Matthew 12

Matthew 12


At that timeI JesusII wentIII through the grainfieldsIV on the sabbath;V

Notes on verse 1a

I “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
II “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
III “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
IV “grainfields” = sporimos. 3x in NT. From sporos (a sowing, the seed for planting); from speiro (to sow seed, spread, scatter); perhaps from spao (to pull, to draw a sword). This is a field that is sown, such as a grain field.
V “sabbath” = sabbaton. From Hebrew shabbath (sabbath); from shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is the sabbath. It can also be used as shorthand for a week i.e. the time between two sabbaths.

his disciplesVI were hungry,VII and they beganVIII to pluckIX heads of grainX and to eat.XI 

Notes on verse 1b

VI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
VII “hungry” = peinao. From peina (hunger); related to penomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is to hunger, be needy, or desire earnestly. It can be being famished in a definitive sense or in comparison to someone or something else. Figuratively, this means to crave.
VIII “began” = archomai. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin or rule.
IX “pluck” = tillo. 3x in NT. This is to pluck or pick. It is in the word “trichotillomania.”
X “heads of grain” = stachus. 5x in NT. Perhaps from histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is a head of grain.
XI “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.

When the PhariseesXII sawXIII it, they said to him, “Look,XIV your disciples are doing what is not lawfulXV to do on the sabbath.” 

Notes on verse 2

XII “Pharisees” = pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religion engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
XIII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
XIV “look” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XV “lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.

He said to them, “Have you not readXVI what DavidXVII did when he and his companions were hungry? He entered the houseXVIII of GodXIX

Notes on verses 3-4a

XVI “read” = anaginosko. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is literally to know again – to recognize, read, or discern.
XVII “David” = dauid. From Hebrew David (David); from the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
XVIII “house” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
XIX “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

and ateXX the breadXXI of the Presence,XXII which it was not lawful for him or his companions to eat, but only for the priests.XXIII 

Notes on verse 4b

XX “ate” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
XXI “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
XXII “Presence” = prothesis. 12x in NT. From protithemi (to set before, purpose, plan, determine, put in a public display); {from pro (before, earlier than, ahead, prior) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a setting forth – a proposal, predetermination, purpose. It can also mean something that is sacred or consecrated so it can be used for the showbread or sacred bread.
XXIII “priests” = hiereus. From hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is a priest, used for Jewish and Gentile priests.

Or have you not read in the lawXXIV that on the sabbath the priests in the templeXXV breakXXVI the sabbath and yet are guiltless?XXVII 6 I tell you, something greater than the temple is here. 

Notes on verses 5-6

XXIV “law” = nomos. From nemo (to parcel out). Literally, this is that which is assigned. It can be usage, custom, or law. This word can be used for human or divine law. It can be used specifically for the law of Moses or as a name for the Torah (the first five books of the Bible). Sometimes it is used for scripture as a whole, used of the Gospel, or of any theology. It is also used for the “tradition of the elders,” which would be the oral Torah – the tradition of the laws plus their interpretations as they were passed down over time. We must carefully consider which meaning of “law” is meant when we interpret passages the word is found in.
XXV “temple” = hieron. Related to “priests” in v4. From hieros (see note XXIII above). This is the word for temple.
XXVI “break” = bebeloo. 2x in NT. From bebelos (able to be walked on i.e. accessible; it can also mean non-hallowed and so profane or wicked); from belos (threshold); OR {rom baino (to walk, go) + belos (see above)} This is to walk over in an improper way, crossing a threshold that one is not permitted to cross. So, to desecrate, pollute, break, or violate.
XXVII “guiltless” = anaitios. 2x in NT. From a (not, without) + aitios (the cause of something; someone who begins or originates something – as the source or author; the accused or culprit as one who caused a crime to happen); {from the same as aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire)}. This is innocent or blameless.

But if you had knownXXVIII what this means, ‘I desireXXIX mercyXXX and not sacrifice,’XXXI

Notes on verse 7a

XXVIII “known” = ginosko. Related to “read” in v3. See note XVI above.
XXIX “desire” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXX “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.
XXXI “sacrifice” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thing being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.

you would not have condemnedXXXII the guiltless. For the Son of ManXXXIII is lordXXXIV of the sabbath.”

