Matthew 26:14-27:66

Matthew 26:14-27:66
Lent A19, Palm/Passion Sunday


14 Then one of the twelve, who was called JudasI Iscariot,II wentIII to the chief priests 15 and said, “What willIV you giveV me if I betrayVI him to you?” They paid him thirty pieces of silver.VII 

Notes on verses 26:14-15

I “Judas” = ioudas. From Hebrew Yehudah (Judah, son of Jacob, his tribal descendants, a name for the southern kingdom. Literally, it means praised); probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah or Judas, meaning praised.
II “Iscariot” = iskariotes. 11x in NT. From Hebrew probably ish (man, husband); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be frail, feeble)} + qirya (city); {Aramaic corresponding to qiryah (city, building); from qarah (to happen, meet, bring about)}. Iscariot means person from Kerioth.
III “went” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
IV “will” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
V “give” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense. All words based on didomi are highlighted in yellow.
VI “betray” = paradidomi. Related to “give” in v26:15. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (see note V above). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
VII “pieces of silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.

16 And from that moment he began to look forVIII an opportunityIX to betray him.

17 On the first day of Unleavened Bread the disciplesX came to Jesus,XI saying, “Where do you want us to make the preparations for you to eat the Passover?”XII 

Notes on verses 26:16-17

VIII “look for” = zeteo. This is to seek, search for, desire. It is searching for something by inquiring or investigation. It can be seek in a literal or figurative sense. There is a Hebrew figure of speech “to seek God’s face” so it can also mean to worship God. Alternately, you could seek someone’s life i.e. plot to kill them.
IX “opportunity” = eukairia. 2x in NT – both when Judas agrees to betray Jesus (Mt 26:16 & Lk 22:6). From eukairos (timely, suitable; sometimes refers to a holiday); {from eu (good, well done, rightly) + kairos (time, season, occasion; the proper time; not chronological time, but spiritually significant time)}. This is a fitting time or convenient one.
X “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from mathnao (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.
XI “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XII “Passover” = pascha. From Aramaic corresponding to Hebrew pesach (Passover or the offering for Passover); from pasach (to stop, pass over, skit over, to spare). This is Passover – used for the feast, the lamb of sacrifice, the day, and the festival itself. This is where the term “paschal” comes from as in the “paschal lamb.”

18 He said, “GoXIII into the cityXIV to a certain man,XV and say to him, ‘The TeacherXVI says, My timeXVII is near; I will keep the Passover at your house with my disciples.’” 19 So the disciples did as Jesus had directed them, and they prepared the Passover meal.

Notes on verses 26:18-19

XIII “go” = hupago. From hupo (by, under, under the authority of) + ago (lead, bring, guide, spend, drive, carry). This is to lead under so to depart, go away, or die. It is to lead away under the command of someone else, being given a mission or objective to carry out.
XIV “city” = polis. This is a city or its inhabitants. It is a town of variable size, but one that has walls. This is where “metropolis” and “police” come from.
XV “certain man” = deina. 1x in NT. Of uncertain origin. This is properly, to so and so – as one says when one relates a story, but doesn’t specifically state the name or when they don’t think the name is relevant.
XVI “Teacher” = didaskolos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn).This is teacher or master.
XVII “time” = kairos. Related to “opportunity” in v26:16. See note IX above.

20 When it was evening,XVIII he took his placeXIX with the twelve; 21 and while they were eating, he said, “TrulyXX I tell you, one of you will betray me.” 

22 And they became greatly distressedXXI and began to say to him one after another, “Surely notXXII I, Lord?”XXIII 

Notes on verses 26:20-22

XVIII “evening” = opsios. 15x in NT. From opse (after, late, in the end, in the evening); from opiso (back, behind, after); from the same as opisthen (after, back, from the rear); probably from opis (back). This is afternoon, evening, nightfall, or late.
XIX “took his place” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
XX “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XXI “distressed” = lupeo. From lupe (pain, whether physical or mental; grief, sorrow, distress, a heavy heart). This is to be sad, grieve, distress, hurt, feel pain. It can be used for deep pain or severe sorrow as well as the pain that accompanies childbirth.
XXII “surely not” = meti. 17x in NT. From me (not, neither, never; rules out conditional statements and their implications) + tis (someone, anyone, anything). This is asking a question when you expect the answer to be no. It is if not, surely no. But it also keeps a small possibility floating – but could it be?
XXIII “Lord” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

23 He answered, “The one who has dippedXXIV his hand into the bowl with me will betray me. 24 XXVThe Son of ManXXVI goes as it is written of him, but woe to that one by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been betterXXVII for that one not to have been born.” 

25 Judas, who betrayed him, said, “Surely not I, Rabbi?”XXVIII

He replied, “You have said so.”

Notes on verses 26:23-25

XXIV “dipped” = embapto. 2x in NT – both of the disciple who betrays Jesus in Mt 26:23 & Mk 14:20. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + bapto (to dip, dye, fully cover with liquid). This is to dip into, to touch liquid. This shares a root with “baptize.”
XXV {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXVI “Man” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XXII “better” = kalos. This is good, noble, beautiful, correct, or worthy. This is external signs of goodness like beauty, demonstrations of honorable character, showing moral virtues. A different word, agathos, speaks of intrinsic good.
XXVIII “Rabbi” = rhabbi. 15x in NT – 8x in the Gospel of John. From Hebrew rab (chief); from rabab (to be many, increase, multiply). This is a title of respect for a teacher-scholar. Literally, it means great one or honorable sir. It can also be understood as my master or my teacher.

26 While they were eating, Jesus took a loaf of bread, and after blessingXXIX it he broke it, gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is my body.”XXX 27 Then he took a cup,XXXI and after giving thanksXXXII he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you; 

Notes on verses 26:26-27

XXIX “blessing” = eulogeo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); {from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. Properly, this is speaking well of – speaking so that the other is benefited. It can mean praise, bless, thank, or call for a blessing. This is where “eulogy” comes from.
XXX “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XXXI “cup” = poterion. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This a cup and also what is in the cup. Figuratively, it refers to the portion God gives or one’s lot in life (i.e. fate).
XXXII “giving thanks” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.

28 for this is my bloodXXXIII of the covenant,XXXIV which is poured outXXXV for many for the forgivenessXXXVI of sins.XXXVII 29 I tell you, I will never again drink of this fruit of the vineXXXVIII until that day when I drink it newXXXIX with you in my Father’s kingdom.”

30 When they had sung the hymn,XL they went out to the Mount of Olives.

Notes on verses 26:28-30

XXXIII “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
XXXIV “covenant” = diatheke. From diatithemi (to place separately – to make a will or covenant; this is arranging ahead of time how things will be accomplished); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position)}. This is a will, covenant, contract, or agreement.
XXXV “poured out” = ekcheo. From ek (from, from out of) + cheo (to pour). This is something poured out in a liberal fashion. So, it is gushing, spilling, or shedding.
XXXVI “forgiveness” = aphesis. 17x in NT. From aphiemi (to sent away, release, abandon, lay aside, forgive); {from apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send, to go)}. This is sending away – a release or letting go. So, it can be releasing someone from debt, slavery, or some other obligation – thus, freedom or liberty. Figuratively it can mean to pardon as releasing from the debt of sin.
XXXVII “sins” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin). Hamartano is from a (not) + meros (a part or share). Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
XXXVIII “vine” = ampelos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from the base of amphoteros (both, all); {from amphi (around) + halon (the threshing floor where grain is rolled to separate from the chaff); {from halos (threshing floor); probably from helisso (to roll up, coil, wrap)}}. This is vine or grapevine as that which coils around.
XXXIX “new” = kainos. This is not new as in new versus old. This is new in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh.
XL “sung the hymn” = humneo. 4x in NT. From humno (hymn, song to praise God, religious ode; also used in other faiths as songs that celebrated their gods, heroes, etc); from hudeo (to celebrate). This is singing a hymn or religious ode, to praise or celebrate God.

