kairos. Related to “a while” in v21. See note LXXVI above.
CXV “reapers” = theristes. Related to “harvest” in v30. 2x in NT. From therizo (see note CXIII above). This is reaper or harvester.
CXVI “collect” = sullego. Same as “gather” in v28. See note CIX above.
CXVII “bind” = deo. Related to “slaves” in v27. See note CIII above.
CXVIII “bundles” = desme. Related to “slaves” in v27 & “bind” in v30. 1x in NT. From deo (see note CIII above). This is bundle.
CXIX “burned” = katakaio. Related to “scorched” in v6. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + kaio (see note XXIV above). This is to burn up – entirely consume.
CXX “barn” = apotheke. Related to “put before” in v24. 6x in NT. From apotithemi (to lay aside, put off, put away, cast off, lay down); {from apo (from, away from) + tithemi (see note XC above)}. This is a storehouse, granary, or barn. More broadly speaking, it is a place where one lays something aside – a repository.

31 He put before them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is likeCXXI a mustardCXXII seedCXXIII that someone took and sowed in his field; 

Notes on verse 31

CXXI “like” = homoios. Related to “may be compared to” in v24. See note XCI above.
CXXII “mustard” = sinapi. 5x in NT. Perhaps from sinomai (to hurt or sting). This is a mustard plant.
CXXIII “seed” = kokkos. 7x in NT– 3x for the Parable of the Mustard Seed, 2x for faith the size of a mustard seed, 1x for a grain of wheat falling to the earth and dies to bear much fruit, and 1x of the resurrection body – what you sow, the bare seed is not what rises. This word is grain, kernel, seed, or corn.

32 it is the smallestCXXIV, CXXV of all the seeds,CXXVI but when it has grownCXXVII it is the greatest of shrubsCXXVIII and becomes a tree, so that the birds of the air come and make nestsCXXIX in its branches.”CXXX

Notes on verse 32

CXXIV “smallest” = mikros. This is small in reference to a size or the number of something, least or less. Figuratively, it can refer to little dignity.
CXXV {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v4. See note XIII above.
CXXVI “seeds” = sperma. Same as “seed” in v24. See note XCIII above.
CXXVII “grown” = auxano. Related to “grow together” in v30. See note CXII above.
CXXVIII “shrubs” = lachanon. 4x in NT. From lachaino (to dig). This is a vegetable, herb, or other plant in a garden.
CXXIX “make nests” = kataskenoo. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + skenoo (to encamp, pitch a tent, dwell); {from skenos (tent, booth, tabernacle, or dwelling)}. It could be a cloth hut. This is a tent in a literal or figurative sense ); {perhaps related to skeuos (vessel, tool, container, implement; also vessel in a figurative or literal sense) or perhaps related to skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad)}. This is to encamp or dwell. It is used figuratively for to lodge, stay or rest.
CXXX “branches” = klados. 11x in NT – 5x in the root and branches being grafted in section of Romans, 3x in Parable of the Mustard Seed, 2x in the Lesson of the fig tree where as soon as the branch puts forth leaves you know summer is near, 1x for Palm Sunday when the crowd cut branches from the trees. From klao (to break in pieces – often used specifically for breaking bread). This word is branch, descendants, young shoot. A twig or bough as if broken off.

33 He told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like yeastCXXXI that a womanCXXXII took and mixedCXXXIII in with three measuresCXXXIV of flourCXXXV until allCXXXVI of it was leavened.”CXXXVII

Notes on verse 33

CXXXI “yeast” = zume. 13x in NT. Perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is yeast in a literal or figurative sense – an influence that grows, but is not easily detected.
CXXXII “woman” = gune. Related to “arises” in v21. Perhaps from ginomai (see note LXXIX above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
CXXXIII “mixed” = egkrupto. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is to hide in, mix with, or conceal in.
CXXXIV “measures” = saton. 2x in NT. From Aramaic; compare Hebrew seah (seah – a dry measure used for grain; root may mean to define). This is a dry unit of measure about one and a half pecks or 12 metric liters.
CXXXV “flour” = aleuron. 2x in NT. From aleo (to grind). This is meal or wheat flour.
CXXXVI “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXXXVII “leavened” = zumoo. Related to “yeast” in v33. 4x in NT. From zume (see note CXXXI above). This is to leaven or ferment – to mix in yeast.

