Matthew 6

Matthew 6


1 “BewareI of practicingII your pietyIII before othersIV in order to be seenV by them; for then you have no rewardVI from your Father in heaven.VII

Notes on verse 1

I “beware” = prosecho. From pros (at, toward) + echo (have, hold, possess). This is have towards, which is to say to give something your complete attention, beware, be cautious, hold to, turn to.
II “practicing” = poieo. This is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
III “piety” = dikaiosune. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
IV “others” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
V “be seen” = theaomai. From thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit like a spectator. This is the root of the word “theatre.”
VI “reward” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
VII “heaven” = ouranos. May be related to oros (mountain, hill) with the notion of height. This is the air, the sky, the atmosphere, and heaven. It is the sky that is visible and the spiritual heaven where God dwells. Heaven implies happiness, power, and eternity.

“So whenever you giveVIII alms,IX do not sound a trumpetX before you,

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “give” = poieo. Same as “practicing” in v1. See note II above.
IX “alms” = eleemosune. 13x in NT. From eleos (mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion; generally understood in action by word or deed). This is mercy, pity, alms, or charity. It is compassion as enacted towards the poor. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is from this root verb.
X “sound a trumpet” = salpizo. 12x in NT. Perhaps from salpigx (a trumpet, bugle, or the sound that a trumpet makes); perhaps from salos  (tossing like the waves of the sea; agitation, vibration); perhaps from saino (wag the tail, flatter, beguile, move, shake; figuratively, to disturb); related to seio (to shake, vibrate; figuratively to agitate or show fear). This is making a noise with a trumpet, sounding a blast in a literal or figurative sense. Generally used in reference to judgment day.

as the hypocritesXI doXII in the synagoguesXIII and in the streets,XIV so that they may be praisedXV by others. TrulyXVI I tell you, they have receivedXVII their reward. 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “hypocrites” = hupokrites. 18x in NT. From hupokrinomai (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.)}. This is literally an actor. Figuratively, it is someone playing out a role, which is to say, lying, pretending, or being a hypocrite. This is where the word “hypocrite” comes from.
XII “do” = poieo. Same as “practicing” in v1. See note II above.
XIII “synagogues” = sunagoge. From sun (with, together with, closely associated) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). Literally, this is a bringing together, a place of assembly. The term can be used for the people or for the place where they assemble. It is also sometimes used of Christian churches in the New Testament. So, this is synagogue, assembly, congregation, or church. This is where the word “synagogue” comes from.
XIV “streets” = rhume. 4x in NT. Probably related to rheuma (something that flows; a current); from rheo (to flow, to flow like water, overflow) OR from rhoumai (to pull to oneself, rescue from danger, snatch up, set free); from eruo (to draw, drag) This is a street or lane – a street alley as crowded.
XV “be praised” = doxazo. From doxa (glory, opinion, praise, honor, renown; particularly used as a quality of God or manifestation of God – splendor); from dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is to render or hold something as glorious, to glorify, honor, magnify, or celebrate. This is ascribing weight to something by recognizing its true value or essence.
XVI “truly” = amen. From Hebrew amen (verily, truly, amen, truth, so be it, faithfulness); from aman (to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful, put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid). This word is literally firmness, but figuratively fidelity, faithfulness, honesty, responsibility, trust, truth, steadfastness. Properly, it is to be sure, certain, or firm. This is a word of emphasis indicating that something crucial follows.
XVII “received” = apecho. Related to “beware” in v1 & “have” in v1. 19x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + echo (see note I above). This is to receive, be in a state of, keep, have enough, be at a distance, abstain, or be away.

But when you give alms, do not let your left handXVIII knowXIX what your right handXX is doing, so that your alms may be done in secret;XXI and your Father who seesXXII in secret will rewardXXIII you.