31 Then Jesus said to them, “You will all become desertersXLI because of me this night; for it is written,

‘I will strikeXLII the shepherd,
    and the sheepXLIII of the flockXLIV will be scattered.’XLV

32 But after I am raised up,XLVI I will go ahead of you to Galilee.”XLVII 

Notes on verses 26:31-32

XLI “become deserters” = skandalizo. From skandalon (the bait or portion of the trap that closes down on the victim – the trap’s trigger; a stumbling block, offense, or cause for error; something that sets into motion a negative cause and effect; something that causes one to stumble); perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is to put a stumbling block in someone’s way. Figuratively, causing someone to sin or preventing them from good action. It can also mean to shock or offend. Literally, this is falling into a trap or tripping someone up. So, here, enticing someone to sin or apostasy.
XLII “strike” = patasso. 10x in NT. Perhaps from paio (to strike, hit, sting). This can be strike or hit in a gentle sense like tapping someone on the side (Acts 12:7) or the beating of the heart. It can also be violent as in the disciples striking with the sword when Jesus is arrested (Mt 26:31 & Mk 22:49-50). It can also refer to slaying or death (Acts 7:24; Acts 12:23).  
XLIII “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
XLIV “flock” = poimne. Related to “shepherd” in v26:31. 5x in NT. Probably from poimen (shepherd in a literal or figurative sense – one who feeds, protects, rules). This is flock or fold in a literal or figurative sense – usually sheep or goats.
XLV “scattered” = diaskorpizo. 9x in NT. From dia (through, on account of, across, thoroughly) + skorpizo (to scatter, distribute, dissipate, waste). This is to separate or disperse. Figuratively, it can be squander or waste.
XLVI “raised up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
XLVII “Galilee” = galilaia. From Hebrew galil (cylinder, circuit, district); from galal (to roll in a literal or figurative sense, roll away, roll down, wallow, remove, trust). This is Galilee, meaning perhaps region or cylinder.

33 PeterXLVIII said to him, “Though all become deserters because of you, I will neverXLIX desert you.” 

34 Jesus said to him, “Truly I tell you, this very night, before the cock crows, you will denyL me three times.” 

35 Peter said to him, “Even though I mustLI die with you, I will not deny you.” And so said all the disciples.

Notes on verses 26:33-35

XLVIII “Peter” = petros. Related to petra (large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff; can also be cave or stony ground). This is Peter, a stone, pebble, or boulder.
XLIX “never” = oudepote. 16x in NT. From ou (not, no) + de (but, and, indeed, moreover) + pos (who, what) + hos (who, which, that, what) + te (and, even, also). This is never, nothing – a categorical denial. It could be never at all or not for a moment.
L “deny” = aparneomai. 11x in NT – 8x of Peter’s denial of Jesus, 2x “let them deny themselves and take up their cross and follow me” (Mt 16:24 & Mk 8:34), 1x “whoever denies me before others will be denied before the angels of God” (Lk 12:9). From apo (from, away from) + arneomai (to deny, disown, refuse, repudiate someone or a previously held belief, to contradict); {from a (not) + rheo (say, speak of)}. This is a strong denial or rejection – utter denial, disowning, or repudiation.
LI “must” = deo. To tie, bind, compel, put in chains. This is to bind in a literal or figurative sense. Can also mean declaring something unlawful.

36 Then Jesus went with them to a place called Gethsemane;LII and he said to his disciples, “Sit here while I go over there and pray.”LIII 37 He took with him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee,LIV and began to be grievedLV and agitated.LVI 

Notes on verses 26:36-37

LII “Gethsemane” = gethsemani. 2x in NT. From Hebrew gath (wine press); {perhaps from nagan (to strike a stringed instrument, to pluck or play it)} + shemen (fait, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume; figurative for fertile, lavish, rich); {from shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat)}. This is Gethsemane, meaning oil-press, an olive orchard.
LIII “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
LIV “Zebedee” = zebedaios. 12x in NT. From Hebrew zebadyah (Zebadiah, “The Lord has bestowed”); {from Zabad (to bestow, confer, endure) + Yah (God, the Lord; a shortening of the sacred name of the God of Israel); {from YHVH (the holy name of the God of Israel, generally designated Lord; the self-existent and eternal one; the tetragrammaton); from havah (to become); or from hayah (to be become, happen)}}. This is Zebedee, meaning “the Lord has bestowed.”
LV “grieved” = lupeo. Same as “distressed” in v26:22. See note XXI above.
LVI “agitated” = ademoneo. 3x in NT. Of uncertain origin. This is being distressed, troubled, fearful, lacking courage.

38 Then he said to them, “ILVII am deeply grieved,LVIII even to death; remainLIX here, and stay awakeLX with me.” 39 And going a little farther, he threw himself on the groundLXI and prayed, “My Father, if it is possible,LXII let this cupLXIII passLXIV from me; yet not what I wantLXV but what you want.” 

Notes on verses 26:38-39

LVII “I” = ho + psuche + ego. Literally “my soul.” Psuche is from psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
LVIII “deeply grieved” = perilupos. Related to “distressed” in v26:22. 5x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + lupe (see note XXI above). This is engulfed in sorrow, very sad.
LIX “remain” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
LX “stay awake” = gregoreo. Related to “raised up” in v26:32. From egeiro (see note XLVI above). This is literally remaining awake, but figuratively it connotes vigilance and responsibility.
LXI “himself on the ground” = epi + prosopon + autos. Literally “on his face.”
LXII “possible” = dunatos. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is mighty or powerful. It speaks of ability of persons, possibility of things. It is what can be given the power or ability that the subject exhibits. The root verb is also related to miracles i.e. deeds of power.
LXIII “cup” = poterion. Same as “cup” in v26:27. See note XXXI above.
LXIV “pass” = parerchomai. From para (from beside, by) + erchomai (to come, go). This is pass by, neglect, disregard. Figuratively, it can mean to perish or to become void.
LXV “want” = thelo. Same as “will” in v26:15. See note IV above.

40 Then he came to the disciples and foundLXVI them sleeping; and he said to Peter, “So, couldLXVII you not stay awake with me one hour? 41 Stay awake and pray that you may not come into the time of trial;LXVIII the spiritLXIX indeedLXX is willing,LXXI but the fleshLXXII is weak.”LXXIII 

Notes on verses 26:40-41

LXVI “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXVII “could” = ischuo. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance). This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
LXVIII “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative of peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
LXIX “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.
LXX “indeed” = men. Same as {untranslated} in v26:24. See note XXVI above.
LXXI “willing” = prothumos. 3x in NT. From pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + thumos (passion, actions that stem from passion or impulse; can be rage, indignation); {from thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general)}. This is willing, eager, ready, enthusiastic, free from resistance. It can also be predisposed, willing, or generous from one’s own impulse.
LXXII “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refer to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
LXXIII “weak” = asthenes. From a (not) + sthenes (strong, vigor) [from the base of sthenoo (to strengthen so that one can be mobile); from sthenos (strength)]. This is without strength so weak, sick, helpless, frail, feeble. It can also be unimpressive or impotent. It can be used for physical or moral weakness.

42 Again he went away for the second time and prayed, “My Father, if this cannotLXXIV pass unless I drink it, your willLXXV be done.” 43 Again he came and found them sleeping, for their eyes were heavy.LXXVI 

44 So leaving them again, he went away and prayed for the third time, saying the same words.LXXVII 45 Then he came to the disciples and said to them, “Are you still sleeping and taking your rest?LXXVIII See,LXXIX the hour is at hand, and the Son of Man is betrayed into the hands of sinners.LXXX 46 Get up, let us be going. See, my betrayer is at hand.”

Notes on verses 26:42-46

LXXIV “cannot” = ou + dunamai. Literally “not able.” Dunamai is related to “possible” in v26:39. See note LXII above.
LXXV “will” = thelema. Related to “will” in v26:15. From thelo (see note IV above). This is wish, desire, choice, purpose, or an act of will.
LXXVI “heavy” = bareo. 6x in NT. From barus (heavy, burdensome; figuratively, violent, oppressive; that which presses down on someone so that they cannot move freely); from the same as baros (weight, burden in a literal or figurative sense; authority). This is heavy, press, weigh down, or burden.
LXXVII “words” = logos. Related to “blessing” in v26:26. See note XXIX above.
LXXVIII “taking your rest” = anapauo. 12x in NT – including Matthew 11:28 “come to me, all you that are weary and are carrying heavy burdens, and I will give you rest.” From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + pauo (to stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, come to an end). This is a break from work, which implies being refreshed. It denotes that rest that one gets once a necessary task is finished.
LXXIX “see” = idou. From eido (to be away, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
LXXX “sinners” = hamartolos. Related to “sins” in v26:29. From hamartano (see note XXXVII above). This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

47 While he was still speaking,LXXXI Judas, one of the twelve, arrived; with him was a large crowd with swordsLXXXII and clubs,LXXXIII from the chief priests and the eldersLXXXIV of the people.LXXXV 48 Now the betrayer had given them a sign,LXXXVI saying, “The one I will kissLXXXVII is the man; arrestLXXXVIII him.” 

