Matthew 9:9-13, 18-26

Matthew 9:9-13, 18-26
Proper 5A


As JesusA was walking along,B he sawC

Notes on verse 9a

A “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
B “walking along” = parago. 11x in NT. From para (by, beside, in the presence of, alongside) + ago (to lead, bring, carry, guide, go, drive). This is to lead near or by, to pass by, go along, be a passer-by.
C “saw” = horao. To see, perceive, attend to, look upon, experience. Properly, to stare at and so implying clear discernment. This, by extension, would indicate attending to what was seen and learned. This is to see, often with a metaphorical sense. Can include inward spiritual seeing.

a manD calledE MatthewF sittingG

Notes on verse 9b

D “man” = anthropos. Related to “saw” in v9. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (see note C above)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
E “called” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
F “Matthew” = Matthaios. Related to “Jesus” in v9. 5x in NT. From maththaios (Matthew); from Hebrew mattityahu (Matthew, “gift of the Lord”); {from mattanah (gift, offering of sacrifice, present, bribe); {from mattan (gift, reward, to give); from natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively)} + YHVH (see note A above)}. This is Matthew or Matthaeus, meaning “give of the Lord” or “given of the Lord.” See
G “sitting” = kathemai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + hemai (to sit). This is to sit, be enthroned, or reside.

at the tax-collection station,H and he saidI to him, “FollowJ me.” And he got upK and followed him.

Notes on verse 9c

H “tax-collection station” = telonion. 3x in NT. From telones (tax collector, one who worked for the Romans taking taxes from Jews; also the toll house; literally, “paying at the end”); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)} + oneomai (to buy); {from onos (a price or sum)}. This is a tax booth, toll house.
I “said” = lego. Same as “called” in v9. See note E above.
J “follow” = akoloutheo. From a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way). This is to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does.
K “got up” = anistemi. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is to raise up, rise, appear. It is to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect.

10 AndL as he sat at dinnerM in the house,N, O

Notes on verse 10a

L {untranslated} = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
M “sat at dinner” = anakeimai. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, between, anew) + keimai (to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined; to lie down literally or figuratively). This is to recline, particularly as one does for dinner. It can also be reclining as a corpse.
N “house” = oikia. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple). This is a house, household, goods, property, family, or means.
O {untranslated} = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.

manyP tax collectorsQ and sinnersR

Notes on verse 10b

P “many” = polus. This is much, often, plenteous – a large number or a great extent.
Q “tax collectors” = telones. Related to “tax-collection station” in v9. See note H above.
R “sinners” = hamartolos. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. This is sinning, sinful, sinner. It referred to missing the mark or falling short. The term was also used in archery for missing the target.

cameS and were sitting withT JesusU and his disciples. 

Notes on verse 10c

S “came” = erchomai. This is to come or go.
T “sitting with” = sunanakeimai. Related to “sat at dinner” in v10. 7x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + anakeimai (see note M above). This is to dine, recline at a table with someone else, a dinner guest, the table itself.
U “disciples” = mathetes. From matheteuo (to make a disciple of); from manthano (to learn key facts, gain knowledge from experience; generally implies reflection as part of the learning process); from math– (thinking things through). This is a disciple, learner, or student. It is where we get “mathematics” from.

11 When the PhariseesV saw this, they said to his disciples, “Why does your teacherW eatX with tax collectors and sinners?” 

Notes on verse 11

V “Pharisees” = Pharisaios. From Aramaic peras (to divide, separate) and from Hebrew parash (to make distinct, separate, scatter). This is a Pharisee, a member of a Jewish sect active in the 1st century. Their name meant separate in the sense of wanting to live a life separated from sin. Whereas the Sadducees were part of the priestly line and inherited their religious position and responsibilities, Pharisees were regular people who studied the scriptures and offered guidance to regular folk. Sadducees were often wealthier and willing to sacrifice their identity to rub elbows with Roman society. Pharisees were often more concerned with what it meant to follow God without compromising what made them different as followers of God. Sadducees primarily believed in that which was written down (the first five books of the Bible) and Pharisees believed in the Bible and the traditions of the elders. Pharisees had a very wide range of interpretations and diversity of opinion. Their standard mode of religious engagement was lively debate with one another. To argue religion with another teacher was to recognize that they had something of value to offer.
W “teacher” = didaskalos. From didasko (to teach, direct, instruct, or impart knowledge; in the New Testament, almost always used for teaching scripture); from dao (to learn). This is teacher or master.
X “eat” = esthio. This is to eat or figuratively to devour or consume like rust.