Notes on verses 3-4

XVIII “left hand” = aristeros. 4x in NT. From aristos (best). This is better, used figuratively to refer to the left or left hand side.
XIX “know” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience
XX “right hand” = dexios. Perhaps from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense). This is right, right side, or the right hand.
XXI “secret” = kruptos. 19x in NT. From krupto (to hide by covering, secret, hidden things). This is something concealed, hidden, secret, or private. It can also refer to the inner nature. This is the root of the word “cryptography.”
XXII “sees” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
XXIII “reward” = apodidomi. From apo (from, away from) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is to give back, return, give away. It is to restore as when one makes payment – to rend what is due, to sell.

“And whenever you pray,XXIV do not be like the hypocrites; for they loveXXV to standXXVI and pray in the synagogues and at the streetXXVII corners, so that they may be seenXXVIII by others. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. 

Notes on verse 5

XXIV “pray” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
XXV “love” = phileo. From philos (dear, beloved, a friend, an associate; friendship with personal affection, a trusted confidante; love from personal experience with another person). This is friendship love and fondness with personal attachment.
XXVI “stand” = histemi. This is to stand, place, establish, appoint, stand ready, be steadfast.
XXVII “street” = plateia. 9x in NT. From platus (wide, spread flat, broad); perhaps from plasso (to form, mold; to create like a potter shapes clay). This is a street or some kind of broad place like a public square.
XXVIII “be seen” = phaino. This is to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear. This is show in a literal or figurative sense.

But whenever you pray, go into your roomXXIX and shutXXX the doorXXXI and pray to your Father who is in secret; and your Father who seesXXXII in secret will reward you.

Notes on verse 6

XXIX “room” = tameion. 4x in NT. Perhaps related to tamieion (treasury) OR from tamias (dispenser, distributor). This is an inner chamber, store room, or secret closet. It would be on the interior of a house and it would be used to store things or for privacy.
XXX “shut” = kleio. 16x in NT. This is to close, shut, or lock in a literal of figurative sense. Figuratively used for shutting out of the kingdom of heaven or the wedding banquet, the heavens shutting as in there is no rain, and also for heartlessness.
XXXI “door” = thura. This is opening or closure so it’s a door, gate, or entrance. Figuratively, this can refer to an opportunity.
XXXII “sees” = blepo. Same as “sees” in v4. See note XXII above.

“When you are praying, do not heap up empty phrasesXXXIII as the GentilesXXXIV do; for they thinkXXXV that they will be heardXXXVI because of their many words.XXXVII 

Notes on verse 7

XXXIII “heap up empty phrases” = battalogeo. Related to “tell” in v2. 1x in NT. From battos (stammerer) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to stammer, be longwinded, repeat in a nonsense way, speaking empty words. It can also be to stutter or blubber.
XXXIV “Gentiles” = ethnikos. 4x in NT. From ethnos (people who are united by having similar customs or culture; a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general); probably from etho (custom, culture). This is ethnic, national, foreign, or referring to a Gentile. This is the root that the word “ethnicity” comes from.
XXXV “think” = dokeo. Related to “be praised” in v2. See note XV above.
XXXVI “heard” = eisakouo. 5x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + akouo (listen, hear, understand through hearing). This is hearing deeply and intentionally. It can also mean to obey, heed, or comply – understanding prompting action.
XXXVII “many words” = polulogia. Related to “tell” in v2 & “heap up empty phrases” in v7. 1x in NT. From polus (much, many, abundant) + logos (see note XXXIII above). This is many words or a lot of speaking.

Do not be likeXXXVIII them, for your Father knowsXXXIX what you needXL before you askXLI him.

Notes on verse 8

XXXVIII “be like” = homoioo. 15x in NT. From homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is to compare, liken, resemble, become similar.
XXXIX “knows” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
XL “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
XLI “ask” = aiteo. This is to ask, demand, beg, desire.