Notes on verses 26:47-48

LXXXI {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v26:45.
LXXXII “swords” = machaira. Perhaps from mache (fight, battle, conflict; figuratively, controversy); from machomai (to fight, strive, dispute, quarrel; to war). This is a short sword, slaughter knife, or dagger. It is a stabbing weapon. Figuratively, associated with retribution, war, or legal punishment.
LXXXIII “clubs” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
LXXXIV “elders” = presbuteros. From presbus (old man). This is an elder as one of the Sanhedrin and also in the Christian assembly in the early Church.
LXXXV “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LXXXVI sign” = semeion. From the same as semaino (to give a sign, signify, indicate, make known); from sema (a sign or mark). It is literally a sign of any kind. It also refers to a sign given by God to confirm or authenticate a message or prophecy. It is not necessarily miraculous, but it can be. The Gospel of John generally uses this word instead of miracle.
LXXXVII “kiss” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment. It means kiss as a sign of love deriving from this personal affection (cherishing).
LXXXVIII “arrest” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control. In this sense, it means arrest.

49 At once he came up to Jesus and said, “Greetings,LXXXIX Rabbi!” and kissedXC him. 

50 Jesus said to him, “Friend,XCI do what you are here to do.” Then they came and laid hands on Jesus and arrested him. 51 Suddenly,XCII one of those with Jesus put his hand on his sword, drew it, and struckXCIII the slaveXCIV of the high priest, cutting off his ear. 

Notes on verses 26:49-51

LXXXIX “greetings” = chairo. Related to “giving thanks” in v26:27. See note XXXII above.
XC “kissed” = kataphileo. Related to “kiss” in v26:48. 6x in NT – 2x of Judas’s betrayal, 2x of the woman who washes Jesus’s feet and kisses them (Lk 7:38, 45), 1x when the father kisses the prodigal son (Lk 15:20), and 1x when Paul kisses the Ephesian elders goodbye (Acts 20:37). From kata (down, against, according to) + phileo (see note LXXXVII above). This is kissing with great emotion or kissing repeatedly, earnestly, affectionately.
XCI “friend” = hetairos. 3x in NT. From etes (cousin or member of one’s clan). This is a friend, companion, comrade. It is a friend like one’s own family.
XCII “suddenly” = idou. Same as “see” in v26:45.
XCIII “struck” = patasso. Same as “strike” in v26:31.
XCIV “slave” = doulos. Perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is used for a servant or for a slave, enslaved. It refers to someone who belongs to someone else. But, it could be voluntary (choosing to be enslaved to pay of debt) or involuntary (captured in war and enslaved). It is used as a metaphor for serving Christ. Slavery was not inherited (i.e. the children of slaves were not assumed to be slaves) and slaves could buy their way to freedom. Slavery was generally on a contractual basis (that is for the duration of how long it took you to pay your debt and/or save up enough money to buy your freedom).

52 Then Jesus said to him, “Put your sword backXCV into its place; for all who take the sword will perishXCVI by the sword. 53 XCVIIDo you thinkXCVIII that I cannot appeal toXCIX my Father, and he will at once sendC me more than twelve legionsCI of angels?CII 54 But how then would the scriptures be fulfilled,CIII which say it must happen in this way?” 

Notes on verses 26:52-54

XCV “put…back” = apostrepho. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn away from so it could be to leave, to reject, remove, or even desert. It places a focus on one’s personal commitment to this turning back and rejecting.
XCVI “perish” = apollumi. From apo (from, away from) + ollumi (to destroy or ruin; the loss that comes from a major ruination). This is to destroy, cut off, to perish – perhaps violently. It can also mean to cancel or remove.
XCVII {untranslated} = e. Often translated or – a comparative conjunction.
XCVIII “think” = dokeo. From dokos (opinion). This is to have an opinion, seem, appear, think, suppose. It deals with a personal judgment. This is the root of the word “doxology.”
XCIX “appeal to” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
C “send” = paristemi. Related to “paid” in v26:15. From para (from beside, by) + histemi (to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast). This is to present, appear, prove, stand by. It can be recommend, be ready to assist, provide, give, commend, or yield.
CI “legions” = legion. 4x in NT. From Latin legio (legion); from lego (to choose, collect, gather). This is a division in the army of Rome, which would have had around 6,000 infantry and also included cavalry on top of that. In scripture, often used figuratively for a large number.
CII “angels” = aggelos. Probably from ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide) + agele (flock, herd, drove) [also from ago (lead, bring, carry, guide)]. This is angel or messenger. Properly, it is one sent with news or to perform a specific task. This messenger can be human or an angel from heaven. More commonly, it is used for angels in the New Testament.
CIII “fulfilled” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.

55 At that hour Jesus said to the crowds, “Have you come out with swords and clubs to arrestCIV me as though I were a bandit?CV, CVI Day after day I sat in the temple teaching, and you did not arrest me. 56 But all this has taken place, so that the scriptures of the prophetsCVII may be fulfilled.” Then all the disciples desertedCVIII him and fled.

Notes on verses 26:55-56

CIV “arrest” = sullambano. Related to “took” in v26:26 and “took with” in v26:37. 16x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is to take, take part in, conceive, help. It can also be clasp or seize as to arrest or take hold of someone.
CV “bandit” = lestes. 15x in NT – 3x “you are making [my house] a den of robbers” when Jesus cleanses the temple, 3x of Jesus’ arrest “did you come for me…as though I were a bandit?”; 3x of bandits crucified on Jesus’ left and right; 2x of the man falling into the hands of robbers in the Good Samaritan parable; 2x of the Good Shepherd speech (anyone who doesn’t come in by the gate is a bandit) in John 10:1, 8; 1x of Barrabas as a bandit; and 1x Paul writes he is in danger from bandits. From leis (booty); from leizomai (to plunder). This is a bandit or thief – one who steals by violence/force out in the open as opposed to by stealth. These were part of armed gangs.
CVI Literally “as against a robber did you come out with swords and clubs to capture me?”
CVII “prophets” = prophetes. From pro (before, in front of, earlier than) + phemi (to declare, say, use contrasts in speaking to shed light on one point of view). Phemi is from phao (to shine) or phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is a prophet or poet. One who speaks with inspiration from God
CVIII “deserted” = aphiemi. Same as “leaving” in v26:44. Related to “forgiveness” in v26:28.

57 Those who had arrested Jesus took him to CaiaphasCIX the high priest, in whose house the scribesCX and the elders had gathered.CXI 58 But Peter was followingCXII him at a distance, as far as the courtyardCXIII of the high priest; and going inside, he sat with the guardsCXIV in order to seeCXV how this would end.CXVI 

Notes on verses 26:57-58

CIX “Caiaphas” = Kaiaphas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic (as beautiful) OR from kefa (rock, stone) OR from Akkadian kaypha (dell, depression). This is Caiaphas. See
CX “scribes” = grammateus. From gramma (what is drawn or written so a letter of the alphabet, correspondence, literature, learning); from grapho (to write). This is a writer, scribe, or secretary. Within Judaism, it was someone learned in the Law, a teacher. Also used in the Bible of the town-clerk of Ephesus. See Sirach 38:24-39:11 for a lengthier, positive passage about who scribes were and what they meant in society.
CXI “gathered” = sunago. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead together and so to assemble, bring together, welcome with hospitality, or entertain. In the sense of assembly, this is the root of the word “synagogue.”
CXII “following” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleutos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
CXIII “courtyard” = aule. 12x in NT. Perhaps from the same as aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a building that has a courtyard within it – an area that has no roof, but does have walls and is open to the air. It could also imply a palace or mansion as larger buildings that would include courtyards.
CXIV “guards” = huperetes. From huper (by, under, subordinate to another) + eresso (to row). This is originally a rower or someone who crewed a boat on the lower deck. It came to mean underling, servant, or attendant. It is also used in the New Testament of disciples under the gospel.
CXV “see” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.
CXVI “how this would end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.

59 Now the chief priests and the whole councilCXVII were looking forCXVIII false testimonyCXIX against Jesus so that they might put him to death, 60 but they found none, though many false witnessesCXX came forward.

At last two came forward 61 and said, “This fellow said, ‘I am ableCXXI to destroyCXXII the templeCXXIII of GodCXXIV and to build it in three days.’” 