Notes on verses 7b-8

XXXII “condemned” = katadikazo. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}. This is to condemn, to judge as in giving a sentence. It is judgment in a particular, personal instance – to find guilty.
XXXIII “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXXIV “lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

9 He left that place and entered their synagogue;XXXV 10 XXXVIa manXXXVII was there with a witheredXXXVIII hand,XXXIX

Notes on verses 9-10a

XXXV “synagogue” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
XXXVI {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XXXVII “man” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v8. See note XXXIII above.
XXXVIII “withered” = xeros. 8x in NT. This is  dry, arid, withered. It can also refer to dry land or imply something that is shrunken.
XXXIX “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.

and they askedXL him, “Is it lawful to cureXLI on the sabbath?” so that they might accuseXLII him. 

Notes on verse 10b

XL “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
XLI “cure” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
XLII “accuse” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.

11 He said to them, “Suppose oneXLIII of you has only one sheepXLIV and it fallsXLV into a pitXLVI on the sabbath; will you not lay hold ofXLVII it and lift it out?XLVIII 

Notes on verse 11

XLIII “one” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v8. See note XXXIII above.
XLIV “sheep” = probaton. Related to “break” in v5. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (see note XXVI above)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
XLV “falls” = empipto. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is to fall in, be trapped, involved with, or overwhelmed by.
XLVI “pit” = bothunos. Related to “break” in v5 & “sheep” in v11. 3x in NT. Probably from bathuno (to excavate, deepen); bathus (deep in a literal or figurative sense); from basis (see note XLIV above); from baino (see note XXVI above). This is a hole in the ground. So, it could be a pit, ditch, or a cistern.
XLVII “lay hold of” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
XLVIII “lift…out” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

12 How much more valuableXLIX is a human beingL than a sheep! So it is lawful to do goodLI on the sabbath.” 

Notes on verse 12

XLIX “more valuable” = diaphero. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
L “human being” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v8. See note XXXIII above.
LI “good” = kalos. From kalos (good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy; external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues; a different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good). This is nobly, rightly, well-perceived, seen as appealing, morally pleasing, honorably.

13 Then he said to the man, “Stretch outLII your hand.” He stretched it out, and it was restored,LIII as soundLIV as the other.LV 14 But the Pharisees went out and conspiredLVI against him, how to destroyLVII him.

Notes on verses 13-14

LII “stretch out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
LIII “restored” = apokathistemi. Related to “heads of grain” in v1. 8x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kathistemi (to appoint, set in order or set in place, constitute, give standing or authority, put in charge); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + histemi (see note X above)}. This is to restore something to its original place or status. It can be give back, set up again or, figuratively, to restore full freedom or liberty. This word can also be used of healing – restoring full health.
LIV “sound” = hugies. 12x in NT. Perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is healthy, whole, pure, normal, restored, wholesome. Figuratively, it can mean a sound or true teaching. It is where “hygiene” comes from.
LV “other” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LVI “conspired” = sumboulion + lambano. Literally “took counsel.” 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.
LVII “destroy” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.

15 When Jesus became awareLVIII of this, he departed. Many crowds followedLIX him, and he cured all of them, 16 and he orderedLX them not to make him known.LXI 

Notes on verses 15-16

LVIII “became aware” = ginosko. Same as “known” in v7. See note XVI above.
LIX “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LX “ordered” = epitimao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + timao (properly, this is setting a value or price on something, to estimate. Figuratively, it speaks to what level of honor we afford someone or something depending on our personal feeling toward it. By implication, this can mean to revere or honor); {from time (worth or perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something; can be esteem or dignity; can also mean precious or valuables); from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is to render what is due – to assign the value that is appropriate for the situation. So, it could mean to honor or to warn, to rebuke or to charge. Generally, it is a warning meant to guide someone away from doing something wrong or taking the wrong path. It can imply to forbid.
LXI “known” = phaneros. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.

17 This was to fulfillLXII what had been spoken through the prophetLXIII Isaiah:LXIV

Notes on verse 17

LXII “fulfill” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
LXIII “prophet” = prophetes. Related to “known” in v16. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (see note LXI above) or phaino (see note LXI above)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.
LXIV “Isaiah” = Esaias. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew Yeshayahu (Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord”); {from yasha (see note II above) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note II above)}}. This is Isaiah, “salvation of the Lord.”

