Numbers 10

Numbers 10


The LordI spokeII to Moses,III saying, 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“MakeIV twoV silverVI trumpets;VII

Notes on verse 2a

IV “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
V “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
VI “silver” = keseph. From kasaph (to long for, be greedy; to become pale). This is silver or money.
VII “trumpets” = chatsotsrah. Perhaps from chatsar (to blow a trumpet, trumpeter, to surround). This is an ancient trumpet or someone who plays a trumpet.

you shall make them of hammered work,VIII and you shall useIX them for summoningX

Notes on verse 2b

VIII “hammered work” = miqshah. 10x in OT. From the same as miqsheh (something round, a hairdo, curly hair); from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is something that is made that is rounded, perhaps hammered from a single piece.
IX “use” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
X “summoning” = miqra. From qara (to call or call out – to call someone by name; calling forth). This is a convocation, assembly, public meeting. It can refer to the place where the meeting is happening or the people meeting.

the congregationXI and for breakingXII camp.XIII 

Notes on verse 2c

XI “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
XII “breaking” = massa. 12x in OT– all in the first five books of the Bible. From nasa (properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes; striking tents in order to start a journey; to bring, pull out, set out, journey, or cause to go away). This is a departure, striking camp, travelling by stages a station or march.
XIII “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.

When both are blown,XIV the wholeXV congregation shall assembleXVI before you at the entranceXVII of the tentXVIII of meeting.XIX 

Notes on verse 3

XIV “blown” = taqa. This is to clap, clatter, thrust, sound an instrument, hammer a nail, be a bondsman.
XV “whole” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
XVI “assemble” = yaad. Related to “congregation” in v2. See note XI above.
XVII “entrance” = pethach. From pathach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense; to open, draw out, let something go free, break forth, to plow, engrave, or carve). This is any kind of opening – a door, entrance, gate.
XVIII “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
XIX “meeting” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v2 & “assemble” in v3. From yaad (see note XI above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.

But if only oneXX is blown, then the leaders,XXI the headsXXII of the tribesXXIII of Israel,XXIV shall assemble before you. 

Notes on verse 4

XX “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XXI “leaders” = nasi. From nasa (to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively; to carry, take, or arise; to bring forth, advance, accept). This is one lifted up or exalter. So, it could be prince, chief, ruler, captain, king, or vapor.
XXII “heads” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
XXIII “tribes” = eleph. Perhaps from the same as eleph (herd, cattle); from alaph (to learn, speak, associate with). This is thousand.
XXIV “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.

When you blow an alarm,XXV the campsXXVI on the east sideXXVII shall set out;XXVIII 

Notes on verse 5

XXV “alarm” = teruah. From rua (to break or destroy something so figuratively, an ear splitting sound such as a call of alarm or a joyful sound). This is an alarm, trumpet sound, battle cry, rejoicing, joyful shout, or jubilee.
XXVI {untranslated} = chanah. Related to “camp” in v2. See note XIII above.
XXVII “east side” = qedem. Perhaps from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.
XXVIII “set out” = nasa. Related to “breaking” in v2. See note XII above.

when you blow a secondXXIX alarm, the campsXXX on the south sideXXXI shall set out. An alarm is to be blown whenever they are to set out.XXXII 

Notes on verse 6

XXIX “second” = sheni. Related to “two” in v2. See note V above.
XXX {untranslated} = chanah. Same as {untranslated} in v5. See note XXVI above.
XXXI “south side” = teman. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is south, towards the south, wind from the south.
XXXII “set out” = massa. Same as “breaking” in v2. See note XII above.