Notes on verses 26:59-61

CXVII “council” = sunedrion. From sun (with, together with) + hedra (convening, siting together, being firm and faithful); {from aphedron (seat, well-seated; figuratively, this is firm in purpose, steadfast); from hedra (a seat)}. This is Sanhedrin – literally a sitting together. It was the high court for Jews and had 71 members. This term could also mean council or meeting place and was used for the lower courts that were throughout the land and had 23 members.
CXVIII “looking for” = zeteo. Same as “look for” in v26:16.
CXIX “false testimony” = pseudomarturia. 2x in NT. From pseudomartus (false witness); {from pseudes (false, lying, wicked); {from pseudomai (to lie, deceive, falsify)}} + martus (a witness whether having heard or seen something; witness literally, judicially, or figuratively; by analogy, a martyr). This is false testimony or false witness.
CXX “false witnesses” = pseudomartus. Related to “false testimony” in v26:59. 2x in NT. See note CXIX above.
CXXI “able” = dunamai. Same as “can-” in v26:42
CXXII “destroy” = kataluo. 17x in OT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). Literally, this means thoroughly loosening. It can mean unharnessing or unyoking animals and so to lodge somewhere for a night. It can also mean to disintegrate or demolish in a literal or figurative sense. So, it can be destroy, overthrow, abolish, or tear down.
CXXIII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
CXXIV “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

62 The high priest stood up and said, “Have you no answer? What is it that they testify againstCXXV you?” 63 But Jesus was silent.CXXVI Then the high priest said to him, “I put you under oathCXXVII before the living God, tell us if you are the Messiah,CXXVIII the Son of God.” 

64 Jesus said to him, “You have said so. But I tell you,

From now on you will see the Son of Man
    seated at the right hand of PowerCXXIX
    and coming on the clouds of heaven.”CXXX

Notes on verses 26:62-64

CXXV “testify against” = katamartureo. Related to “false testimony” in v26:59 & “false witness” in v26:60. 3x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + martureo (to testify, give evidence; testify in a literal or figurative sense); {from martus (see note CXIX above)}. This is testify or bear witness against.
CXXVI “was silent” = siopao. 10x in NT. From siope (silence or muteness). This is to be silent whether by choice or not. Figuratively, this is being calm as water, keeping one’s peace.
CXXVII “put…under oath” = exorkizo. 1x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + horkizo (to cause someone to swear, to bind them by an oath); {from horkos (oath, vow, limit); akin to herkos (fence); perhaps akin to horion (boundary, region, territory); from horos (boundary, limit)}. This is to put someone under oath or to exorcise.
CXXVIII “Messiah” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
CXXIX “Power” = dunamis. Related to “possible” in v26:39 & “can-” in v26:42. From dunamai (see note LXII above). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.
CXXX “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

65 Then the high priest tore his clothesCXXXI and said, “He has blasphemed!CXXXII Why do we still need witnesses?CXXXIII, CXXXIV You have now heardCXXXV his blasphemy.CXXXVI 66 What is your verdict?”CXXXVII

Notes on verses 26:65-66a

CXXXI “clothes” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
CXXXII “blasphemed” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
CXXXIII “witnesses” = martus. Related to “false testimony” in v26:59 & “false witness” in v26:60 & “testify against” in v26:62. See note CXIX above.
CXXXIV {untranslated} = idou. Same as “see” in v26:45.
CXXXV “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
CXXXVI “blasphemy” = blasphemia. Related to “blasphemed” in v26:65. See note CXXXII above. This is slander, blasphemy, or abusive language. It is calling something wrong that is right or calling something right that is wrong – mis-identifying what is good and bad. This is particularly used for vilifying God. This is where the word “blasphemy” comes from.
CXXXVII “verdict” = dokeo. Same as “think” in v26:53.

They answered, “He deservesCXXXVIII death.” 67 Then they spat in his face and struckCXXXIX him; and some slappedCXL him, 68 saying, “Prophesy to us, you Messiah! Who is it that struckCXLI you?”

Notes on verses 26:66b-68

CXXXVIII “deserves” = enochos. 10x in NT. From enochos (to hold in, ensnare, be angry at); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + echo (to have, hold, possess)}. This is bound by, liable to, deserving, guilty, subject, in danger of.
CXXXIX “struck” = kolaphizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
CXL “slapped” = rhapizo. 2x in NT – in the turn the other cheek teaching (Mt 5:39) and when Jesus is before he High Priest during Holy Week (Mt 26:67). From the root rhabdos (staff, rod, cudgel; a staff that denotes power, royalty, or authority); from rhepo (to let fall, to rap). This is to hit with a rod or to slap.
CXLI “struck” = paio. Perhaps related to “strike” in v26:31. 5x in NT – 4x during Holy Week, 2x of the scorpions’ sting in Revelation 9:5. This is to strike, hit, or sting. It generally refers to a single blow rather than repeated ones.

69 Now Peter was sitting outside in the courtyard. A servant-girlCXLII came to him and said, “You also were with Jesus the Galilean.”

70 But he denied it before all of them, saying, “I do not knowCXLIII what you are talking about.” 

71 When he went out to the porch,CXLIV another servant-girl saw him, and she said to the bystanders, “This man was with Jesus of Nazareth.”CXLV 

72 Again he denied it with an oath,CXLVI “I do not know the man.” 

73 After a little while the bystanders came up and said to Peter, “CertainlyCXLVII you are also one of them, for your accent betrays you.”CXLVIII 

Notes on verses 26:69-73

CXLII “servant-girl” = paidiske. Perhaps related to “strike” in v26:31 & perhaps related to “struck” in v26:68. From pais (child, boy, male slave, servant or female; a child as one who needs discipline, development, training, etc.); perhaps from paio (see note CXLI above). This could be a young girl in general, a female servant, or a female slave.
CXLIII “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
CXLIV “porch” = pulon. 18x in NT. From pule (gate, large entrance to a city or a fortress; often used for an exit way; often figurative for authority and power). This is a porch, gateway, or vestibule. It is a passageway from the street through the house to the courtyard.
CXLV “Nazareth” = Nazoraios. 13x in NT. Perhaps from netser (branch) OR from natsar (to watch, guard, protect). This is Nazareth, meaning perhaps branch or protected. It is a city in Galilee. See
CXLVI “oath” = horkos. Related to “put…under oath” in v26:63. 10x in NT. See note CXXVII above.
CXLVII “certainly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.
CXLVIII “betrays you” = delos + su + poieo. More literally “your accent makes you clear.” Delos 3x in NT. It is something that is unmistakable, self-evident, or manifest. It is plain to see.

74 Then he began to curse,CXLIX and he swore an oath,CL “I do not know the man!” At that moment the cock crowed. 75 Then Peter rememberedCLI whatCLII Jesus had said: “Before the cock crows, you will deny me three times.” And he went out and weptCLIII bitterly.CLIV

Notes on verses 26:74-75

CXLIX “curse” = katanathematizo. 1x in NT. From katathematizo (to curse vehemently); from katathema (to curse); from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + anathematizo (to curse, devote something to destruction, to declare that something is anathema; to declare something under a punishable if broken vow); {from anathema (properly, something laid up i.e. a votive offering, something dedicated to God; can also be a curse or that which is cursed); from anatithemi (to lay up, set up, declare); {from ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + tithemi (to place, set, put, establish; this is place in a literal or figurative sense; it is to set something in a passive position or a horizontal one)}}. This is to curse emphatically or to call down evils – to devote to destruction.
CL “swore an oath” = omno. This is to swear or promise through the use of an oath.
CLI “remembered” = mimnesko. From mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is to remind or remember. It is memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful of. It is not incidentally or accidentally remembering.
CLII “what” = rhema. From rheo (to speak, command, make, say, speak of); from ereo  (to all, say, speak of, tell; denotes ongoing speech). This is word, which implies a matter or thing spoken, a command, report, promise, thing, or business. Often used for narration, commands, or disputes.
CLIII “wept” = klaio. This is to weep, lament, or sob. It is weeping aloud.
CLIV “bitterly” = pikros. 2x in NT – both in Peter’s denial of Jesus (Mt 26:75 & Lk 22:62). From pirkos (bitter, sharp, malignant; acrid or pungent in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from pegnumi (to fasten, to set up a tent). This is bitterly, which can be used figuratively to mean violently.

27:1 When morningCLV came, all the chief priests and the elders of the people conferredCLVI together against Jesus in order to bring about his death. They boundCLVII him, led him away, and handed him over to PilateCLVIII the governor.CLIX

Notes on verses 27:1-2

CLV “morning” = proia. 2x in NT. From proios (during early morning); from proi (early, at dawn; can imply the watch of the guard at dawn); from pro (before, earlier then, ahead). This is early in the morning or at dawn.
CLVI “conferred” = sumboulion. Literally “took counsel.” 8x in NT. From souboulos (counselor or adviser in an official capacity); {from sun (with, together with) + boule (counsel, plan, purpose, decision; wisdom that comes from deliberation); {from boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination)}}. This is to counsel and so could be used for a group of advisers. It could also be to plot or conspire together. Abstractly, it could refer to advice or resolutions.
CLVII “bound” = deo. Related to “must” in v26:35 & perhaps “slave” in v26:51. See note LI above.
CLVIII “Pilate” = pilatos. From Latin Pilatus (may mean one who has skill with a javelin); perhaps from pilum (javelin) OR perhaps from pileus (a soft cap made of felt that was brimless and was associated with people who were freedmen). This is Pilate. See
CLIX “governor” = hegemon. From hegeaomai (to think, suppose, have an opinion; to lead the way, what comes in front or first, initial thought, high esteem or authority; one who commands in an official capacity); from ago (lead, bring, carry, drive, go). This is a leader in general, but also specifically a governor or commander. This is where “hegemony” comes from.

When Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned,CLX he repentedCLXI and brought backCLXII the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders. He said, “I have sinnedCLXIII by betraying innocentCLXIV blood.”

Notes on verses 27:3-4a

CLX “condemned” = katakrino. 18x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is judging down, which is to say to vote guilty or deserving of punishment, to condemn. This is a decisive judgment of guilt. It can also be to damn someone.
CLXI “repented” = metamelomai. 6x in NT. From meta (with, among, behind, beyond) + melo (to think about something, take an interest; to care or worry about something). This is to regret or repent. It is changing your mind – generally used in a positive sense. Often, it means experiencing an emotion that causes you to change your mind such that you care afterwards.
CLXII “brought…back” = strepho. Related to “put…back” in v26:52. See note XCV above.
CLXIII “sinned” = hamartano. Related to “sins” in v26:29 & “sinners” in v26:45. See note XXXVII above.
CLXIV “innocent” = athoos. 2x in NT – both in Mt 27. From a (not) + thoe (penalty). Literally, this is unpunished – hence guiltless.

But they said, “What is that to us? See to it yourself.” Throwing downCLXV the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed; and he went and hanged himself.CLXVI But the chief priests, taking the pieces of silver, said, “It is not lawfulCLXVII to put them into the treasury,CLXVIII since they are blood money.”CLXIX 

Notes on verses 27:4b-6

CLXV “throwing down” = rhipto. Perhaps related to “slapped” in v26:68. 7x in NT. Perhaps related to rhapizo (see note CXL above). This is to throw down or toss quickly. It is contrasted with a different word, ballo, which is to hurl quite deliberately, and another word, teino, which means to stretch out or to cast down like an anchor. This is to fling, scatter, or set down. It can also mean to disperse.
CLXVI “hanged himself” = apagcho. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + agcho (to strangle or press into); {related to agkale (an arm that is bend to receive a weight or load); from agkos (a bend or ache)}. This is to choke or hang yourself.
CLXVII “lawful” = exesti. From ek (out, out of) + eimi (to be, exist). This is what is permitted or what is allowed under the law. It can mean what is right, what holds moral authority, or, more broadly, something that is shown out in public.
CLXVIII “treasury” = korban. 2x in NT. From Hebrew qorban (offering brought to the altar); from qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is a gift or offering to God – something that has been dedicated to God. Offerings made to the temple treasury were dedicated to God and so this word came to be used to refer to the temple treasury as well (as the place that held all these devoted gifts).
CLXIX “money” = time. From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value). This has to do with worth or something’s perceived value. Literally, it means price, but figuratively, it means the honor or value one sees in someone or something else. It can be esteem or dignity. It can also mean precious or valuables.

After conferring together, they used them to buy the potter’sCLXX field as a place to bury foreigners.CLXXI For this reason that field has been called the Field of Blood to this day. 

Then was fulfilled what had been spoken through the prophet Jeremiah,CLXXII “And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of the one on whom a price had been set,CLXXIII on whom some of the people of IsraelCLXXIV had set a price, 10 and they gave them for the potter’s field, as the Lord commanded me.”

Notes on verses 27:7-10

CLXX “potter’s” = kerameus. 3x in NT. From keramos (earthenware, a tile, a roof or awning); from kerannumi (to mix or pour out a drink); from kerao (to mix). This is a potter, one who uses clay mixed with water.
CLXXI “foreigners” = xenos. 14x in NT – including 5x in Matthew 25 of the judgment of the nations “I was a stranger and you welcomed me.” This is foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest. It could also be something new, novel, or strange. This is where the word “xenophobia” comes from.
CLXXII “Jeremiah” = ieremias. 3x in NT. From Hebrew yirmeyah (Jeremiah, “the Lord loosens” or “the Lord will rise”); {from the same as remiyya (slack, idle, lazy, negligent) + Yah (a shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}}. This is Jeremiah.
CLXXIII “on whom a price had been set” = timao. Related to “money” in v27:6. From time (see note CLXXIX above). This is to estimate or assign a value to something. It could be literally like giving a price for something or figuratively of the value of honor or esteem. So, this can imply reverence and honor.
CLXXIV “Israel” = Israel. From Hebrew Yisrael (God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god).} This is Israel the people and the land.

11 Now Jesus stood before the governor; and the governor askedCLXXV him, “Are you the King of the Jews?”CLXXVI

Jesus said, “You say so.” 12 But when he was accusedCLXXVII by the chief priests and elders, he did not answer. 

13 Then Pilate said to him, “Do you not hear how many accusations they make against you?” 14 But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge,CLXXVIII so that the governor was greatly amazed.CLXXIX

Notes on verses 27:11-14

CLXXV “asked” = eperotao. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + erotao (asking a question or making an earnest request; used when one anticipates special consideration for their request); {from eromai (to ask) OR from ereo (to say, tell, call, speak of)}. This is to question, interrogate, seek, or demand. The questioner is at an advantage – in a preferred position when they make their question.
CLXXVI “Jews” = ioudaios. Related to “Judas” in v26:14. From ioudas (see note I above). This is Jew, Jewish, or Judea.
CLXXVII “accused” = kategoreo. From kategoros (prosecutor or accuser; used in legal context, but also of Satan); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + agoreuo (speaking in the assembly)} OR {from kata (see above) + agora (assembly, forum, marketplace, town square); {from ageiro (to gather)}}. This is to accuse, charge, or prosecute. This is where the word “category” comes from, but it is in the sense of applying logic and offering proof.
CLXXVIII “charge” = rhema. Same as “what” in v26:75.
CLXXIX “amazed” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.

15 Now at the festival the governor was accustomedCLXXX to releaseCLXXXI a prisonerCLXXXII for the crowd, anyone whom they wanted. 16 At that time they had a notoriousCLXXXIII prisoner, called Jesus Barabbas.CLXXXIV 

17 So after they had gathered, Pilate said to them, “Whom do you want me to release for you, Jesus Barabbas or Jesus who is called the Messiah?” 18 For he realized that it was out of jealousyCLXXXV that they had handed him over

Notes on verses 27:15-18

CLXXX “accustomed” = etho. 4x in NT. This is acting according to habit or tradition.
CLXXXI “release” = apoluo. Related to “destroy” in v26:61. From apo (from, away from) + luo (see note CXXII). This is letting go, setting free, or releasing. So, it can be to discharge, dismiss, divorce, pardon, or set at liberty.
CLXXXII “prisoner” = desmios. Related to “must” in v26:35 & perhaps “slave” in v26:51 & “bound” in v27:2. 17x in NT. From desomon (bond, chain, imprisonment, ligament, infirmity); from deo (see note LI above). This is the one who is bound i.e. a prisoner or captive.
CLXXXIII “notorious” = episemos. 2x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, at, what is fitting) + the same as semaino (to signify, communicate, give a sign); {from sema (a sign or mark)}. Properly, this would be remarkable i.e. prominent/eminent or notorious/conspicuous.
CLXXXIV “Barabbas” = Barabbas. 11x in NT. From Aramaic bar (son literal or figurative, age); {corresponding to Hebrew ben (son literal or figurative, subject, age)} + Aramaic abba (father) {from Aramaic ab (father); corresponding to Hebrew ab (father literal or figurative – ancestor, chief, grandfather, etc.)}. This is Barabbas, meaning son of the father.
CLXXXV “jealousy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-well. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).

19 While he was sitting on the judgment seat,CLXXXVI his wife sentCLXXXVII word to him, “Have nothing to do with that innocentCLXXXVIII man, for today I have sufferedCLXXXIX a great deal because of a dreamCXC about him.” 

Notes on verse 27:19

CLXXXVI “judgment seat” = bema. 12x in NT. From the same as basis (a pace, base, step, foot); from baino (to walk, go). This is a place that is raised and has steps such as where a tribunal would meet to mete out justice. It also refers literally to the chair from which such justice would come whether for reward or punishment. This word was borrowed into Jewish religious practice from Byzantine Greek (from the same root) to describe the raised area of the Synagogue from which the Torah was proclaimed – the bima. See
CLXXXVII “sent” = apostello. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up) [probably from histemi (to make to stand, stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand firm, be steadfast]. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
CLXXXVIII “innocent” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
CLXXXIX “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
CXC “dream” = onar. 6x in NT – 4x of Joseph, father of Jesus, dreaming; 1x of the Wise Men dreaming, and 1x of Pilate’s wife. This is a dream as part of sleep and not a daydream.