18 “HereLXV is my servant,LXVI whom I have chosen,LXVII
    my beloved,LXVIII with whom my soulLXIX is well pleased.LXX

Notes on verse 18a

LXV “here” = idou. Same as “look” in v2. See note XIV above.
LXVI “servant” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
LXVII “chosen” = hairetizo. Related to “bread” in v4. 1x in NT. From haireo (to choose, take); probably related to airo (see note XXI above). This is to choose or select.
LXVIII “beloved” = agapetos. From agape (love, goodwill, benevolence; God’s divine love); from agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is Beloved or very dear one. It is a title for the Messiah, but also for Christians. Properly, this is one who personally experiences God’s love.
LXIX “soul” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
LXX “is well pleased” = eudokeo. From eu (good, well, well done) + dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to think well of, to be pleased or resolved. Properly, this is what someone finds good or acceptable – approving of some action or generally thinking well of.

I will putLXXI my SpiritLXXII upon him,
    and he will proclaimLXXIII justiceLXXIV to the Gentiles.LXXV

Notes on verse 18b

LXXI “put” = tithemi. Related to “Presence” in v4. See note XXII above.
LXXII “Spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXXIII “proclaim” = apaggello. Related to “synagogue” in v9. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (see note XXXV above)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.
LXXIV “justice” = krisis. From krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is a judging or a sentence. It is often used of God’s judgment, but can also be any accusation or condemnation. This is where the word “crisis” comes from.
LXXV “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

19 He will not wrangleLXXVI or cry aloud,LXXVII
    nor will anyone hearLXXVIII his voiceLXXIX in the streets.LXXX

Notes on verse 19

LXXVI “wrangle” = erizo. 1x in NT. From eris (strife, quarreling, wrangling; figuratively, debate or one who likes to dispute). This is to wrangle, confront, debate, needless strife.
LXXVII “cry aloud” = kraugazo. 9x in NT. From krauge (a very emotional shout or cry generally or clamor against someone else; a cry of alarm, trouble, or grief); from krazo (to cry out, scream, shriek; onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call; figuratively, this is means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt). This is to cry, shout, clamor. It is a screaming or shrieking that is often impossible to understand exact words in. It is sound expressing feeling/urgency. Properly, this refers to loud animal sounds.
LXXVIII “hear” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
LXXIX “voice” = phone. Related to “known” in v16 & “prophet” in v17. Probably from phemi (see note LXIII above); from phao (see note LXI above) OR akin to phaino (see note LXI above). This is a voice, sound, tone or noise. It can also be a language or dialect.
LXXX “streets” = plateia. 9x in NT. From platus (wide, spread flat, broad); perhaps from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a street or some kind of broad place like a public square.

20 He will not breakLXXXI a bruisedLXXXII reedLXXXIII
    or quenchLXXXIV a smolderingLXXXV wickLXXXVI

Notes on verse 20a

LXXXI “break” = katagnumi. 4x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among)) + rhegnumi (to break, burst, wreak, crack, break apart). This is to crush or beak in pieces.
LXXXII “bruised” = suntribo. 8x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the same as tribos (worn track or path like a rut that is formed from rubbing i.e. steady use; also road or highway); {from tribo (to rub or thresh)}. This is break in pieces, bruise, shatter, or crush completely.
LXXXIII “reed” = kalamos. 12x in NT. This is a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed. It can also imply a staff, pen, or measuring rod.
LXXXIV “quench” = sbennumi. 8x in NT. This is to quench or extinguish in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean suppress.
LXXXV “smoldering” = tupho. 1x in NT. This is to smolder or to smoke – something that is consumed, but lacking a flame.
LXXXVI “wick” = linon. 2x in NT. This is flax, which can imply linen, which, in turn, can mean wick.

until he bringsLXXXVII justice to victory.LXXXVIII
21     And in his nameLXXXIX the Gentiles will hope.”XC

Notes on verses 20b-21

LXXXVII “brings” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXVIII “victory” = nikos. 4x in NT. From nike (victory, conquest; figurative for what makes one successful). This is victory, triumph – especially a conquest.
LXXXIX “name” = onoma. Related to “read” in v3 & “known” in v7. May be from ginosko (see note XVI above). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XC “hope” = elpizo. From elpis (expectation, hope, trust, confidence, faith; expectation whether abstract or concrete); from elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively); from elpomai (to anticipate, expect). This is to expect, trust, hope for, or to wait in an active way.