12 But when he heardY this, he said, “Those who are wellZ haveAA

Notes on verse 12a

Y “heard” = akouo. This is hear or listen, but it also means to understand by hearing. This is where the word “acoustics” comes from.
Z “well” = ischuo. Related to “have” in v12. From ischus (strength, might, power, force, ability; power that engages immediate resistance); {perhaps from is (force) + echo (see note AA below)}. This is to be strong or have power. It can also refer to being healthy and vigorous. Further, it can mean to prevail. It is strength in action against resistance, exercising force in a literal or figurative sense.
AA “have” = echo. This is to have, hold, possess.

no needBB of a physician,CC but those who areDD sick.EE 

Notes on verse 12b

BB “need” = chreia. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request); related to chre (what is proper, fitting, or necessary). This is the is task, business, or affair. It can also be need, want, or destitution.
CC “physician” = iatros. 7x in NT. From iaomai (to heal, particularly from a physical illness, or a spiritual difficulty; to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense). This is healer i.e. physician.
DD “are” = echo. Same as “have” in v12. See note AA above.
EE “sick” = kakos. 16x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character; can be contrasted with the Greek poneros, which is that which bears pain – a focus on the miseries and pains that come with evil; also contrasting the Greek sapros, which deals with falling away from a previously embodied virtue). This is wrongly, badly, cruelly, with bad motives, misery connected to affliction. It can be physically badly or morally badly, i.e. evilly.

13 GoFF and learnGG what this means,HH ‘I desireII mercy,JJ

Notes on verse 13a

FF “go” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
GG “learn” = manthano. Related to “disciples” in v10. See note U above.
HH “means” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
II “desire” = thelo. This is to wish, desire, will, or intend. It is to choose or prefer in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean inclined toward or take delight in. It can have a sense of being ready to act on the impulse in question.
JJ “mercy” = eleos. This is mercy, pity, tender mercy, or compassion, whether from humans or from God. This is mercy, generally understood in action by word or deed. When we sing or say “kyrie eleison” (Lord, have mercy), it is related to this word.

not sacrifice.’KK For I have not come to callLL the righteousMM but sinners.”

Notes on verse 13b

KK “sacrifice” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.
LL “call” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
MM “righteous” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.

18 While he was sayingNN these things to them, suddenlyOO aPP leaderQQ came in and knelt beforeRR him,

Notes on verse 18a

NN “saying” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
OO “suddenly” = idou. Same as {untranslated} in v10. See note O above.
PP “a” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.
QQ “leader” = archon. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is ruler, leader, magistrate, official, prince, chief.
RR “knelt before” = proskuneo. From pros (advantageous for, at, to, toward, with) + kuneo (to kiss); {may be related to kuno (dog)}. This is to do reverence, kneel, to prostrate oneself in homage, to worship.

saying,SS “My daughterTT has just died,UU but come and layVV

Notes on verse 18b

SS “saying” = lego. Same as “called” in v9. See note E above.
TT “daughter” = thugater. This is daughter, a related female or one who lives with you.
UU “died” = teleutao. Related to “tax-collection station” in v9 & “tax collectors” in v10. 13x in NT. From teleute (end, finishing, consummation; can also be used for death); from teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); from telos (see note H above). This is to complete or come to the end/end goal. It can also mean to finish life or to meet one’s ultimate fate in heaven or hell.
VV “lay” = epitithemi. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to lay on or place on, whether in a friendly or aggressive way.

your handWW on her, and she will live.”XX 19 And Jesus got upYY and followed him, with his disciples. 

Notes on verses 18c-19

WW “hand” = cheir. This is the hand in a literal sense. Figuratively, the hand is the means a person uses to accomplish things so it can also mean power, means, or instrument.
XX “live” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
YY “got up” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

20 Then suddenly a womanZZ who had been suffering from a flow of bloodAAA for twelveBBB years

Notes on verse 20a

ZZ “woman” = gune. Related to {untranslated} in v10. Perhaps from ginomai (see note L above). This is woman, wife, or bride. This is where the word “gynecologist” comes from.
AAA “had been suffering from a flow of blood” = haimorroeo. 1x in NT. From haima (blood in a literal sense as bloodshed; figuratively, wine or kinship, being related) + rheo (to flow, overflow). This is to lose blood, have a hemorrhage. It has the same root as the word “hemorrhage.”
BBB “twelve” = dodeka. From duo (two, both) + deka (ten). This is twelve – also shorthand for the apostles.

came upCCC behind him and touchedDDD the fringeEEE

Notes on verse 20b

CCC “came up” = proserchomai. Related to “came” in v10. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (see note S above). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
DDD “touched” = haptomai. From hapto (to touch, handle, kindle, lay hold of). This is a touch that has an impact on what is being touched – it has an influence on the recipient so that the recipient is changed.
EEE “fringe” = kraspedon. 5x in NT. This is a border – a fringe, edge, or tassel.

