Matthew 14

Matthew 14


1 At that timeI HerodII the rulerIII heardIV reportsV about Jesus;VI 

Notes on verse 1

I “time” = kairos. This is season, opportunity, occasion. The word chronos is used for chronological time. Kairos is used for spiritually significant time – the right time or appointed time.
II “Herod” = Herodes. Perhaps from heros (hero, warrior) + oide (song, ode, legend, tale) [from aoide (song, ode, legent, tale) {from aeido (to sing) + e (this is added to verbs to make them nouns)}] OR from hera (Hera) + oide (same as above). This is Herod, perhaps “hero’s song,” “Hera’s song,” or “heroic.” See
III “ruler” = tetrarches. 4x in NT – all referring to Herod. From tetraarches (tetrarch; governor with power over a fourth of an area); {from tessares (four; figuratively, total coverage) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power)}. This is tetrarch, who governs a fourth of a region.
IV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
V “reports” = akoe. Related to “heard” in v1. From akouo (see note IV above). This is hearing, ear, audience, fame, report, rumor.
VI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

and he said to his servants,VII “This is JohnVIII the Baptist;IX he has been raisedX from the dead,XI and for this reason these powersXII are at workXIII in him.” 

Notes on verse 2

VII “servants” = pais. Perhaps from paio (to strike or sting). This is child, youth, servant, or slave.
VIII “John” = Ioannes. Related to “Jesus” in v1. From Hebrew yochanan (Johanan); from Yehochanan (“the Lord has been gracious”); {from YHVH (see note VI above)} + chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is John.
IX “Baptist” = baptistes. 12x in NT. From baptizo (to submerge, wash, or immerse; used specially for baptism); from bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is baptizer or Baptist. The term is only used for John the Baptist.
X “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XI “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead of lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
XII “powers” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
XIII “are at work” = energeo. From energes (active, effective, operative, energized, powerful); {from en (in, at, by, with, among) + ergon (word, task, action, employment); {from ergo (to work, accomplish) or from erdo (to do)}}. This is to be at work, accomplish, be mighty or effectual. This is where “energy” comes from.

For Herod had arrestedXIV John, boundXV him, and putXVI him in prisonXVII on account of Herodias,XVIII

Notes on verse 3a

XIV “arrested” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.
XV “bound” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.
XVI “put” = apotithemi. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to put aside, put away, renounce.
XVII “prison” = phulake. From phulasso (to guard something so that it doesn’t escape – to watch over it vigilantly; being on guard in a literal or figurative sense); related to phulaks (military guard, sentry, watcher). This is the act of guarding, the person who guards, the place where guarding occurs (i.e. a prison), or the times of guarding (the various watches).
XVIII “Herodias” = Herodias. Related to “Herod” in v1. 6x in NT. From Herodes (see note II above). This is Herodias, the female form of Herod, perhaps meaning “hero’s song” or “heroic.”

his brotherXIX Philip’sXX wife,XXI because John had been telling him, “It is not lawfulXXII for you to have her.” 

Notes on verses 3b-4

XIX “brother” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
XX “Philip’s” = Philippos. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person) + hippos (horse). This is Philip, meaning one who loves horses or is fond of horses.
XXI “wife” = gune. Perhaps from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
XXII “lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.

Though Herod wantedXXIII to put him to death,XXIV he fearedXXV the crowd, because they regarded him as a prophet.XXVI 

Notes on verse 5

XXIII “wanted” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
XXIV “put…to death” = apokteino. From apo (from, away from) + kteino (to kill). To put to death, kill, slay. Figuratively, this word can mean abolish, destroy, or extinguish.
XXV “feared” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
XXVI “prophet” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view); {from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear)}. This is a prophet or poet – one who speaks with inspiration from God.