But when the assemblyXXXIII is to be gathered,XXXIV you shall blow, but you shall not sound an alarm.XXXV The sonsXXXVI of Aaron,XXXVII the priests,XXXVIII shall blow the trumpets;

Notes on verses 7-8a

XXXIII “assembly” = qahal. Related to “gathered” in v7. See note XXXIV below.
XXXIV “gathered” = qahal. From qahal (assembly, congregation, multitude). This is to gather, convene, assemble like a congregation.
XXXV “sound an alarm” = rua. Related to “alarm” in v5. See note XXV above.
XXXVI “sons” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXXVII “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See
XXXVIII “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.

this shall beXXXIX a perpetualXL institutionXLI for you throughout your generations.XLII 

Notes on verse 8b

XXXIX “be” = hayah. Same as “use” in v2. See note IX above.
XL “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
XLI “institution” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.
XLII “generations” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

When you goXLIII to warXLIV in your landXLV against the adversaryXLVI who oppressesXLVII you,

Notes on verse 9a

XLIII “go” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XLIV “war” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
XLV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XLVI “adversary” = tsar. From tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). Properly, this is a narrow or constricted place. Figuratively, it can be trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress.
XLVII “oppresses” = tsarar. Related to “adversary” in v9. See note XLVI above.

you shall sound an alarm with the trumpets, so that you may be rememberedXLVIII beforeXLIX the Lord  your GodL and be savedLI from your enemies.LII 

Notes on verse 9b

XLVIII “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
XLIX “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
L “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v4. See note XXIV above.
LI “saved” = yasha. To deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free.
LII “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

10 Also on your daysLIII of rejoicing,LIV at your appointed festivals,LV

Notes on verse 10a

LIII “days” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LIV “rejoicing” = simchah. From samach (to rejoice, be glad; properly, to brighten up; also used figuratively). This is joy, rejoicing, pleasure, or glee.
LV “appointed festivals” = moed. Same as “meeting” in v3. See note XIX above.

and at the beginningsLVI of your months,LVII you shall blow the trumpets over your burnt offeringsLVIII

Notes on verse 10b

LVI “beginnings” = rosh. Same as “heads” in v4. See note XXII above.
LVII “months” = chodesh. From chadash (to renew, repair). This refers to a new moon. It can also mean monthly.
LVIII “burnt offerings” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole thing is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.

and over your sacrificesLIX of well-being;LX they shall serveLXI as a reminderLXII on your behalf beforeLXIII the Lord your God: I am the Lord your God.”

Notes on verse 10c

LIX “sacrifices” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
LX “well-being” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.
LXI “serve” = hayah. Same as “use” in v2. See note IX above.
LXII “reminder” = zikkaron. Related to “remembered” in v9. From zakar (see note XLVIII above). This is remembrance, memorial, or record. It can also be a day that is memorable.
LXIII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v9. See note XLIX above.

11 LXIVIn the second year,LXV in the second month, on the twentiethLXVI day of the month, the cloudLXVII liftedLXVIII from over the tabernacleLXIX of the covenant.LXX 

Notes on verse 11

LXIV {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “use” in v2. See note IX above.
LXV “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
LXVI “twentieth” = esrim. From the same as eser (ten, tenth). This is twenty or twentieth.
LXVII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
LXVIII “lifted” = alah. Related to “burnt offerings” in v10. See note LVIII above.
LXIX “tabernacle” = mishkan. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is a place where one lives – a tabernacle, tent, or other kind of dwelling. It can also be a lair where animals live, the grave, the Temple, or the Tabernacle.
LXX “covenant” = eduth. Related to “congregation” in v2. From ed (see note XI above). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.

12 Then the IsraelitesLXXI set outLXXII by stagesLXXIII

Notes on verse 12a

LXXI “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above. Yisrael is the same as “Israel” in v4. See note XXIV above.
LXXII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
LXXIII “stages” = massa. Same as “breaking” in v2. See note XII above.

from the wildernessLXXIV of Sinai,LXXV and the cloud settled downLXXVI in the wilderness of Paran.LXXVII 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXIV “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
LXXV “Sinai” = Sinay. Probably from the same as Sin (Sin, a city meaning “clay” or “bush); {perhaps from asam (to gather, store) OR from seneh (thorn bush) OR related to Aramaic siyn (a god called Sin) OR perhaps Hebrew siyn (related to mud or clay)}. This is Sinai – a place whose name may mean “bush of the Lord” or “muddy.” See
LXXVI “settled down” = shakan. Related to “tabernacle” in v11. See note LXIX above.
LXXVII “Paran” = Paran. 11x in OT. From the same as porah (a branch or spring; properly, ornamentation); perhaps from pa’ar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is Paran, perhaps meaning ornamental.