22 Then they broughtXCI to him a demoniacXCII who was blindXCIII and mute;XCIV and he cured him, so that the one who had been mute could speak and see.XCV 23 All the crowds were amazedXCVI and said, “Can this be the Son of David?” 

Notes on verses 22-23

XCI “brought” = prosphero. Related to “more valuable” in v12. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (see note XLIX above). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
XCII “demoniac” = daimonizomai. From daimon (evil spirit, demon, fallen angel); perhaps from daio (giving out destinies). This is being demon-possessed or under an evil spirit’s power. This root is where the word “demon” comes from.
XCIII “blind” = tuphlos. Related to “smoldering” in v20. Derivation unclear. Perhaps from tuphoo (to be conceited, foolish, puffed up, haughty; properly, to blow smoke; figuratively being muddled or cloudy in mind; poor judgment that harms spiritual clarity; also, being covered with smoke – so filled with pride); from tuphos (smoke, vanity, arrogance); from tupho (see note LXXXV above). This is blind or a blind person – perhaps in the sense of smoke making things opaque and impossible to see. This is blind literally or figuratively.
XCIV “mute” = kophos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is literally blunted or dull. Figuratively, it can be deaf or mute or a person who is deaf or mute.
XCV “see” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XCVI “amazed” = existemi. Related to “heads of gain” in v1 & “restored” in v13. 17x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + histemi (see note X above). This is to displace or take something or someone from standing. Figuratively, it is to be overwhelmed an flabbergasted – as if beside oneself. By extension, it is astonished, amazed, or mad.

24 But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, “It is only by Beelzebul,XCVII the rulerXCVIII of the demons, that this fellow casts outXCIX the demons.”C 

Notes on verse 24

XCVII “Beelzebul” = beelzeboul. 7x in NT. From Hebrew baal zebub (Baal Zebub, meaning “Baal of flies,” a god of the Phoenicians); {from Baal (Baal); {from the same as baal (owner, master, husband); from baal (to marry, have dominion over, to master)}} + zebub (a fly, particularly one that stings; root may mean to flit). This is Beelzebul – literally “lord of the flies.”      
XCVIII “ruler” = archon. Related to “began” in v1. From archo (see note VIII above). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
XCIX “casts out” = ekballo. Same as “brings” in v20. See note LXXXVII above.
C “demons” = daimonion. Related to “demoniac” in v22. From daimon (see note XCII above). This is demon, evil spirit, god of another religion, or fallen angel.

25 He knewCI what they were thinkingCII and said to them, “Every kingdomCIII dividedCIV against itself is laid waste,CV

Notes on verse 25a

CI “knew” = eido. Related to “look” in v2. See note XIV above.
CII “thinking” = enthumesis. Related to “sacrifice” in v7. 4x in NT. From enthumeomai (to think, reflect on, ponder, meditate on; also, passionate mindset, inspirited, moved by a strong impulse); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is pondering, thoughts, reflection, or deliberation. It focuses on a passionate impulse that impels the thought process.
CIII “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
CIV “divided” = merizo. 14x in NT. From meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to divide, distribute, assign, apportion – separate into parts, bestow, share.
CV “laid waste” = eremoo. 5x in NT. From eremos (properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated; could be a deserted area or a desert place; secluded, solitary, or lonesome; any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally). This is to desolate, destroy, rob, abandon, desert. It is lay waste in a literal or figurative sense.

and no cityCVI or houseCVII divided against itself will stand.CVIII 26 If SatanCIX casts out Satan, he is divided against himself; how then will his kingdom stand? 27 If I cast out demons by Beelzebul, by whom do your ownCX exorcists cast them out? Therefore they will be your judges.CXI 

Notes on verses 25b-27

CVI “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
CVII “house” = oikia. Related to “house” in v4. From oikos (see note XVIII above). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
CVIII “stand” = histemi. Related to “Heads of grain” in v1 & “restored” in v13 & “amazed” in v23. See note X above.
CIX “Satan” = satanas. From Hebrew satan (adversary, Satan); from satan (to be an adversary, attack, accuse, resist). This is Satan, the adversary, or an adversary.
CX “your own” = huios + su. Literally “your sons.”
CXI “judges” = krites. Related to “justice” in v18. 19x in NT. From krino (see note LXXIV above). This is judge or ruler.