20 Now the chief priests and the elders persuadedCXCI the crowds to ask for Barabbas and to have Jesus killed.CXCII 21 The governor again said to them, “Which of the two do you want me to release for you?”

And they said, “Barabbas.” 

22 Pilate said to them, “Then what should I do with Jesus who is called the Messiah?” 

All of them said, “Let him be crucified!”CXCIII 

23 Then he asked, “Why, what evilCXCIV has he done?”

But they shoutedCXCV all the more,CXCVI “Let him be crucified!”

Notes on verses 27:20-23

CXCI “persuaded” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
CXCII “killed” = apollumi. Same as “perish” in v26:52.
CXCIII “crucified” = stauroo.  From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
CXCIV “evil” = kakos. This is bad, evil, harm, ill. It is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm. It refers to deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character. Can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue.
CXCV “shouted” = krazo. This is to cry out, scream, shriek. It is onomatopoeia for the sound of a raven’s call. Figuratively, this means crying out urgently without intelligible words to express something that is deeply felt.
CXCVI “all the more” = perissos. 17x in NT. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is abundantly, exceedingly, far more, or all the more. This is going beyond what is anticipated or past the upper limit.  

24 So when Pilate saw that he could doCXCVII nothing, but rather that a riotCXCVIII was beginning, he took some water and washedCXCIX his hands before the crowd, saying, “I am innocent of this man’s blood; see to it yourselves.” 

25 Then the people as a whole answered, “His blood be on us and on our children!”CC 26 So he released Barabbas for them; and after flogging Jesus, he handed him over to be crucified.

Notes on verses 27:24-26

CXCVII “could do” = opheleo. 15x in NT. From ophelos (help, gain, profit); from ophello (to heap up or increase). This is to help, benefit, do good, or be useful.
CXCVIII “riot” = thorubos. 7x in NT. From the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble. It can also be used figuratively for a very emotional wailing or hysteria. It is a commotion that leads to panic or terror.
CXCIX “washed” = aponipto. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + nipto (to wash, particularly the hands, feet, or face; often used for ceremonial or ritual ablution as when Jesus washes the disciples’ feet in John 13 and during debates about the tradition of the elders as in Matthew 15 and Mark 7); {from nizo (to cleanse)}. This is to wash off.
CC “children” = teknon. From tikto (to beget, bring forth, produce). This is a child, descendant, or inhabitant.

27 Then the soldiersCCI of the governor took Jesus into the governor’s headquarters,CCII and they gathered the whole cohortCCIII around him. 28 They strippedCCIV him and putCCV a scarletCCVI robeCCVII on him, 

Notes on verses 27:27-28

CCI “soldiers” = stratiotes. From stratia (army; used figuratively for large organized groups like the angels and the hosts of heaven, which is to say the stars); from the same as strateuo (to wage war, fight, serve as a soldier; used figuratively for spiritual warfare); or from the base of stronnuo (to spread, to spread out like a bed). This is a soldier in a literal or figurative sense.
CCII “governor’s headquarters” = praitorion. 8x in NT. From Latin praetorium (headquarters, general’s tent, villa, place where the governor lives); from prator (leader, chief, president); from pareeo (to lead, go before). This is praetorium or preatorian guard. It is the place where the governor lives or the place where the praetorian guard of Rome lived. It could also mean courtroom. See
CCIII “cohort” = speira. 7x in NT. From Latin spira (something wound up like a coil or twist, the base of a column, a hair braid, etc.); from Greek speira (a twist or wreath); from Proto-Indo-European *sper- (to twist, turn). This is a group of soldiers or military guard. Properly, this is something wound up. Figuratively, it refers to a group of men. Thus, a tenth of a legion. Also used for Levitical janitors. This is where the word “spiral” comes from. See
CCIV “stripped” = ekduo. 6x in NT – 3x Jesus being stripped before crucifixion, 2x in 2 Corinthians 5:3-4 as a metaphor for death – being stripped of this earthly tent, & 1x in Parable of the Good Samaritan when the man is attacked. From ek (from, from out of) + duo (to sink). This is to strip off or take off.
CCV “put…on” = peritithemi. 8x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to place around i.e. to clothe. Figuratively, it can mean to bestow or to present.
CCVI “scarlet” = kokkinos. 6x in NT. From kokkos (kernel, seed). This is scarlet or cloth that is dyed scarlet from a dye made from an insect.
CCVII “robe” = chlamus. 2x in NT – both in Matthew 27. This is a chalmys – a sort robe or cloak that soldiers wore as well as magistrates and kings. It is a garment that denotes dignity or a particular office that is worn on top of the tunic.

29 and after twisting some thorns into a crown,CCVIII they put it on his head. They put a reed in his right hand and knelt before him and mockedCCIX him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!” 

30 They spat on him, and took the reed and struckCCX him on the head. 31 After mocking him, they stripped him of the robe and put his own clothes on him. Then they led him away to crucify him.

Notes on verses 27:29-31

CCVIII “crown” = stephanos. 18x in NT. From stepho (to twine, encircle). This is something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland. Properly, this refers to the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win. It symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek. This is the word used for the crown that the saints in haven wear in, for example, Revelation 4:4.
CCIX “mocked” = empaizo. Related to “servant-girl” in v26:69. 13x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + paizo (playing like a child does, to make sport of); {from pais (see note CXLII above)}. This is to mock, ridicule, scoff, jeer, or trick.
CCX “struck” = tupto. 14x in NT. This is to strike, beat, or wound – generally with a stick or cudgel. It is hitting with repeated blows. So, it contrasts with paiso and patasso, which describe single blows by hand or weapon. Also contrast plesso (beating with a fist or hammer), rhapizo (to slap), and tugchaono (hitting accidentally). This word is hitting to punish. Figuratively, it can refer to being offended.

32 As they went out, they came upon a man from CyreneCCXI namedCCXII Simon;CCXIII they compelledCCXIV this man to carry his cross.CCXV 33 And when they came to a place called GolgothaCCXVI (which means Place of a Skull),CCXVII 34 they offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall;CCXVIII but when he tastedCCXIX it, he would not drink it. 

Notes on verses 27:32-34

CCXI “Cyrene” = kureinaios. 6x in NT. From Kurene (Cyrene, a Greek mythological figure; perhaps meaning sovereign queen). This means from Cyrene. See
CCXII “named” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
CCXIII “Simon” = simon. From Hebrew Shimon (Simon – Jacob’s son and his tribe); from shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simon, meaning “he who hears.”
CCXIV “compelled” = aggareuo. 3x in NT – 2x of Simon the Cyrene & 1x “if anyone forces you to go one mile, go also the second mile” from Matthew 5:41. From Persian, but compare Aramaic iggerah (a letter); corresponding to Hebrew iggereth (letter); from the same as Agur (hired, gathered, received from the sages); from agar (to gather or harvest). This means to impress into service, to force. It can also mean send someone on an errand, particularly as a courier or other public service.
CCXV “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucified” in v27:22. See note CXCII above.
CCXVI “Golgotha” = Golgotha. Related to “Galilee” in v26:32. 3x in NT. From Aramaic golgolta (skull); from Hebrew gulgolet (skull, head; a census or poll that counts people by head); from galal (see note XLVII above). This is Golgotha, skull. See &
CCXVII “Skull” = kranion. 4x in NT. From kara (the head) OR from the base of keras (horn or something horn-shaped; horn in a literal or figurative sense – that which prevails or a symbol of power). This is skull. It’s where we get the word “cranium” from.
CCXVIII “gall” = chole. 2x in NT. This is gall or bitter herbs. May be used figuratively to mean poison or bitterness.
CCXIX “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is taste, consume, or experience.

35 And when they had crucified him, they dividedCCXX his clothes among themselves by casting lots;CCXXI, CCXXII 36 then they sat down there and kept watchCCXXIII over him. 37 Over his head they put the chargeCCXXIV against him, which read, “This is Jesus, the King of the Jews.”