“Pray then in this way:

Our Father in heaven,
    hallowed beXLII your name.XLIII

10     Your kingdomXLIV come.
    Your willXLV be done,XLVI
        on earth as it is in heaven.

Notes on verses 9-10

XLII “hallowed be” = hagiazo. From hagios (sacred, holy, set apart, different other; physically pure, morally blameless, or ceremonially set apart); from hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). This is to make holy, consecrate, sanctify, set apart as holy, purify, venerate.
XLIII “name” = onoma. Perhaps related to “know” in v3. Perhaps from ginosko (see note XIX above).This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.
XLIV “kingdom” = basileia. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is kingdom, rule, authority, sovereignty, royalty, a realm.
XLV “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
XLVI “be done” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another. This is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

11     GiveXLVII us this day our dailyXLVIII bread.XLIX

12     And forgiveL us our debts,LI
        as we also have forgiven our debtors.LII

Notes on verses 11-12

XLVII “give” = didomi. Related to “reward” in v4. See note XXIII above.
XLVIII “daily” = epiousios. 2x in NT. From epeimi or epiousa (next, following, next day or night); {from epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + heimi (to go)}. This is necessary, sufficient – what is needed for subsistence or suitable for what is happening.
XLIX “bread” = artos. Perhaps from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove). This is bread or a loaf. It is a loaf as raised.
L “forgive” = aphiemi. From apo (from, away from) + hiemi (to send). This is send away, release, permit, forgive, allow to depart, discharge, or send forth.
LI “debts” = opheilema. 2x in NT. From opheilo (to be indebted morally or legally – having an obligation one must meet; perhaps from the legal world, but then adopted in reference to morality; used to refer to humanity’s ethical responsibility); probably from ophelos (advantage, gain, profit); from ophello (heaped together, accumulate, increase). This is a debt or sin – something that is owed, which emphasizes the impact or consequences. It can also signify a moral fault.
LII “debtors” = opheiletes. Related to “debts” in v12. 7x in NT. From opheilo (see note LI above). This is one who owes so it is a debtor or someone under obligation. Figuratively, it is a culprit, delinquent, or a sinner.

13     And do not bringLIII us to the time of trial,LIV
        but rescueLV us from the evilLVI one.LVII

14 For if you forgive others their trespasses,LVIII your heavenlyLIX Father will also forgive you; 15 but if you do not forgive others, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.

Notes on verses 13-15

LIII “bring” = eisphero. 8x in NT. From eis (to, into, for, among) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is to carry in, lead into, or announce. It can be literal or figurative.
LIV “time of trial” = peirasmos. From peirazo (to test, try, tempt, or make proof of, scrutinize, or assay something; could also be examine, entice, prove, or discipline); from peira (trial, experiment, attempt, experience, assaying); from the base of peran (over, beyond, across); akin to pera (on the far side); from a derivative or peiro (to pierce). This is a test as in an experiment or assaying. It is also trial, temptation, and discipline. Further, it could be used to mean calamity, affliction, or adversity more generally.
LV “rescue” = rhuomai. Perhaps related to “streets” in v2. 18x in NT. Related to eruo (see note XIV above) OR related to rheo (see note XIV above). This is to rescue or set free. It is to deliver from danger, to snatch up.
LVI “evil” = poneros. From poneo (to toil); related to ponos (pain, trouble, labor, distress, suffering; toil, which implies anguish); from the base of penes (a laborer, poor person, starving or indigent person; someone who works for their living); from pernomai (working for a living; laborer, poor person; to work for daily bread); from peno (to toil to survive day by day). This is bad, evil, wicked, malicious, grievous, or toilsome. Properly, it is something that bears pain – it emphasizes the miseries and pains that come with evil. By contrast, the Greek kakos refers to evil as part of someone’s core character. Also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue. This word can mean ill, diseased, morally culpable, derelict, vicious, malicious, or guilt. It can also refer to the devil or sinners.
LVII Some manuscripts add “for yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory into the ages. Amen.” “Power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself. “Glory” = doxa. Related to “be praised” in v2 & “think” in v7. From dokeo (see note XV above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship. “Ages” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
LVIII “trespasses” = paraptoma. From para (by, beside, in the presence of) + pipto (to fall in a literal or figurative sense). This is properly, falling away after having been devout or faithful. So, this is a lapse, sin, slip, transgression, offense. It is a deviation from what is true – it could be accidental or unconscious.
LIX “heavenly” = ouranios. Related to “heaven” in v1. 9x in NT. From ouranos (see note VII above). This is heavenly or celestial. It can mean in, belonging to, or coming from heaven or the sky.