28 But if it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has comeCXII to you. 29 Or how canCXIII one enter a strongCXIV man’s house and plunderCXV his property,CXVI without first tying upCXVII the strong man? Then indeed the house can be plundered.CXVIII 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXII “come” = phthano. 7x in NT. This is to arrive before, anticipate – coming before as a priority.
CXIII “can” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
CXIV “strong” = ischuros. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
CXV “plunder” = harpazo. Related to “bread” in v4 & “chosen” in v18. 14x in NT. Perhaps from haireomai (see note LXVII above); probably related to airo (see note XXI above). This is to grab with force, seize, pluck, get through robbery, snatch up. This is taking something openly and violently – not subtly or in secret.
CXVI “property” = skeuos. This is a vessel, object, article, property, a tool. It is an implement or other equipment in a literal or figurative sense. It could also refer to a vessel of mercy or a wife.
CXVII “tying up” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
CXVIII “plundered” = diarpazo. Related to “bread” in v4 & “chosen” in v18 & “plunder” in v29. 3x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + harpazo (see note CXV above). This is to plunder or seize.

30 Whoever is not with me is against me, and whoever does not gatherCXIX with me scatters.CXX 31 Therefore I tell you, peopleCXXI will be forgivenCXXII for every sinCXXIII and blasphemy,CXXIV but blasphemy against the Spirit will not be forgiven. 

Notes on verses 30-31

CXIX “gather” = sunago. Related to “synagogue” in v9 & “proclaim” in v18. From sun (with, together with) + ago (see note XXXV above). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXX “scatters” = skorpizo. 5x in NT. This is to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste.
CXXI “people” = anthropos. Same as “Man” in v8. See note XXXIII above.
CXXII “forgiven” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
CXXIII “sin” = hamartia. Related to “divided” in v25. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (see note CIV above)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
CXXIV “blasphemy” = blasphemia. Related to “known” in v16 & “prophet” in v17 & “voice” in v19. 18x in NT. From perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (see note LXIII above); from phao (see note LXI above)}. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.

32 Whoever speaks a wordCXXV against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but whoever speaks against the HolyCXXVI Spirit will not be forgiven, either in this ageCXXVII or in the age to come.CXXVIII

Notes on verse 32

CXXV “word” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
CXXVI “Holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CXXVII “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
CXXVIII “to come” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.

33 “Either make the tree good,CXXIX and its fruitCXXX good; or make the tree bad,CXXXI and its fruit bad; for the tree is known by its fruit. 

Notes on verse 33

CXXIX “good” = kalos. Related to “good” in v12. See note LI above.
CXXX “fruit” = karpos. Related to “bread” in v4 & “chosen” in v18 & “plundered” and “plunder” in v29. Perhaps from harpazo (see note CXV above). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
CXXXI “bad” = sapros. 8x in NT. From sepo (to putrefy, cause to rot; figuratively, to perish or to make something corrupt). This is rotten, worthless, corrupt, bad, or unwholesome. It is rotten and hence of poor quality and hence not good for use and so worthless in a literal and figurative (moral) sense. This is someone who previously embodied a virtue, but has fallen into sin.

34 You broodCXXXII of vipers!CXXXIII How can you speak goodCXXXIV things, when you are evil?CXXXV

Notes on verse 34a

CXXXII “brood” = gennema. 8x in NT. From gennao (to beget, give birth to, or bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, to regenerate); from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is offspring, child, fruit, brood, or produce in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXXIII “vipers” = echidna. 5x in NT. From echis (viper, adder). This is some kind of poisonous snake or figuratively poisonous words.
CXXXIV “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
CXXXV “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.

For out of the abundanceCXXXVI of the heartCXXXVII the mouthCXXXVIII speaks. 35 The good person brings good things out of a good treasure,CXXXIX and the evil person brings evil things out of an evil treasure. 

Notes on verses 34b-35

CXXXVI “abundance” = perisseuma. From perisseuo (more than what is ordinary or necessary; abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond; super-abounding in number or quality); from perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundance, overflow, more than was expected up to the limit – a super-plus.
CXXXVII “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.
CXXXVIII “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.
CXXXIX “treasure” = thesuaros. Related to “Presence” in v4 & “put” in v18. 17x in NT. From tithemi (see note XXII above). This is treasure, storehouse, deposit. It can be used figuratively for treasured thoughts.