Notes on verses 27:35-37

CCXX “divided” = diamerizo. Related to “sins” in v26:29. 12x in NT – 5x of soldiers dividing Jesus’s clothes at the crucifixion, 2x for “every kingdom divided against itself…falls” (Lk 11:17-18), 2x of households being divided because of Jesus (Lk 12:52-53), 1x when Jesus instructs the disciples re: the cup of the Lord’s supper (Lk 22:17), 1x of divided tongues of fire at Pentecost, 1x when the early church sold their possessions and distributed the proceeds to all according to their need (Acts 2:45). From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + merizo (to divide, share, distribute, apportion, assign; can mean distributing according to need); {from meros (see XXXVII above)}. This is to distribute, divide, or share. Figuratively, it can mean dissension.
CCXXI “lots” = kleros. 12x in NT. Perhaps from klero (casting a lot) or from klao (to break in pieces as one breaks bread). This lot, portion, heritage. It is that share assigned to you. It could also refer to a lot used to determine something by fate, chance, or divine will.
CCXXII Some ancient manuscripts include here “in order that what had been spoken through the prophet might be fulfilled, ‘They divided my clothes among themselves, and for my clothing they cast lots.’” “Clothing” = himatismos. 6x in NT. Related to “clothes” in v26:65. From himatizo (to clothe or dress); from himation (see note CXXXI above). This is clothing, vesture, or raiment. It is generally used of fine or expensive clothing in the NT (see Lk 7:25, Acts 20:33, and 1 Timothy 2:9). It is also used in Lk 9:29 to describe Jesus’s clothes at the Transfiguration.
CCXXIII “kept watch” = tereo. From teros (a guard or a watch that guards keep); perhaps related to theoreo (gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning; looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means; the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning); from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance); from theoros (a spectator or envoy). This is to guard, observe, keep, maintain, or preserve. It can also be used figuratively for spiritual watchfulness. It is guarding something from being lost or harmed – keeping an eye on it. Contrast the Greek phulasso, which is to guard something so that it doesn’t escape. Also contrast koustodia, which generally denotes a fortress or military presence. This word can mean fulfilling commands, keeping in custody, or maintaining. It can also figuratively mean to remain unmarried.
CCXXIV “charge” = aitia. Related to “ask for” in v27:20. From aiteo (to ask, demand, beg, desire). This is a cause or reason. It can also be a legal crime, accusation, guilt, or case.

38 Then two banditsCCXXV were crucified with him, one on his right and one on his left.CCXXVI 39 Those who passed by deridedCCXXVII him, shaking their heads 40 and saying, “You who would destroy the temple and build it in three days, saveCCXXVIII yourself! If you are the Son of God, come down from the cross.” 

Notes on verses 27:38-40

CCXXV “bandits” = lestes. Same as “bandit” in v26:55.
CCXXVI “left” = euonumos. Related to “named” in v27:32. 9x in NT. From eu (good, well rightly) + onoma (see note CCXII above). This is literally well-named or of a good name. It refers to the left or left side.
CCXXVII “derided” = blasphemeo. Same as “blasphemed” in v26:65
CCXXVIII “save” = sozo. Perhaps related to “body” in v26:27. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

41 In the same way the chief priests also, along with the scribes and elders, were mocking him, saying, 42 “He saved others; he cannot save himself. He is the King of Israel; let him come down from the cross now, and we will believeCCXXIX in him. 43 He trustsCCXXX in God; let God deliverCCXXXI him now, if he wants to; for he said, ‘I am God’s Son.’” 44 The bandits who were crucifiedCCXXXII with him also tauntedCCXXXIII him in the same way.

Notes on verses 27:41-44

CCXXIX “believe” = pisteuo. Related to “persuaded” in v27:20. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (see note CXCI above). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
CCXXX “trusts” = peitho. Same as “persuaded” in v27:20.
CCXXXI “deliver” = rhuomai. 18x in NT – including from the Lord’s prayer “deliver us from evil”. Related to eruo (to draw or drag) OR related to rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.
CCXXXII “crucified” = sustauroo. Related to “crucified” in v27:22 & “cross” in v27:32. 5x in NT – including “our old self was crucified with him” from Romans 6:6. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (see note CXCIII). This is crucify together with.
CCXXXIII “taunted” = oneidizo. 9x in NT. From oneidos (a personal disgrace that leads to harm to one’s reputation, a taunt or reproach); perhaps from the base of onoma (name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation); perhaps from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is to disgrace, insult, mock, blame, or curse someone so as to create shame. This is when a person or thing is considered guilty and deserving punishment. So, it can be denounce, revile, defame, or chide.

45 From noonCCXXXIV on, darknessCCXXXV came over the whole land until three in the afternoon.CCXXXVI 46 And about three o’clock Jesus criedCCXXXVII with a loud voice, “Eli, CCXXXVIII Eli, lema sabachthani?”CCXXXIX  that is, “My God, my God, why have you forsakenCCXL me?” 

Notes on verses 27:45-46

CCXXXIV “noon” = hektos + hora. Literally “sixth hour.”
CCXXXV “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
CCXXXVI “three in the afternoon” = hora + ennatos. Literally “ninth hour.”
CCXXXVII “cried” = anaboao. 1x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + boao (cry out, make a distress call, ask for desperately need assistance); {from boe (a cry, shout)}. This is to cry out with intensity and urgency. Generally a cry for help infused with deepest emotions. This is sounding the alarm to the greatest extent.
CCXXXVIII “eli” = eli. 2x in NT. From Aramaic el (God); from Hebrew el (God).
CCXXXIX “sabachthani” = sabachthani. 2x in NT. From Aramaic shebaq (to leave, leave alone, quite); corresponding to Hebrew azab (loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute). This is forsake or leave.
CCXL “forsaken” = egkataleipo. Related to “still” in v26:45. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + kataleipo (to leave or leave behind, abandon, forsake, leave in reserve); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is left behind, left as a remainder, desert, forsake. Properly, it means to leave someone or something wanting or lacking – so, to forsake or cause someone to be helpless in a serious scenario.

47 When some of the bystanders heard it, they said, “This man is calling for Elijah.”CCXLI 48 At once one of them ran and got a sponge,CCXLII filled it with sour wine,CCXLIII put it on a stick,CCXLIV and gave it to him to drink. 

49 But the others said, “Wait,CCXLV let us see whether Elijah will come to save him.”CCXLVI 50 Then Jesus cried again with a loud voice and breathed his last.CCXLVII 

Notes on verses 27:47-50

CCXLI “Elijah” = elias. From Hebrew Eliyyah (Elijah) {from el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}. This is Elijah, “The Lord is God.”
CCXLII “sponge” = spoggos. 3x in NT – all during the crucifixion. Perhaps related to spoggos (sponge or tonsil) –  a “Mediterranean-Pontic Pre-Greek substrate loanword.” This is sponge. See
CCXLIII “sour wine” = oxos. 6x in NT – all of the crucifixion. From oxus (sharp, eager, quick); probably related to akmen (even now, still, yet); from the same as akmazo (become ripe, reach maturity); from akme (point or edge); related to ake (point). This is sour wine or vinegar. As the lowest grade of Roman wine, it was a common drink for Roman soldiers.
CCXLIV “stick” = kalamos. Same as “reed” in v27:29
CCCXLV “wait” = aphiemi. Same as “deserted” in v26:44. See note CVIII.
CCXLVI Some ancient manuscripts add, “And another took a spear and pierced his side, and out came water and blood.” “Side” = pleura. 6x in NT. This is a rib, which extends to the side of the body in general. This is where the word “pleurisy” comes from.
CCXLVII “breathed his last” = aphiemi + ho + pneuma. More literally, this would be, “yielded up his spirit.” For aphiemi (see note CVIII above). For pneuma (see note LXIX above).

51 At that momentCCXLVIII the curtainCCXLIX of the temple was tornCCL in two, from topCCLI to bottom. The earth shook,CCLII and the rocksCCLIII were split.CCLIV 

Notes on verse 27:51

CCXLVIII “at that moment” = idou. Same as “see” in v26:45.
CCXLIX “curtain” = katapetasma. 6x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + petannumi (to spread out). This is the inner veil in the Temple. Literally, it is what spreads down i.e. hangs down. The curtain hung between the Holy of Holies, the innermost part of the Temple, from the rest of it.
CCL “torn” = schizo. 11x in NT. This is to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).
CCLI “from top” = anothen. 13x in NT – including Jesus’s statement to Nicodemus that you must be born from above (see John 3:3). From ano (up, above, up to the top, things above, heaven); from ana (up, upwards, again, back, among, anew). This is from above, from the top, again, beginning, from the source. It implies anew.
CCLII “shook” = seio. 5x in NT. This is to shake, move, or quake to and fro. Figuratively, it can mean to create agitation, fear, or worry.
CCLIII “rocks” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
CCLIV “split” = schizo. Same as “torn” in v27:51.

52 The tombsCCLV also were opened, and many bodies of the saintsCCLVI who had fallen asleepCCLVII were raised. 53 After his resurrectionCCLVIII they came out of the tombs and entered the holyCCLIX city and appearedCCLX to many. 