34 Jesus told the crowds all these things in parables; without a parable he told them nothing. 35 This was to fulfillCXXXVIII what had been spoken through the prophet:

“I will open my mouthCXXXIX to speak in parables;
    I will proclaimCXL what has been hiddenCXLI from the foundationCXLII of the world.”CXLIII

Notes on verses 34-35

CXXXVIII “fulfill” = pleroo. Related to “fulfilled” in v14. See note XLVI above.
CXXXIX “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXL “proclaim” = ereugomai. 1x in NT. This is to spit forth so utter or speak out.
CXLI “hidden” = krupto. Related to “mixed” in v33. 18x in NT. See note CXXXIII above.
CXLII “foundation” = katabole. Related to “parables” in v3. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (see note IX above)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
CXLIII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.

36 Then he leftCXLIV the crowds and went into the house. And his disciples approached him, saying, “ExplainCXLV to us the parable of the weeds of the field.” 

37 He answered, “The one who sows the good seed is the Son of Man;CXLVI 38 the field is the world, and the good seed are the children of the kingdom; the weeds are the childrenCXLVII of the evil one, 

Notes on verses 36-38

CXLIV “left” = aphiemi. Same as “let” in v30. See note CXI above.
CXLV “explain” = diasapheo. 2x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + saphes (clear). This is to make fully clear, declare, report.
CXLVI “Man” = anthropos. Same as “someone” in v24. See note XCII above.
CXLVII “children” = huios. Literally “sons.”

39 and the enemy who sowed them is the devil;CXLVIII the harvest is the endCXLIX of the age,CL and the reapers are angels.CLI 40 Just as the weeds are collected and burned up with fire,CLII so will it be at the end of the age. 

Notes on verses 39-40

CXLVIII “devil” = diabolos. Related to “parables” in v3 & “foundation” in v35. From diaballo (laying a charge against someone, generally with hostility; literally, to thrust through or cast back and forth– used for slandering, accusing, or gossiping; whether or not the sentiment is true, it is spread with negative intention); {from dia (through, across, because of, thoroughly) + ballo (see note IX above)}. This is a properly a slanderer or someone who accuses falsely – criticizing unfairly with the intent to cause harm or damage character. This can also mean backbiter or malicious gossip. Also, the Slanderer, the Devil.
CXLIX “end” = sunteleia. Related to “sprang up” in v5 & “rose” in v6. 6x in NT. From sunteleo (to fulfill, accomplish, complete, bring to the desired result, to complete a goal literally or figuratively); {from sun (with, together with) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (see note XIX above)}}. This is completion, end, consummation – joint action or joint payment.
CL “age” = aion. Same as “world” in v22. See note LXXXII above.
CLI “angels” = aggelos. Perhaps related to “gathered” in v2. Probably from ago (see note V above) + agele (flock, herd, drove); {also from ago (see above)}. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CLII “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.

41 The Son of Man will sendCLIII his angels, and they will collect out of his kingdom all causes of sinCLIV and all evildoers,CLV 

Notes on verse 41

CLIII “send” = apostello. Related to “stood” in v2. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note VII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CLIV “causes of sin” = skandalon. Related to “falls away” in v21. 15x in NT. See note LXXX above.
CLV “evildoers” = poieo + ho + aomia. Literally “doers of lawlessness.” Poieo is the same as “yields” in v23. See note LXXXVIII above. Anomia is 15x in NT. From anomos (literally without law; could refer to someone who disregards authority or one who is not under the law (i.e. a Gentile); lawless, wicked, or a transgressor); {from a (not, without) + nomos (what is assigned – usage, law, custom, principle; used for the law in general or of God’s law; sometimes used to refer to the first five books of the Bible or the entire Old Testament; also used to refer to theology or the practice and tradition of interpreting and implementing the law of God); {from nemo (to parcel out, assign)}}. This is lawlessness, disobedience, without law, violation. It is disregarding the law whether human or God’s law, including the harmful impact.

42 and they will throwCLVI them into the furnaceCLVII of fire, where there will be weepingCLVIII and gnashingCLIX of teeth. 43 Then the righteous will shineCLX like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Let anyone with ears listen!

Notes on verses 42-43

CLVI “throw” = ballo. Related to “parables” in v3 & “foundation” in v35 & “devil” in v39. See note IX above.
CLVII “furnace” = kaminos. Related to “scorched” in v6 & “burned” in v30. 4x in NT. Probably from kaio (see note XXIV above). This is a furnace or kiln.
CLVIII “weeping” = klauthmos. 9x in NT. From klaio (to weep, lament, or sob; weeping aloud). This is weeping, lamentation, shrieks, intense pain.
CLIX “gnashing” = brugmos. 7x in NT. From brucho (to bite, grind, grate teeth – in rage or pain). This is biting, grinding, grating teeth.
CLX “shine” = eklampo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + lampo (to give light literally or figuratively). This is to shine out or be resplendent.