16 “And whenever you fast,LX do not lookLXI dismal,LXII like the hypocrites, for they disfigureLXIII their facesLXIV so as to showLXV others that they are fasting. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. 

Notes on verse 16

LX “fast” = nesteuo. From a (not, without) + esthio (to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust). This is to fast, not eat food, to make a religious fast.
LXI “look” = ginomai. Same as “be done” in v10. See note XLVI above.
LXII “dismal” = skuthropos. Perhaps related to “others” in v1. 2x in NT – do not look dismal when you fast in Matthew 6:16 & they stood still looking sad on the walk to Emmaus in Luke 24:17. From skuthros (sullen) + ops (see note IV above). This is gloomy or sad-faced. It can refer to looking mournful, downcast, or angry.
LXIII “disfigure” = aphanizo. Related to “be seen” in v5. 5x in NT. From aphanes (unseen, invisible, hidden); {from a (not, without) + phaino (see note XXVIII above)}. This is to remove, make unseen, disappear, destroy, hide, consume, or cause to disappear.
LXIV “faces” = prosopon. Perhaps related to “others” in v1 & “dismal” in v16. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + ops (see note IV above). This is the face, surface, or front. It can imply presence more generally.
LXV “show” = phaino. Same as “be seen” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

17 But when you fast, put oil onLXVI your headLXVII and washLXVIII your face, 18 so that your fasting may be seenLXIX not by others but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who seesLXX in secret will reward you.

Notes on verses 17-18

LXVI “put oil on” = aleipho. 9x in NT. From a (with) + root of liparos (oil, fatty; figuratively, something rich or luxurious). This is to anoint as an act of homage, for healing, to celebrate a festival, to honor a guest, as anointing the dead.
LXVII “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
LXVIII “wash” = nipto. 17x in NT. From nizo (to cleanse). This is to wash, particularly the hands, feet, or face. This word is often used for ceremonial or ritual ablution as when Jesus washes the disciples’ feet in John 13 and during debates about the tradition of the elders as in Matthew 15 and Mark 7.
LXIX “be seen” = phaino. Same as “be seen” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
LXX “sees” = blepo. Same as “sees” in v4. See note XXII above.

19 “Do not store upLXXI for yourselves treasuresLXXII on earth, where mothLXXIII and rustLXXIV consumeLXXV

Notes on verse 19a

LXXI “store up” = thesaurizo. 8x in NT. From thesauros (treasure, storehouse, deposit; wealth in a literal or figurative sense); from the same as tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish). This is to store up or treasure up – to amass in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “thesaurus” comes from.
LXXII “treasures” = thesauros. Related to “store up” in v19. 17x in NT. See note LXXI above.
LXXIII “moth” = ses. 3x in NT. Perhaps from Hebrew sas (moth, grub); from the same as sus (root may mean to skip as in jump for joy; a crane or a swift bird; a horse as leaping). This is a moth.
LXXIV “rust” = brosis. 11x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat). This is food and the act of eating. It is eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXV “consume” = aphanizo. Same as “disfigure” in v16. See note LXIII above.

and where thievesLXXVI break inLXXVII and steal;LXXVIII 20 but store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust consumes and where thieves do not break in and steal. 21 For where your treasure is, there your heartLXXIX will be also.