13 They set outLXXVIII for the first timeLXXIX at the commandLXXX of the Lord byLXXXI Moses. 

Notes on verse 13

LXXVIII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
LXXIX “first time” = rishon. Related to “heads” in v4. From rishah (beginning or early time); from rosh (see note XXII above). This is first, former, ancestor, beginning, ranked first.
LXXX “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
LXXXI {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.

14 The standardLXXXII of the camp ofLXXXIII JudahLXXXIV set outLXXXV first,

Notes on verse 14a

LXXXII “standard” = degel. 14x in OT– all Numbers except 1x in Song of Songs. From dagal (to look, behold, or flaunt; to raise a flag or, figuratively, to be chief-most or very noticeable). This is a standard or flag.
LXXXIII {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
LXXXIV “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
LXXXV “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

company by company,LXXXVI and over the whole company was NahshonLXXXVII son of Amminadab.LXXXVIII 

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXVI “company by company” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
LXXXVII “Nahshon” = Nachshon. 10x in OT. From the same as nachash (serpent, snake); from nachash (to divine, interpret omens, learn from experience, observe; to hiss). This is Nahshon, a name meaning “enchanter” or “serpent” or “bronze” or “oracle” or “diviner.” See
LXXXVIII “Amminadab” = Amminadab. 13x in OT. From am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + nadib (properly, voluntary and so it implies generous, noble, magnanimous, or a generous person); {from nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing)}. This is Amminadab, meaning “my kin is noble” or “people of liberality.”

15 Over the company of the tribeLXXXIX ofXC IssacharXCI was NethanelXCII son of Zuar,XCIII 

Notes on verse 15

LXXXIX “tribe” = matteh. From natah (to stretch or spread out, extend, bend). This is a staff, rod, branch, or tribe. It could be a rod for discipline or correction. It could be a scepter to indicate authority, a throwing lance, or a walking staff. Figuratively, it could also be something that supports life (like bread).
XC {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
XCI “Issachar” = Yissaskar. Related to “leaders” in v4. Perhaps from nasa (see note XXI above) + sakar (wages, payment, service, salary, worth, reward, or benefit); {from sakar (to hire, reward, earn)} OR ish (man); {perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail} + sakar (see above). This is Issachar, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It may mean “there is recompense,” “man of hire,” “he is wages,” or “he will bring a reward.” See
XCII “Nethanel” = Nethanel. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9. 14x in OT. From natan (to give, put, set, offer; to give literally or figuratively) + El (see note XXIV above). This is Nethanel, meaning “given of God.”
XCIII “Zuar” = Tsuar. 5x in OT. From tsaar (to be brought low, small, little one; figuratively, be insignificant or ignoble). This is Zuar, meaning “little one” or “small.”

16 and over the company of the tribe ofXCIV ZebulunXCV was EliabXCVI son of Helon.XCVII

Notes on verse 16

XCIV {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
XCV “Zebulun” = Zebulun. From zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside). This is Zebulun, that tribe, or their territory. It means “habitation.”
XCVI “Eliab” = Eliab. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15. From El (see note XXIV above) + ab (father, chief, or ancestor; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Eliab, meaning “God is father” or “God of his father.”
XCVII “Helon” = Chelon. 5x in OT. From chayil (strength, wealth, ability, activity; a soldier or a company of soldiers; goods; a force of people, means, or goods; valor, virtue, or strength); from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is Helon, meaning “strong” or “man of anguish.” See

17 Then the tabernacle was taken down,XCVIII and the GershonitesXCIX and the Merarites,C who carriedCI the tabernacle, set out.CII 

Notes on verse 17

XCVIII “taken down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XCIX “Gershonites” = ben + Gereshon. Ben is the same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above. Gereshon is 17x in OT. From garash (to cast out or expel; to exile someone or to divorce them). Gerson is a personal name, meaning “refugee,” “exiled one.” See
C “Merarites” = ben + Merari. Ben is the same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above. Merari is from marar (to be bitter, embittered, weep, troubled). This is Merari, a name meaning “bitterness,” “bitter,” or “my strength.” See
CI “carried” = nasa. Related to “leaders” in v4 & “Issachar” in v15. See note XXI above.
CII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