But when Herod’s birthdayXXVII came,XXVIII the daughter of Herodias dancedXXIX before the company, and she pleasedXXX Herod 

Notes on verse 6

XXVII “birthday” = genesia. Related to “wife” in v3. 2x in NT. From genesis (origin, lineage, life, nativity, nature, generation); from ginomai (see note XXI above). This is birthday or celebration for a birthday.
XXVIII “came” = ginomai. Related to “wife” in v3 & “birthday” in v6. See note XXI above.
XXIX “danced” = orcheomai. 4x in NT. Perhaps from orchos (a row). This is to dance as with a regular or repeated motion.
XXX “pleased” = aresko. 17x in NT. Root means to fit together. This is to please or be agreeable. It implies voluntarily serving others, satisfying others, or making good to win their favor or approval. It is often used for moral agreement. It can mean being agreeable or trying to be agreeable. Used 9x of pleasing people in a negative way, 5x of pleasing people in a positive way, and 3x of pleasing God.

so much that he promisedXXXI on oathXXXII to grant her whatever she might ask.XXXIII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXI “promised” = homologeo. From homologos (of one mind); {from homos (the same) + lego (to say, speak, tell)}. This is to agree, speak the same, declare, promise, praise, celebrate. It can mean to align with, express the same conclusion, endorse.
XXXII “oath” = horkos. 10x in NT. Related to erkos (fence, enclosure); perhaps related to horion (boundary, territory); from horos (limit, boundary). This is an oath or vow. It is something with limits, done for a sacred purpose.
XXXIII “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.

PromptedXXXIV by her mother, she said,XXXV “Give me the headXXXVI of John the Baptist here on a platter.”XXXVII 

Notes on verse 8

XXXIV “prompted” = probibazo. 1x in NT. From probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. OR from pro (see above) + biazo (to force, use power to seize); {from bia (strength, force, violence)}. This is to lead on, prompt, incite, urge, bring to the front.
XXXV “said” = phemi. Related to “prophet” in v5. See note XXVI above.
XXXVI “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
XXXVII “platter” = pinax. 5x in NT. Perhaps from plax (something flat and broad, stone tablet); from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a dish, platter, disc, board, or charger.

The kingXXXVIII was grieved,XXXIX yet out of regard for his oaths and for the guests,XL he commandedXLI it to be given; 

Notes on verse 9

XXXVIII “king” = basileus. Related to “prompted” in v8. Probably from basis (see note XXXIV above). This is king, emperor, or sovereign.
XXXIX “grieved” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
XL “guests” = sunanakeimai. 7x in NT. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anakeimai (to recline, particularly as one does for dinner; also reclining as a corpse); {from ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively)}. This is to dine, recline at a table with someone else, a dinner guest, the table itself.
XLI “commanded” = keleuo. From kelomai (to urge on). This is to command, order, or direct.

10 he sentXLII and had John beheadedXLIII in the prison. 11 The head was broughtXLIV on a platter and given to the girl,XLV who brought it to her mother. 

Notes on verses 10-11

XLII “sent” = pempo. This is to send, put forth, or dispatch. This often refers to a temporary errand. It is sending someone with a focus on the place they departed from. By contrast, another Greek word, hiemi, emphasizes the destination and yet another word, stello, focuses on the motion that goes with the sending.
XLIII “beheaded” = apokephalizo. Related to “head” in v8. 4x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + kephale (see note XXXVI above). This is to decapitate or behead.
XLIV “brought” = phero. This is to bear, bring, lead, or make known publicly. It is to carry in a literal or figurative sense.
XLV “girl” = korasion. 8x in NT– 4x of the girl restored to life & 4x of Salome. From kore (maiden). This is a little girl or maiden.

12 His disciplesXLVI came and tookXLVII the bodyXLVIII and buriedXLIX it; then they went and toldL Jesus.

Notes on verse 12

XLVI “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XLVII “took” = airo. This is to lift up in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could mean to lift, carry, or raise. It could also imply lifting something in order to take it away or remove it. Figuratively, this can be used for raising the voice or level of suspense. It can mean sailing off as raising the anchor. It can also correspond to a Hebrew expression for atonement of sin (lift/remove sin).
XLVIII “body” = ptoma. 7x in NT. From pipto (to fall literally or figuratively). This is a fall, misfortune, ruin, corpse.
XLIX “buried” = thapto. 11x in NT. This is to bury or hold a funeral.
L “told” = apaggello. From apo (from, away from) + aggello (to announce, report); {from aggelos (angel, messenger); probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, drive)}. This is to report, declare, bring word. It is an announcement that emphasizes the source.