Notes on verses 19b-21

LXXVI “thieves” = kleptes. 16x in NT. From klepto (to steal secretively). This is a thief that steals using stealth rather than violence. It is a thief in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVII “break in” = diorusso. 4x in NT. From dia (through, for the sake of, across, thoroughly) + orusso (to dig, burrow, or excavate). This is to dig through i.e. break into a house.
LXXVIII “steal” = klepto. Related to “thieves” in v19. 13x in NT. See note LXXVI above.
LXXIX “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

22 “The eyeLXXX is the lampLXXXI of the body.LXXXII So, if your eye is healthy,LXXXIII your wholeLXXXIV body will be full of light;LXXXV 

Notes on verse 22

LXXX “eye” = ophthalmos. Related to “faces” in v16. From optanomai (to appear, be seen by). This is eye or sight. It is used figuratively for the mind’s eye, a vision, or for envy.
LXXXI “lamp” = luchnos. 14x in NT. Perhaps from the base of leukos (bright, white, brilliant); from luke (light). This is a lamp that is portable and fueled by oil. It can mean light in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXII “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
LXXXIII “healthy” = haplous. 2x in NT. From {from a (with) + perhaps ploos (voyage, navigation)}; {from pleo (to sail, voyage); probably from pluno (to plunge – so to wash); from pluo (to flow) OR from a (with) + the base of pleko (to weave together, braid, twine). This is simple, clear, whole, single – lacking a double agenda.
LXXXIV “whole” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
LXXXV “full of light” = photeinos. Related to “be seen” in v5 & “disfigure” in v16. 5x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative) OR phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (see note XXVIII above). This is bright, full of light, shining, lustrous, transparent.

23 but if your eye is unhealthy,LXXXVI your whole body will be full of darkness.LXXXVII If then the lightLXXXVIII in you is darkness,LXXXIX how great is the darkness!

Notes on verse 23

LXXXVI “unhealthy” = poneros. Same as “evil” in v13. See note LVI above.
LXXXVII “full of darkness” = skoteinos. 3x in NT. From skotos (to darken or obscure in a literal or figurative sense); from skotos (darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it; obscurity); from skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is dark or full of darkness, opaque. It focuses on the impact of darkness literal or figurative.
LXXXVIII “light” = phos. Related to “be seen” in v5 & “disfigure” in v16 & “full of light” in v22. From phao (see note LXXXV above); from the same as phaino (see note XXVIII above). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.
LXXXIX “darkness” = skotos. Related to “full of darkness” in v23. See note LXXXVII above.

24 “No one canXC serveXCI two masters;XCII

Notes on verse 24a

XC “can” = dunamai. Related to {untranslated} “power” in v13. See note LVII above.
XCI “serve” = douleuo. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.
XCII “masters” = kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

for a slave will either hateXCIII the one and loveXCIV the other,XCV or be devotedXCVI to the one and despiseXCVII the other. You cannot serve God and wealth.XCVIII

Notes on verse 24b

XCIII “hate” = miseo. From misos (hatred). This word is used in two ways in the New Testament. One has to do with how we prioritize. In order to prioritize something the highest, it means we have to rank other things lower. We cannot have 10 number one priorities. So, the nine that are not number 1, we love less or we value them lower. We make a moral choice the springs from our values about where we put our time, efforts, energy, etc. The other way is detesting or hatred as we normally think of it. This sense has a particular affinity with persecuting the one we hate.
XCIV “love” = agapao. Perhaps from agan (much). This is love, longing for, taking pleasure in. It is divine love or human love that echoes divine love.
XCV “other” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
XCVI “be devoted” = antecho. Related to “beware” and “have” in v1 & “received” in v2. 4x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + echo (see note I above). This is to hold against – to be devoted, cling to, hold fast support. It is a holding close that corresponds to what is being held lose, adhering to or caring for.
XCVII “despise” = kataphroneo. 9x in NT. From kata (down, against, among, according to) + phroneo (to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action); from phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to disregard despise look down, think little of. It can be active scorn or a generally hostile view. It can be disregarding or ignoring something because it is considered of little importance. This can also be thinking someone unworthy and hating them. Additionally, it can be to think against something.
XCVIII “wealth” = mamonas. 4x in NT – also used in the parable of the dishonest manager in Luke 16:9, 11. From Aramaic mamona (money, wealth); related to Hebrew mamon (money, property). This is riches, wealth, possessions, mammon, or property. See