of his cloak,FFF 21 for she was saying to herself, “If I onlyGGG touch his cloak, I will be made well.”HHH 

Notes on verses 20c-21

FFF “cloak” = himation. From heima (garment) OR from ennumi (to put on). This is the outer garment, cloak, robe, or mantle. It is worn loosely over a tunic.
GGG “only” = monon. From monos (alone, single, remaining, mere, desolate); from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). This is merely, only, simply, sole. It can also imply alone.
HHH “be made well” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

22 Jesus turned,III and seeing her he said, “Take heart,JJJ daughter; your faithKKK has made you well.” And the woman was made well from that moment.LLL 

Notes on verse 22

III “turned” = strepho. From trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn). This is to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one.
JJJ “take heart” = tharseo. 7x in NT. From tharsos (courage, confidence, boldness); from thrasus (bold, daring). This is to have courage or good cheer, to be bold or confident.
KKK “faith” = pistis. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
LLL “moment” = hora. This is a set time or period, an hour, instant, or season. This is where the word “hour” comes from.

23 When Jesus came to the leader’s house and saw the flute playersMMM and the crowdNNN making a commotion,OOO 

Notes on verse 23

MMM “flute players” = auletes. 2x in NT. From auleo (to play a flute or pipe); from aulos (pipe or flute); from aer (air that we breathe); from aemi (to breathe or blow). This is a piper or flautist.
NNN “crowd” = ochlos. Related to “have” and “well” in v12. Perhaps from echo (see note AA above). This is a crowd, the common people, a rabble. Figuratively, it can refer to a riot.
OOO “making a commotion” = thorubeo. 5x in NT. From thorubos (an uproar, noise, outcry, riot, disturbance, trouble; figuratively, a very emotional wailing or hysteria; a commotion that leads to panic or terror); from the same as thoreo (to be troubled, agitated, alarmed, be unsettled, be frightened); from throos (clamor, noise) or from threomai (to wail). This is to disturb, agitate, cause tumult, trouble, create panic.

24 he said, “Go away,PPP for the girlQQQ is not deadRRR but sleeping.”SSS And they laughed atTTT him. 

Notes on verse 24

PPP “go away” = anachoreo. 14x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + choreo (to make space, receive, have room for, progress, depart so as to make room; figuratively, living open-heartedly); {from choros (a particular space or place); from chora (space, land, region, fields, open area); from chasma (gap, gulf, chasm, open space); from chasko (to gape, yawn)}.  This is to withdraw, depart, retire, or leave. It can give a sense of seeking safety from harm or of retiring.
QQQ “girl” = korasion. 8x in NT– 4x of the girl restored to life & 4x of Salome. From kore (maiden). This is a little girl or maiden.
RRR “is…dead” = apothnesko. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (to die, be dead). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
SSS “sleeping” = katheudo. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + heudo (to sleep). This is to settle down to rest, to sleep, fall asleep in a literal or figurative sense.
TTT “laughed at” = katagelao. 3x in NT– all in this and parallel passages. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + gelao (to laugh or smile because of joy or being satisfied). This is to deride ridicule, or laugh at.

25 But when the crowd had been put outside,UUU he went inVVV and tookWWW her by the hand, and the girl got up.XXX 

Notes on verse 25

UUU “put outside” = ekballo. From ek (from, from out of) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop). This is to throw, put out, produce, expel, banish. It is eject in a literal or figurative sense.
VVV “went in” = eiserchomai. Related to “came” in v10 & “came up” in v20. From eis (to, into, for, among) + erchomai (see note S above). This is to go in in a literal or figurative sense.
WWW “took” = krateo. From kratos (strength, power, dominion; vigor in a literal or figurative sense; power that is exercised). This is being strong or mighty so, by extension, to prevail or rule. It can also mean to seize, grasp hold of and thereby control.
XXX “got up” = egeiro. Same as “got up” in v19. See note YY above.

26 And the reportYYY of this spreadZZZ through allAAAA of that district.BBBB

Notes on verse 26

YYY “report” = pheme. 2x in NT. From phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine). This is saying, report, or fame.
ZZZ “spread” = exerchomai. Related to “came” in v10 & “came up” in v20 & “went in” in v25. From ek (from, from out of) + erchomai (see note S above). This is to go out, depart, escape, proceed from, spread news abroad.
AAAA “all” = holos. This is whole, complete, or entire. It is a state where every member is present and functioning in concert. This is the root of the word “whole.”
BBBB “district” = ge. This is earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area.

Image credit: “Matthew is Invited to Follow Jesus” by LUMO Project.

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