13 Now when Jesus heard this, he withdrewLI from there in a boatLII to a desertedLIII placeLIV by himself.LV But when the crowds heard it, they followedLVI him on foot from the towns.LVII 

Notes on verse 13

LI “withdrew” = anachoreo. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}.  This is to withdraw, depart, retire, or leave. It can give a sense of seeking safety from harm or of retiring.
LII “boat” = ploion. From pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow). This is a boat, ship, or vessel.
LIII “deserted” = eremos. Properly, a place that is not settled or farmed, not populated. It could be a deserted area or a desert place. It could be seen as secluded, solitary, or lonesome. Any kind of vegetation is sparse, but so are people generally.
LIV “place” = topos. This is a place or region. It is a smaller space that can only hold a limited number of people whereas chora is a larger place. Figuratively it could be an opportunity.
LV “himself” = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
LVI “followed” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
LVII “towns” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.

14 When he went ashore, he sawLVIII a great crowd; and he had compassionLIX for them and curedLX their sick.LXI 

Notes on verse 14

LVIII “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
LIX “had compassion” = splagchnizomai. 12x in NT – 8x of Jesus having compassion on people or crowds. From splanxnon (inner organs, entrails; seen as the root of emotions). This is moved to compassion from deep within oneself – visceral empathy or sympathy, being deeply moved.
LX “cured” = therapeuo. From therapon (servant, attendant, minister); perhaps from theros (properly heat and so used for summer); from thero (to heat). This is to serve, care, attend, heal, or cure. Since it means to attend to, it can be used for doctors, but also for those who serve God. So, it can mean worship. This is where the word “therapy” comes from.
LXI “sick” = arrostos. 5x in NT. From a (not, without) + rhonnumi (to strengthen, be firm, have health; used as a salutation in letters at the end); {probably from rhoomai (to move quickly) probably akin to rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); akin to eruo (to drag) or rheo (to flow, to flow like water, overflow)}. This is literally not strong so it refers to a chronic illness that persists. It is infirmity, feeble, or sick person.

15 When it was evening, the disciples came to him and said, “This is a deserted place, and the hourLXII is now late;LXIII send the crowds awayLXIV so that they may go into the villagesLXV and buyLXVI foodLXVII for themselves.” 

Notes on verse 15

LXII “hour” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.
LXIII “is…late” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
LXIV “send…away” = apoluo. From apo (from, away from) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
LXV “villages” = kome. Related to “guests” in v9. Perhaps from keimai (see note XL above). This is a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall.
LXVI “buy” = agorazo. From agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square, thoroughfare); from ageiro (to gather). This is to go and buy something at market with a focus on goods being transferred. It can also mean to purchase or redeem.
LXVII “food” = broma. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.

16 Jesus said to them, “They needLXVIII not go away; you give them something to eat.”LXIX 

17 They replied, “We have nothing here but five loavesLXX and two fish.”LXXI 

Notes on verses 16-17

LXVIII “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
LXIX “eat” = phago. This is to eat or figuratively to consume like rust does.
LXX “loaves” = artos. Related to “took” in v12. Perhaps from airo (see note XLVII above). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
LXXI “fish” = ichthus. This means fish. It was also an early, secret Christian symbol – the “sign of the fish.” It was short for “Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior” in Greek. See

18 And he said, “Bring them here to me.” 19 Then he orderedLXXII the crowds to sit downLXXIII on the grass.LXXIV

Notes on verses 18-19a

LXXII “ordered” = keleuo. Same as “commanded” in v9. See note XLI above.
LXXIII “sit down” = anaklino. 6x in NT. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + klino (to slant, rest, recline, approach an end, wear; to bend in a literal or figurative sense – to lay down, a day ending, causing an opposing army to flee). This is to lay down, recline, lie back, or sit down.
LXXIV “grass” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.

Taking the five loaves and the two fish, he looked upLXXV to heaven,LXXVI and blessedLXXVII and brokeLXXVIII the loaves, and gave them to the disciples, and the disciples gave them to the crowds. 

Notes on verse 19b

LXXV “looked up” = anablepo. From ana (up, back, again, among, between, anew) + blepo (to see, used primarily in the physical sense; figuratively, seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, beware, and acting on the visual information). This is to look up or regain sight.
LXXVI “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.
LXXVII “blessed” = eulogeo. Related to “promised” in v7. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (see note XXXI above)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
LXXVIII “broke” = klao. 14x in NT. This is to break, to break in pieces as one breaks bread.