25 “Therefore I tell you, do not worry aboutXCIX your life,C what you will eat or what you will drink, or about your body, what you will wear.CI Is not life more than food,CII and the body more than clothing?CIII 

Notes on verse 25

XCIX “worry about” = merimnao. 19x in NT. From merimna (care, worry, anxiety; being separated from the whole); from merizo (to divide, part, share, distribute, assign; figuratively, to differ); from meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to be anxious, distracted, or care for. It is being pulled in different directions – usually a negative.
C “life” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.
CI “wear” = enduo. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + duno (to sink into, set like the sun); {from duo (to go down, sink, or set)}. This is to put on as when one puts on clothes. It is the idea of sinking into one’s clothing.
CII “food” = trophe. 16x in NT. Perhaps from trepho (to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse; properly, to enlarge through proper nourishment). This is nourishment in a literal or figurative sense. By implication, it can be ration or wages.
CIII “clothing” = enduma. Related to “wear” in v25. 8x in NT. From enduo (see note CI above). This is clothing, especially outer robes. This is clothing as something one sinks into.

26 LookCIV at the birdsCV of the air;CVI

Notes on verse 26a

CIV “look” = emblepo. Related to “sees” in v4. 12x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + blepo (see note XXII above). This is to look at, behold, gaze, see clearly, stare, consider. It is to look at in a sustained or interested way.
CV “birds” = pteinon. 14x in NT. From petomai (to fly). This is bird or something with wings.
CVI “air” = ouranos. Same as “heaven” in v1. See note VII above.

they neither sowCVII nor reapCVIII nor gatherCIX into barns,CX and yet your heavenly Father feedsCXI them.

Notes on verse 26b

CVII “sow” = speiro. Probably from spao (to pull or draw like one draws a sword). This is sowing a seed or scattering. It is sowing in a literal or figurative sense.
CVIII “reap” = therizo. From theros (summer; the heat, which implies summer); from thero (to heat). This is to gather or harvest.
CIX “gather” = sunago. Related to “synagogues” in v2. See note XIII above.
CX “barns” = apotheke. Related to “store up” and “treasures” in v19. 6x in NT. From apotithemi (to put aside, put away stow, cast off; literal and figurative); {from apo (from, away from) + tithemi (see note LXXI above)}. This is a barn, granary, or other kind of storehouse.
CXI “feeds” = trepho. 9x in NT. Perhaps from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation). This is to bring up, rear, nourish, fatten, nurse. Properly, it is to enlarge through proper nourishment.

Are you not of moreCXII valueCXIII than they? 27 And can any of you by worrying addCXIV a single hourCXV to your span of life?CXVI 

Notes on verses 26c-27

CXII “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.
CXIII “value” = diaphero. Related to “bring” in v13. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (see note LIII above). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
CXIV “add” = prostithemi. Related to “store up” and “treasures” in v19 & “barns” in v26. 18x in NT. From pros (at, to, toward, with) + tithemi (see note LXXI above). This is to add, place to, bring together for a reason, or add up.
CXV “hour” = pechus. 4x in NT. This is forearm or cubit, a unit measuring around a foot and a half.
CXVI “span…life” = helikia. 8x in NT. From the same as helikos (of what size, how much; properly, full grown, an adult); from helix (mature, adult, of the same age). This refers to maturity, stature, life span, or being of a suitable age. It could refer to maturity in terms of years or size.