18 Next the standard of the camp of ReubenCIII set out,CIV company by company, and over the whole company was ElizurCV son of Shedeur.CVI 

Notes on verse 18

CIII “Reuben” = Reuben. Related to “sons” in v8. From raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note XXXVI above). This is Reuben, meaning “behold a son.”
CIV “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CV “Elizur” = Elitsur. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From El (see note XXIV above) + tsur (rock, stone, cliff, boulder, rocky; a refuge, a way to refer to God); {from tsur (to confine, cramp, or bind in a literal or figurative sense; to besiege, assault, or distress)}. This is Elizur, meaning “God of the rock.”  
CVI “Shedeur” = Shedeur. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From the same as shad (breast); {probably from shud (waste, devastate); related to shadad (to ruin, assault, devastate, oppress, destroy completely; properly, it is being burly; figuratively it is something that is powerful)} OR from the same as sadeh (literally field, ground, soil, or land; wild like a wild animal); perhaps from the same as Shaddai (Shaddai, Perhaps meaning almighty, “my destroyer,” “my protective spirit,” “my rainmaker,” “self-sufficient, “who is abundantly,” or “breasted one” – as the one who abundantly provides or grants fertility/abundance to humans); from shadad (see above) + ur (fire, light, the east); {from or (to be or become light, shine)} OR shed (demon) + or (see above). This is Shedeur, meaning “spreader of light” or “Shaddai is flame” or  “Shaddai is Light” or “field of light” or “destroyer of light” or “breast of fire” or “shedder of fire” or “casting forth fire” or “fire demon.” See &

19 Over the company of the tribe ofCVII SimeonCVIII was ShelumielCIX son of Zurishaddai,CX 

Notes on verse 19

CVII {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CVIII “Simeon” = Shimon. From shama (to hear, often implying attention and obedience). This is Simeon, Symeon, or Simon. It is a personal name as well as the tribe Simeon. It means “he who hears.”
CIX “Shelumiel” = Shelumiel. Related to “well-being” in v10 & to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From shalom (completeness, soundness, welfare, favor, friend, good health; to be safe and figuratively well, happy, at peace, friendly; abstractly, includes the ideas of welfare and prosperity – not in excessive wealth, but in having enough); {from shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound)} + El (see note XXIV above). This is Shelumiel, meaning “peace of God.”
CX “Zurishaddai” = Tsurishaddai. Related to “Elizur” in v18 & to “Shedeur” in v18. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From tsur (see note CV above) + Shaddai (see note CVI  above). This is Zurishaddai, meaning “my rock is the Almighty” or “rock of the Almighty.”

20 and over the company of the tribe ofCXI GadCXII was EliasaphCXIII son of Deuel.CXIV

Notes on verse 20

CXI {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXII “Gad” = Gad. Perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gad, one of Jacob’s children, his tribe and the land they settled. It means “fortune” or “fortunate.”
CXIII “Eliasaph” = Eliasaph. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 & “Shelumiel” in v19. 6x in OT – all in Numbers. From El (see note XXIV above) + yasaph (to add, increase, continue, exceed). This is Eliasaph, meaning “God has added” or “God is gatherer.”
CXIV “Deuel” = Deuel. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 & “Shelumiel” in v19 & “Eliasaph” in v20. 4x in OT– all in Numbers. From yada (to know, be aware, see and so understand – includes observation, care, recognition; can also be used as a euphemism) + El (see note XXIV above). This is Deuel, meaning “known of God.”

21 Then the Kohathites,CXV who carried the holy things,CXVI set out,CXVII and the tabernacle was set upCXVIII before their arrival.CXIX 

Notes on verse 21

CXV “Kohathites” = Qehathi. 15x in OT. From Qehath (Kohath; perhaps meaning “allied”); perhaps from a root meaning to ally OR from yaqa (to obey, be pious) OR qavah (to wait, look, gather together, bind together, collect; figuratively, to expect). This is Kohathite, descendants of Kohath. It may mean “allied,” “obedience,” “gathering,” or “congregation.” See
CXVI “holy things” = miqdash. From the same as qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
CXVII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXVIII “set up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXIX “arrival” = bo. Same as “go” in v9. See note XLIII above.