44 “The kingdom of heaven is like treasureCLXI hidden in a field, which someone foundCLXII and hid; then in his joy he goesCLXIII and sells all that he has and buysCLXIV that field.

Notes on verse 44

CLXI “treasure” = thesauros. Related to “put before” in v24 & “barn” in v30. 17x in NT. From tithemi (see note XC above). This is treasure, storehouse, deposit. It can be used figuratively for treasured thoughts.
CLXII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
CLXIII “goes” = hupago. Perhaps related to “gathered” in v2 & “angels” in v39. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (see note V above). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
CLXIV “buys” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.

45 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a merchantCLXV in search ofCLXVI fineCLXVII pearls;CLXVIII 46 on finding one pearl of great value,CLXIX he went and soldCLXX all that he had and bought it.

Notes on verses 45-46

CLXV “merchant” = emporos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + the base of poreuomai (to go, travel, journey; transportation something from one place to another; focuses on the personal meaning given to getting to the destination); {from poros (passageway, ford)}. This is a merchant or trader. It can refer specifically to one who travels by ship or more broadly one journeying. This is where the word “emporium” comes from.
CLXVI “in search of” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
CLXVII “fine” = kalos. Same as “good” in v8. See note XXIX above.
CLXVIII “pearls” = margarites. 9x in NT. “Borrowed from Iranian. Compare Middle Persian mwlwʾlyt’ (morwārīd) (whence Persian مروارید‎ (marvārīd)), Sogdian (marγārt), Sanskrit मञ्जरी (mañjarī), and Avestan (mərəya).” OR from margaros (a pearl oyster). This is a pearl. It is where the name “Margarite” comes from. See
CLXIX “great value” = polutimos. Related to “wealth” in v22. 3x in NT – including the pearl of great price in Matthew 13:46. From polus (see note LXXXIV above) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is very precious, valuable, or costly.
CLXX “sold” = piprasko. 9x in NT. From pernemi (to sell by export). This is to sell with travel involved. It can also mean to sell into slavery or to be devoted to.

47 “Again, the kingdom of heaven is like a netCLXXI that was thrown into the sea and caughtCLXXII fish of every kind;CLXXIII 

Notes on verse 47

CLXXI “net” = sagene. 1x in NT. Perhaps from satto (to equip). This is not a typical casting net, but a larger one – a dragnet or seine. It can also be the netted rope of a pack saddle. This is the root of the word “seine” in English.
CLXXII “caught” = sunago. Same as “gathered” in v2. See note V above.
CLXXIII “kind” = genos. Related to “arises” in v21 & “woman” in v33. From ginomai (see note LXXIX above). This is family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense.

48 when it was full,CLXXIV they drewCLXXV it ashore,CLXXVI sat down,CLXXVII and putCLXXVIII the good into baskets but threw out the bad.CLXXIX 49 So it will be at the end of the age. The angels will come out and separateCLXXX the evil from the righteous 50 and throw them into the furnace of fire, where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

51 “Have you understood all this?”

They answered, “Yes.” 

Notes on verses 48-51

CLXXIV “was full” = pleroo. Same as “fulfill” in v35. See note CXXXVIII above.
CLXXV “drew” = anabibazo. Related to “depth” in v5 & “hard” in v15. 1x in NT. From anabaino (to go up, rise, climb, mount; to go up in a literal or figurative sense); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + the same as basis (see note XXI above)}. This is to draw up or bring up. So, it can mean to haul a net in or drag it to shore.
CLXXVI “ashore” = epi + ho + aigialos. Literally “upon the beach.” Aigialos is the same as “beach” in v2. See note VIII above.
CLXXVII “sat down” = kathizo. From kathezomai (to sit down, be seated); {from kata (down, against, according to, among) + hezomai (to sit); {from aphedron (a seat, a base)}}. This is to sit, set, appoint, stay, rest.
CLXXVIII “put” = sullego. Same as “gather” in v28. See note CIX above.
CLXXIX “bad” = sapros. 8x in NT. From sepo (to putrefy, cause to rot; figuratively, to perish or to make something corrupt). This is rotten, worthless, corrupt, bad, or unwholesome. It is rotten and hence of poor quality and hence not good for use and so worthless in a literal and figurative (moral) sense. This is someone who previously embodied a virtue, but has fallen into sin.
CLXXX “separate” = aphorizo. 10x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + horizo (to determine, set boundaries, appoint, designate, pre-determined; literally, this is setting horizons); {from the same as horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary)}. This is to set off by a boundary – to divide, separate, exclude. It can also mean ostracize or keep aloof.