36 I tell you, on the day of judgment you will have to give an accountCXL for every carelessCXLI wordCXLII you utter; 37 for by your words you will be justified,CXLIII and by your wordsCXLIV you will be condemned.”

Notes on verses 36-37

CXL “account” = logos. Same as “word” in v32. See note CXXV above.
CXLI “careless” = argos. 8x in NT. From a (not) + ergon (word, task, action, employment). This is inactive, idle, lazy, thoughtless, useless, unemployed, unprofitable, barren.
CXLII “word” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CXLIII “justified” = dikaioo. Related to “condemned” in v7. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
CXLIV “words” = logos. Same as “word” in v32. See note CXXV above.

38 Then some of the scribesCXLV and Pharisees said to him, “Teacher,CXLVI we wishCXLVII to seeCXLVIII a signCXLIX from you.” 

Notes on verse 38

CXLV “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXLVI “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
CXLVII “wish” = thelo. Same as “desire” in v7. See note XXIX above.
CXLVIII “see” = horao. Same as “saw” in v2. See note XIII above.
CXLIX “sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.

39 But he answered them, “An evil and adulterousCL generationCLI asks forCLII a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah.CLIII 

Notes on verse 39

CL “adulterous” = moichalis. 7x in NT. From moichos (adulterer; a man who has been with a married woman; used figuratively of an apostate). This is adulteress or adultery. It can also refer to idolaters.
CLI “generation” = genea. From genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is family, generation, kind, or nation. As generation, it implies an age as a period of time. It can also mean infinity. This is the root of the word “generation.
CLII “asks for” = epizeteo. 13x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to desire, search for, seek, or want. It is following through on a personal goal by seeking.
CLIII “Jonah” = Ionas. 9x in NT. From Hebrew yonah (Jonah, “dove”); the same as yonah (dove or pigeon; used to refer to the exiles coming home, to describe sails of ships; also figuratively for mourning or as a description of beauty); perhaps from yayin (wine; root means to effervesce). This is Jonah or Jonas, meaning “dove.”

40 For just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the bellyCLIV of the sea monster,CLV so for three days and three nights the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth. 41 The peopleCLVI of NinevehCLVII will rise upCLVIII at the judgment with this generation

Notes on verses 40-41a

CLIV “belly” = koilia. From koilos (hollow). This is belly or organs in the abdomen. So, it could be stomach, womb, or heart. Figuratively, this refers to one’s inner self.
CLV “sea monster” = ketos. 1x in NT. Perhaps from the base of chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn). This is a large fish whale, or sea monster.
CLVI “people” = aner. Related to “Man” in v8. See note XXXIII above.
CLVII “Nineveh” = Nineuites. 3x in NT. From Akkadian Ninua or Old Babylonian Ninuwa; from nina (literally, a fish). This is Ninevite, perhaps meaning “house of fish.” See
CLVIII “rise up” = anistemi. Related to “heads of grain” in v1 & “restored” in v13 & “amazed” in v23 & “stand” in v25. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (see note X above). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

and condemnCLIX it, because they repentedCLX at the proclamationCLXI of Jonah, and see,CLXII something greater than Jonah is here! 

Notes on verse 41b

CLIX “condemn” = katakrino. Related to “justice” in v18 & “judges” in v27. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (see note LXXIV above). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CLX “repented” = metanoeo. From meta (with, among, after, beyond) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect)}. This is to change how one thinks, to reconsider, to repent. It refers to a change of thinking, which means a change of purpose and behavior.
CLXI “proclamation” = kerugma. 9x in NT. From kerusso (proclaim, preach, publish; properly, to act as a herald – announcing something publicly with confidence and/or to persuade). This is proclamation – both the preaching and that which is preached. Sometimes times used to refer to the Gospel itself.
CLXII “see” = idou. Same as “look” in v2. See note XIV above.

42 The queenCLXIII of the SouthCLXIV will rise upCLXV at the judgment with this generation and condemn it, because she came from the ends of the earth to listen to the wisdomCLXVI of Solomon,CLXVII and see,CLXVIII something greater than Solomon is here!