Notes on verses 27:52-53

CCLV “tombs” = mnemeion. From mousikos (to remember); from mneme (memory or mention); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is properly a memorial – a tomb, grave, monument.
CCLVI “saints” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
CCLVII “fallen asleep” = koimao. 18x in NT. From keimai (to lie, recline, set, be appointed, be destined). This is to sleep or put to sleep. Figuratively, it can mean to die. In the New Testament, it is used 15x for death and 3x for sleep.
CCLVIII “resurrection” = egersis. Related to “raised up” in v26:32 & rel to “stay awake” in v26:38. 1x in NT. From egeiro (see note XLVI above). This is rousing, waking up, resurrection from death.
CCLIX “holy” = hagios. Same as “saints” in v27:52.
CCLX “appeared” = emphanizo. 10x in NT. Related to “prophets” in v26:56. From emphanes (visible, openly, comprehended); {from en (in, on, at, by, with) + phaino (see note CVII)}. This is appearing in person, being visible, to disclose, notify, or inform against.

54 Now when the centurionCCLXI and those with him, who were keeping watchCCLXII over Jesus, saw the earthquakeCCLXIII and what took place, they were terrifiedCCLXIV and said, “TrulyCCLXV this man was God’s Son!”

Notes on verse 27:54

CCLXI “centurion” = hekatontarchos. Related to “chief priests” in v26:14 & “began” in v26:22. From hekaton (hundred) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is a centurion from the Roman army, leader a captain of one hundred soldiers.
CCLXII “keeping watch over” = tereo. Same as “kept watch” in v27:36.
CCLXIII “earthquake” = seismos. Related to “shook” in v27:51. 14x in NT. From seio (see note CCLII above). This is shaking, commotion, storm, or earthquake.
CCLXIV “terrified” = phobeo. From phobos (panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect); from phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is also to put to flight, terrify, frighten, dread, reverence, to withdraw or avoid. It is sometimes used in a positive sense to mean the fear of the Lord, echoing Old Testament language. More commonly, it is fear of following God’s path. This is where the word phobia comes from.
CCLXV “truly” = alethos. 18x in NT. From alethes (true, unconcealed; true because it is in concert with fact and reality – attested. Literally, what cannot be hidden; truth stands up to test and scrutiny and is undeniable, authentic); from a (not) + lanthano (concealed, hidden, unnoticed; to shut one’s eyes to, unwittingly, unawares). This is truly, really, surely, truthfully, indeed. Properly, this is saying “in accordance with fact…” – what one is about to say can be proven and is true to reality.

55 Many women were also there, looking onCCLXVI from a distance; they had followed Jesus from Galilee and had providedCCLXVII for him. 56 Among them were MaryCCLXVIII Magdalene,CCLXIX and Mary the mother of JamesCCLXX and Joseph,CCLXXI and the mother of the sons of Zebedee.

Notes on verses 27:55-56

CCLXVI “looking on” = theoreo. Related to “kept watch” in v27:36. From theaomai (see note CLXXIX above). This is gazing, beholding, experiencing, discerning. It is looking at something to analyze it and concentrate on what it means. This is the root of the word “theatre” in that people concentrate on the action of the play to understand its meaning.
CCLXVII “provided” = diakoneo. From diakonos (servant, minister, waiter, or attendant; a person who performs a service, including religious service); perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is to wait at table, to serve generally, to minister or administer, to be in the office of deacon. To wait on someone as a slave, friend, or host.
CCLXVIII “Mary” = maria. From Hebrew Miryam (Aaron and Moses’s sister); from marah (to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient; to be or make bitter or unpleasant; figuratively, to rebel or resist; causatively to provoke). This is Miriam or Mary.
CCLXIX “Magdalene” = Magdalene. 12x in NT. From Magdala (Magadan, a place near the Sea of Galilee); perhaps from Aramaic migdal, see also Hebrew migdal (tower); from gadal (to grow, grow up, be great). This is from Magdala.
CCLXX “James” = iakobos. From Hebrew Yaaqov (Jacob); from the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is James, meaning heel grabber or usurper.
CCLXXI “Joseph” = ioseph. From Hebrew Yoseph (he increases; Joseph); from yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases.”

57 When it was evening, there came a richCCLXXII man from Arimathea,CCLXXIII namedCCLXXIV Joseph, who was also a discipleCCLXXV of Jesus. 58 He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus; then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. 

Notes on verses 27:57-58

CCLXXII “rich” = plousios. Related to “many” in v26:28 & “yet” in v26:39 & “more than” in v26:53 & perhaps related to “filled” in v27:48. From ploutos (wealth and abundance, whether literal or figurative); from polus (much, many plenteous); probably from pleo (to sail, voyage, flow, abound). This is abounding in – having all needed resources and thus wealthy.
CCLXXIII “Arimathea” = harimathaia. 4x in NT. From Hebrew compare Ramah (Ramah, height); from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Arimathea, a city by Jerusalem.
CCLXXIV “named” = tounoma. Related to “named” in v27:32 & “left” in v27:38 & perhaps “taunted” in v27:44. From ho (the) + onoma (see note CCXII above). This is by name.
CCLXXV “was…a disciple” = matheteuo. Related to “disciples” in v26:17. 4x in NT. From mathetes (see note X above).  This to be, make, or train a disciple.

59 So Joseph took the body and wrappedCCLXXVI it in a cleanCCLXXVII linen cloth 60 and laid it in his own newCCLXXVIII tomb, which he had hewn in the rock. He then rolled a great stone to the door of the tomb and went away. 61 Mary Magdalene and the other Mary were there, sitting opposite the tomb.CCLXXIX

Notes on verses 27:59-61

CCLXXVI “wrapped” = entulisso. Perhaps related to “vine” in v26:29. 3x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + tulisso (to twist); {probably akin to helisso (see note XXXVIII above)}
CCLXXVII “clean” = katharos. This is clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying.
CCLXXVIII “new” = kainos. Same as “new” in v26:29. See note XXXIX above.
CCLXXIX “tomb” = taphos. Related to “place to bury” in v27:7. 7x in NT. From thapto (to bury, conduct a funeral). This is a burial and so a grave or tomb.

62 The next day, that is, after the day of Preparation, the chief priests and the PhariseesCCLXXX gathered before Pilate 63 and said, “Sir, we remember what that impostorCCLXXXI said while he was still alive, ‘After three days I will rise again.’ 64 Therefore command the tomb to be made secureCCLXXXII until the third day; otherwise his disciples may go and steal him away,CCLXXXIII and tell the people, ‘He has been raised from the dead,’ and the last deceptionCCLXXXIV would be worseCCLXXXV than the first.” 

Notes on verses 27:62-64

CCLXXX “Pharisees” = pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religion engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
CCLXXXI “impostor” = planos. 5x in NT. This is one who leads astray – wandering, deceiving, misleading, an impostor.
CCLXXXII “made secure” = asphalizo. 4x in NT. From asphales (certain, safe, reliable, definite; literally, unfailing; secured because it is built on solid ground; secure in a literal or figurative sense); {from a (not) + sphallo (tripping up, cast down)}. This is to make secure, fasten, make firm. Used of binding a prison in stocks. Related to the word “asphalt.”
CCLXXXIII “steal…away” = klepto. 13x in NT. This stealing by stealth rather than violence.
CCLXXXIV “deception” = plane. Related to “impostor” in v27:63. 10x in NT. From planos (see note CCLXXXI above). This is literally a wandering, but figuratively deceit, error, or sin. It can mean fraudulence or apostasy.
CCLXXXV “worse” = cheiron. 11x in NT. Used as a comparative of kakos (see note CXCIV). This is worse or more evil.

65 Pilate said to them, “You have a guardCCLXXXVI of soldiers; go, make it as secure as you can.”CCLXXXVII 66 So they went with the guard and made the tomb secure by sealingCCLXXXVIII the stone.

Notes on verses 27:65-66

CCLXXXVI “guard” = koustodia. 3x in NT. From Latin custodia (custody, protection, guardianship); from custos (guard, jailer, keeper, custodian); perhaps from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewdʰ– (to cover, wrap, encase); from *(s)kew– (to cover, hide). This is a guard or watch – a Roman sentry. See
CCLXXXVII “can” = eido. Same as “know” in v26:70
CCLXXXVIII “sealing” = sphragizo. 15x in NT. From sphragis (a seal, signet, or signet ring; also the impression of that seal; so, the thing attested to by that seal – proof or a signifier of privacy); perhaps from phrasso (to stop, fence in). Properly, this is sealing something with some kind of stamp that tells who the owner is, gives it authorization or validity. It shows that the owner lends their full authority or backing to the matter in question. This was the ancient world’s equivalent of a signature on a legal document to guarantee the commitments made in the document. There were also tattoos that were given to show who someone belonged to in a religious sense.

Image Credit: “Crucifixion” by M. Hildreth Meire, 1930.

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