20 And all ate and were filled;LXXIX and they took up what was left overLXXX of the broken pieces,LXXXI twelve baskets full.LXXXII 

Notes on verse 20

LXXIX “were filled” = chortazo. Related to “grass” in v19. 16x in NT. From chortos (see note LXXIV above). This is to feed, fodder, fill, or satisfy. It carries the sense of abundantly supplied food – even gorging on food.
LXXX “was left over” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
LXXXI “broken pieces” = klasma. Related to “broke” in v19. 9x in NT. From klao (see note LXXVIII above). This is a fragment, bit, or broken piece.
LXXXII “full” = pleres. 16x in NT. From pletho (to fill, accomplish, supply; to fill to maximum capacity). This is to be full, complete, abounding in, or occupied with.

21 And those who ateLXXXIII were about five thousand men,LXXXIV besides women and children.LXXXV

Notes on verse 21

LXXXIII “ate” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.
LXXXIV “men” = aner. This is man, male, husband, or fellow. It can also refer to an individual.
LXXXV “children” = paidion. Related to “servants” in v2. From pais (see note VII above). This is a child as one who is still being educated or trained. Perhaps one seven years old or younger. Used figuratively for an immature Christian.

22 ImmediatelyLXXXVI he madeLXXXVII the disciples get into the boat and go on aheadLXXXVIII to the other side, while he dismissedLXXXIX the crowds. 23 And after he had dismissed the crowds, he went up the mountain by himself to pray.XC

Notes on verses 22-23a

LXXXVI “immediately” = eutheos. From euthus (immediately, upright, straight and not crooked). This is directly, soon, at once.
LXXXVII “made” = anagkazo. 9x in NT. From anagke (necessity – something that happens that requires an immediate response; generally associated with pain or distress.); {from ana (up, again, anew) + agcho (to press tightly, compress)} or {from ana (up, again, anew) + agkale (the arm, particularly one that is bent to carry a load); {from agkos (a bend)}}. This is to urge, compel, or force.
LXXXVIII “go on ahead” = proago. Related to “told” in v12. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ago (see note L above). This is to lead, go before, bring forward, walk ahead. It can be before in location or in time.
LXXXIX “dismissed” = apoluo. Same as “send…away” in v15. See note LXIV above.
XC “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.

When evening came, he was there alone, 24 but by this time the boat, batteredXCI by the waves,XCII was farXCIII from the land, for the windXCIV was against them. 

Notes on verses 23b-24

XCI “battered” = basanizo. Related to “prompted” in v8 & “king” in v9. 12x in NT. From basanos (touchstone used to test metals; figuratively used for interrogating using torture, torment, pain sickness); perhaps from the same as basis (see note XXXIV above). This is to torture, interrogate by torture, torment, batter with waves, examine, strain.
XCII “waves” = kuma. 5x in NT. From kuo (to swell as one pregnant). This is a wave, billow, curve, or bend.
XCIII “far” = stadion + polus. Literally “many stadia.” Stadion is 7x in NT. From the same as histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is a stadium, which was a unit of length. By implication, this would refer to a racing track for a foot race.
XCIV “wind” = anemos. From aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is wind or a gust of air. It can also be used figuratively for empty doctrines.

25 And early in the morningXCV he came walkingXCVI toward them on the sea.XCVII 

Notes on verse 25

XCV “early in the morning” = tetartos + de + phulake + ho + nux. Literally “and in the fourth watch of the night.” Tetartos is related to “ruler” in v1. 10x in NT. From tessares (see note III above). This is fourth. Phulake is the same as “prison” in v3. See note XVII above.
XCVI “walking” = peripateo. Related to “servants” in v2 & “children” in v21. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (see note VII above)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
XCVII “sea” = thalassa. Perhaps from hals (sea, salt, a boy of saltwater) or halas (salt; can be figurative for prudence). This is the sea, a lake, or seashore.

26 But when the disciples saw him walking on the sea, they were terrified,XCVIII saying, “It is a ghost!”XCIX And they cried outC in fear.CI 

Notes on verse 26

XCVIII “terrified” = tarasso. 18x in NT. This is trouble, agitate, stir up. It is motion back and forth, creating inner turmoil or confusion, roiling water.
XCIX “ghost” = phantasma. Related to “prophet” in v5. 2x in NT. From phantazo (to become visible or apparent); from phaino (see note XXVI above). This is an appearance, manifestation, ghost, or spirit. It is where the word “phantasm” comes from.
C “cried out” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CI “fear” = phobos. Related to “feared” in v5. See note XXV above.