28 And why do you worry about clothing? ConsiderCXVII the liliesCXVIII of the field,CXIX how they grow;CXX they neither toilCXXI nor spin, 29 yet I tell you, even SolomonCXXII in all his glory was not clothedCXXIII like one of these. 

Notes on verses 28-29

CXVII “consider” = katamanthano. 1x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to) + manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is to consider carefully, learn precisely, grasp conclusively, understand, observe.
CXVIII “lilies” = krinon. 2x in NT. This is a lily, perhaps a red anemone or sword lily.
CXIX “field” = agros. This is a field as a place where one grows crops or pastures cattle. It can also refer to a farm or lands. This is one of the roots of “agriculture.”
CXX “grow” = auxano. Perhaps from auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
CXXI “toil” = kopiao. From kopos (labor that leads to exhaustion, depletion, weariness, fatigue; working until worn out); from kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is working with effort, whether of the body or mind, growing weary, feeling tired, working hard.
CXXII “Solomon” = Solomon. 12x in NT. From Hebrew shelomoh (Solomon, meaning “peaceful”); from shalam (to be complete or sound; to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate; so, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated). This is Solomon, meaning “peaceful.”
CXXIII “clothed” = periballo. From peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to thrown around, clothe, array, put on.

30 But if God so clothes the grassCXXIV of the field, which is alive today and tomorrow is thrownCXXV into the oven,CXXVI will he not much more clotheCXXVII you—you of little faith?CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 30

CXXIV “grass” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.
CXXV “thrown” = ballo. Related to “clothed” in v29. See note CXXIII above.
CXXVI “oven” = klibanos. 2x in NT. This is oven or furnace for baking.
CXXVII “clothe” = amphiennumi. 4x in NT. From the same as amphoteroi (both, around, all) + hennumi (to clothe, invest). This is to put on, clothe.
CXXVIII “of little faith” = oligopistos. 6x in NT– 5 in Matthew & 1 in Luke. From oligos (few, small, short, brief, puny) + pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is of little faith – incredulous, lacking confidence.

31 Therefore do not worry, saying, ‘What will we eat?’ or ‘What will we drink?’ or ‘What will we wear?’ 32 For it is the GentilesCXXIX who strive forCXXX all these things; and indeed your heavenly Father knowsCXXXI that you needCXXXII allCXXXIII these things. 

Notes on verses 31-32

CXXIX “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably related to “Gentiles” in v7. See note XXXIV above.
CXXX “strive for” = epizeteo. 13x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + zeteo (to seek, search for, desire. searching for something by inquiring or investigation; to seek in a literal or figurative sense; to worship God). This is to desire, search for, seek, or want. It is following through on a personal goal by seeking.
CXXXI “knows” = eido. Same as “knows” in v8. See note XXXIX above.
CXXXII “need” = chrezo. Related to “need” in v8. 5x in NT. From chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary); from chraomai (see note XL above). This is to need, want, desire.
CXXXIII “all” = hapas. From hama (at once, together with) +pas (all, every, every kind of) OR from a (with) + pas (see above). This is all; every part working together as a unit.

33 But striveCXXXIV first for the kingdom of God and his righteousness,CXXXV and all these things will be givenCXXXVI to you as well. 34 “So do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will bring worries of its own. Today’s troubleCXXXVII is enoughCXXXVIII for today.

Notes on verses 33-34

CXXXIV “strive” = zeteo. Related to “strive for” in v32. See note CXXX above.
CXXXV “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Same as “piety” in v1. See note III above.
CXXXVI “given” = prostithemi. Same as “add” in v27. See note CXIV above.
CXXXVII “trouble” = kakia. 11x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is wickedness, evil, trouble, misfortune, inner malice, badness. It is inherent evil, depravity, causing harm.
CXXXVIII “enough” = arketos. 3x in NT. From arkeo (to assist, be satisfied or sufficient; properly, to ward off, by extension being satisfactory). This is enough or satisfactory.

Image credit: “Don’t Worry…” by Sarah Nestheide, 2012.

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