Notes on verse 42

CLXIII “queen” = basilissa. Related to “break” in v5 & “sheep” and “pit” in v11 & “kingdom” in v25. From basileus (see note CIII above). This is queen.
CLXIV “South” = notos. 7x in NT. This is south wind, hence, a reference to the South.
CLXV “rise up” = egeiro. Same as “lift…out” in v11. See note XLVIII above.
CLXVI “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
CLXVII “Solomon” = Solomon. 12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”
CLXVIII “see” = idou. Same as “look” in v2. See note XIV above.

43 “When the uncleanCLXIX spirit has gone out of a person, it wanders through waterless regionsCLXX looking forCLXXI a resting place,CLXXII but it findsCLXXIII none. 

Notes on verse 43

CLXIX “unclean” = akathartos. From a (not, without) + kathairo (to cleanse or purify by purging out unwanted elements); {from katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying)}. This is unclean or impure, whether a thing or a person. It is something that is not mixed with something that would taint. This is unclean in a ritual or moral sense. It can also mean demonic or foul.
CLXX “regions” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
CLXXI “looking for” = zeteo. Related to “asks for” in v39. See note CLII above.
CLXXII “resting place” = anapausis. 5x in NT – including “you will find rest for your souls” from Matthew 11:29. From anapauo (a break from work, which implies being refreshed; denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished); {from ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end)}. This is an intermission, refreshment, recreation, rest from work. It can also refer to inner tranquility.
CLXXIII “finds” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

44 Then it says, ‘I will returnCLXXIV to my house from which I came.’ When it comes, it finds it empty,CLXXV swept,CLXXVI and put in order.CLXXVII 

Notes on verse 44

CLXXIV “return” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
CLXXV “empty” = scholazo. 3x in NT. From schole (leisure; how one spends non-work time – so, school); perhaps from echo (have, hold, possess). This is having leisure, take vacation, not being occupied, or dedicating oneself to something. This word shares a root with “scholar.”
CLXXVI “swept” = saroo. 3x in NT. From sairo (to brush off). This is to sweep or clean out by sweeping.
CLXXVII “put in order” = kosmeo. 10x in NT. From kosmos (order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants; literally, something that is ordered; can refer to all creation or decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and so more beautiful); perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is to order, arrange, beautify. It is more beautiful because it is properly arranged in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be used to mean trim a wick.

45 Then it goes and brings along seven otherCLXXVIII spirits more evil than itself, and they enter and liveCLXXIX there; and the lastCLXXX state of that person isCLXXXI worseCLXXXII than the first. So will it be also with this evil generation.”

Notes on verse 45

CLXXVIII “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
CLXXIX “live” = katoikeo. Related to “house” in v4 & “house” in v25. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + oikeo (to settle or be established somewhere in a permanent way, to make a home or live at home); {from oikos (see note XVIII above)}. This is to live or settle on a permanent basis.
CLXXX “last” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
CLXXXI “is” = ginomai. Related to “brood” in v34 & “generation” in v35. See note CXXXII above.
CLXXXII “worse” = cheiron. 11x in NT. A comparative of kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is worse, more evil in a physical, mental, or moral sense.

46 While he was still speaking to the crowds, his mother and his brothersCLXXXIII were standing outside, wantingCLXXXIV to speak to him. 47 Someone told him, “Look, your mother and your brothers are standing outside, wanting to speak to you.”

Notes on verses 46-47

CLXXXIII “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
CLXXXIV “wanting” = zeteo. Same as “looking for” in v43. See note CLXXI above.

48 But to the one who had told him this, Jesus replied, “Who is my mother, and who are my brothers?” 49 And pointing toCLXXXV his disciples, he said, “HereCLXXXVI are my mother and my brothers! 50 For whoever does the willCLXXXVII of my Father in heavenCLXXXVIII is my brother and sisterCLXXXIX and mother.”

Notes on verses 48-50

CLXXXV “pointing to” = ekteino + ho + cheir + autos. Literally “having stretched out his hand to.” Ekteino is the same as “stretch out” in v13. See note LII above. Cheir is the same as “hand” in v10. See note XXXIX above.
CLXXXVI “here” = idou. Same as “look” in v2. See note XIV above.
CLXXXVII “will” = thelema. Related to “desire” in v7. From thelo (see note XXIX above). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
CLXXXVIII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
CLXXXIX “sister” = adelphe. Related to “brothers” in v46. From adelphos (see note CLXXXIII above). This is sister in a literal or figurative sense.

Image credit: “Jonah” by John August Swanson, 1983.

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