27 But immediately Jesus spoke to them and said, “Take heart,CII it is I; do not be afraid.”

28 PeterCIII answered him, “Lord,CIV if it is you, command me to come to you on the water.” 

29 He said, “Come.” So Peter got out of the boat, started walking on the water, and came toward Jesus. 

Notes on verses 27-29

CII “take heart” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
CIII “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
CIV “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

30 But when he noticedCV the strongCVI wind, he became frightened, and beginningCVII to sink,CVIII he cried out, “Lord, saveCIX me!” 

Notes on verse 30

CV “noticed” = blepo. Related to “looked up” in v19. See note LXXV above.
CVI “strong” = ischuros. From ischuo (to be strong, healthy and vigorous, able, have power, prevail; strength that engages a resisting force); from ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is strong – first of physical strength. Later, also used figuratively for forcible, powerful, mighty, vehement, or sure.
CVII “beginning” = archomai. Related to “ruler” in v1. From archo (see note III above). This is to begin or rule.
CVIII “sink” = katapontizo. 2x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + pontos (sea; also the name of a Roman Province). This is to be submerged, drown, or sink.
CIX “save” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

31 Jesus immediately reached outCX his handCXI and caughtCXII him, saying to him, “You of little faith,CXIII why did you doubt?”CXIV 

Notes on verse 31

CX “reached out” = ekteino. 16x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch, extend, strain). This is to stretch out, reach, lay hands on. Can also be used for casting an anchor.
CXI “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
CXII “caught” = epilambanomai. Related to “taking” in v19. 19x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take hold of, catch, or seize. It can also mean to help. It focuses on the intentionality and resolve of the one doing the catching.
CXIII “of little faith” = oligopistos. 6x in NT– 5 in Matthew & 1 in Luke. From oligos (few, small, short, brief, puny) + pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is of little faith – incredulous, lacking confidence.
CXIV “doubt” = distazo. Related to “far” in v24. 2x in NT– both in Matthew. From dis (twice, doubly, again, entirely) + stasis (place, standing, rebel, position, existence); {from the base of histemi (see note XCIII above)}. This is to waver, doubt, or hesitate. It is shifting back and forth between positions – vacillating. It is refusing to choose a position or direction.

32 When they got into the boat, the wind ceased.CXV 33 And those in the boat worshipedCXVI him, saying, “TrulyCXVII you are the Son of God.”CXVIII

Notes on verses 32-33

CXV “ceased” = kopazo. 3x in NT. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is to tire, be stilled, stop, or cease. It can also mean to relax.
CXVI “worshiped” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.
CXVII “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CXVIII “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

34 When they had crossed over,CXIX they came to land at Gennesaret.CXX 35 After the peopleCXXI of that place recognizedCXXII him,

Notes on verses 34-35a

CXIX “crossed over” = diaperao. 6x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + peran (over, beyond, across); {akin to pera (on the far side); perhaps from periro (to pierce)}. This is to cross or sail over entirely.
CXX “Gennesaret” = Gennesaret. 3x in NT. From Hebrew Kinaroth (lyre, maybe harp-shaped; root may mean to twang). This is west of the Sea of Galilee.
CXXI “people” = aner. Same as “men” in v21. See note LXXXIV above.
CXXII “recognized” = epiginosko. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction.

they sentCXXIII word throughoutCXXIV the region and broughtCXXV all who were sickCXXVI to him, 

Notes on verse 35b

CXXIII “sent” = apostello. Related to “far” in v24 & “doubt” in v31. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note XCIII above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CXXIV “throughout” = eis + holos. Literally “into the whole.” Holos is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
CXXV “brought” = prosphero. Related to “brought” in v11. From pros (at, to, with, towards, advantageous for) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to offer gifts or sacrifices, to bring up.
CXXVI “sick” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.

36 and beggedCXXVII him that they might touchCXXVIII even the fringeCXXIX of his cloak;CXXX and all who touched it were healed.CXXXI

Notes on verse 36

CXXVII “begged” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
CXXVIII “touch” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
CXXIX “fringe” = kraspedon. 5x in NT. This is a border – a fringe, edge, or tassel.
CXXX “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CXXXI “healed” = diasozo. Related to “save” in v30. 8x in NT. From dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + sozo (see note CIX above). This is thoroughly saved or delivered from danger. It can also be to make someone entirely whole, to cure, or preserve.

Image credit: “Salome with the Head of St. John the Baptist” by Maurycy Gottlieb, between 1877 and 1878.

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