52 And he said to them, “Therefore every scribeCLXXXI who has been trainedCLXXXII for the kingdom of heaven is like the master of a householdCLXXXIII who bringsCLXXXIV out of his treasure what is newCLXXXV and what is old.”CLXXXVI 53 When Jesus had finishedCLXXXVII these parables, he left that place.

Notes on verses 52-53

CLXXXI “scribe” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CLXXXII “trained” = matheteuo. Related to “disciples” in v10. 4x in NT. From mathetes (see note XXXIV above). This is to make someone a disciple or to train a disciple, to instruct. It can also mean to become a student.
CLXXXIII “master of a household” = oikodespotes. Same as “householder” in v27. See note CIV above.
CLXXXIV “brings” = ekballo. Related to “parables” in v3 & “foundation” in v35 & “devil” in v39 & “throw” in v42. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (see note IX above). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXV “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
CLXXXVI “old” = palaios. 19x in NT. From palai (former, of old); probably from palin (back, again, further). This is old, ancient, or worn out.
CLXXXVII “finished” = teleo. Related to “sprang up” in v5 & “rose” in v6 & “end” in v39. See note CXLIX above.

54 He came to his hometownCLXXXVIII and began to teachCLXXXIX the people in their synagogue,CXC so that they were astoundedCXCI and said, “Where did this man get this wisdomCXCII and these deeds of power?CXCIII 

Notes on verse 54

CLXXXVIII “hometown” = patris. Related to “Father” in v43. 8x in NT. From pater (father in a literal or figurative sense) OR from parasemos (marked on the side, wrongly marked a ship’s figurehead); {from para (beside, by, in the presence of) + semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); {from sema (a sign or mark)}}. This is belonging to one’s father or ancestors. It could be hometown, native town, country, or heaven as home.
CLXXXIX “teach” = didasko. From dao (learn). This is to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge. In the New Testament, this is almost always used for teaching scripture.
CXC “synagogue” = sunagoge. Perhaps related to “gathered” in v2 & “angels” in v39 & “goes” in v44. From sunago (see note V above). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
CXCI “astounded” = ekplesso. 13x in NT. From ek (out, out of) + plesso (to pound, strike, flatten; figuratively, cause a calamity). This is to strike with panic, astonish shock. It is a moment that shakes someone from their senses and leaves them dumbfounded or at a loss.
CXCII “wisdom” = sophia. Related to “explain” in v36. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (see note CXLV above). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
CXCIII “deeds of power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

55 Is not this the carpenter’sCXCIV son? Is not his mother called Mary?CXCV And are not his brothersCXCVI JamesCXCVII

Notes on verse 55a

CXCIV “carpenter’s” = tekton. Related to “great value” in v46. 2x in NT. From the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (see note CLXIX above)}} + the base of tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget). This is craftsman; particularly one who works with wood.
CXCV “Mary” = Mariam. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CXCVI “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CXCVII “James” = Iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.

and JosephCXCVIII and SimonCXCIX and Judas?CC 56 And are not all his sistersCCI with us? Where then did this man get all this?” 

Notes on verses 55b-56

CXCVIII “Joseph” = Ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”
CXCIX “Simon” = Simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CC “Judas” = Ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
CCI “sisters” = adelphe. Related to “brothers” in v55. From adelphos (see note CXCVI above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.

57 And they took offenseCCII at him. But Jesus said to them, “Prophets are not without honorCCIII except in their own countryCCIV and in their own house.” 58 And he did not do many deeds of power there, because of their unbelief.CCV

Notes on verses 57-58

CCII “took offense” = skandalizo. Same as “falls away” in v21. See note LXXX above.
CCIII “without honor” = atimos. Related to “explain” in v36 & “carpenter’s” in v55. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + time (see note CLXIX above). This is without honor, despised, not valued, reproachful, undignified.
CCIV “own country” = patris. Same as “hometown” in v55. See note CLXXXVIII above.
CCV “unbelief” = apistia. 11x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust)}}. This is unfaithfulness, distrust, disbelief, disobedience.

Image credit: “The Hidden Treasure” by Jesus MAFA in Cameroon, 1973.

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