22 Next the standard of the camp ofCXX EphraimCXXI set out,CXXII company by company, and over the whole company was ElishamaCXXIII son of Ammihud.CXXIV 

Notes on verse 22

CXX {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXXI “Ephraim” = Ephrayim. From the same as epher (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
CXXII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXXIII “Elishama” = Elishama. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 & “Shelumiel” in v19 & “Eliasaph” and “Deuel” in v20 & to “Simeon” in v19. 17x in OT. From El (see note XXIV above) + shama (see note CVIII above). This is Elishama, meaning “God has heard” or “God of hearing.”
CXXIV “Ammihud” = Ammihud. Related to “Amminadab” in v14. 9x in OT From am (see note LXXXVIII above) + hod (grandeur, beauty, glory, honor, or authority; emphasizes a form or appearance with gravitas). This is Ammihud, meaning “my kin is majesty” or “people of splendor.”

23 Over the company of the tribe ofCXXV ManassehCXXVI was GamalielCXXVII son of Pedahzur,CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 23

CXXV {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXXVI “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXXVII “Gamliel” = Gamaliel. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 & “Shelumiel” in v19 & “Eliasaph” and “Deuel” in v20 & “Elishama” in v22. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From gamal (how one deals with someone whether positively or negatively – so to reward, requite; to wean or the work that goes into something ripening) + El (see note XIV above). This is Gamaliel, meaning “reward of God.”
CXXVIII “Pedahzur” = Pedahtsur. Related to “Elizur” in v18 & “Zurishaddai” in v19. 6x in OT– all in Numbers. From padah (to sever, to ransom; to secure someone’s release by paying their debt freeing them from slavery; to redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve; the redemption price) + tsur (see note CV above). This is Pedahzur, meaning “the rock has hansomed,” i.e. “God has ransomed.”

24 and over the company of the tribe ofCXXIX BenjaminCXXX was AbidanCXXXI son of Gideoni.CXXXII

Notes on verse 24

CXXIX {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXXX “Benjamin” = Binyamin. Related to “sons” in v8 & “Reuben” in v18 & to “south side” in v6. Perhaps from ben (see note XXXVI above) + from yamin (see note XXXI above). This is Benjamin, meaning “son of the right hand.” It could refer to Benjamin himself, his offspring, their tribe, or their territory.
CXXXI “Abidan” = Abidan. Related to “Eliab” in v16. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From ab (see note XCVI above) + din (to judge, defend, dispute, govern, quarrel, plead). This is Abidan, meaning “my father is judge” or “father of judgment” or “judge.”
CXXXII “Gideoni” = Gidoni. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From gada (to cut or chop as one cuts down a tree; used more generally for cutting off or destroying things). This is Gideoni, meaning “warlike” or “of Gideon” or “of hewing down” or “one of the fellers.” See

25 Then the standard of the camp ofCXXXIII Dan,CXXXIV acting as the rear guardCXXXV of allCXXXVI the camps,

Notes on verse 25a

CXXXIII {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXXXIV “Dan” = Dan. Related to “Abidan” in v24. From din (see note CXXXI  above). This is Dan or a Danite. It means “judge” and can refer to Dan, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXXXV “acting as the rear guard” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
CXXXVI “all” = kol. Same as “whole” in v3. See note XV above.

set out,CXXXVII company by company, and over the whole company was AhiezerCXXXVIII son of Ammishaddai.CXXXIX 

Notes on verse 25b

CXXXVII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CXXXVIII “Ahiezer” = Achiezer. 6x in OT. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + ezer (help, aid, helper); {from azar (to help, protect, support, ally; properly, to surround so as to provide aid)}. This is Ahiezer, meang “my brother is help.”
CXXXIX “Ammishaddai” = Ammishaddai. Related to “Amminadab” in v14 & “Ammihud” in v22 & to “Shedeur” in v18 & “Zurishaddai” in v19. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From am (see note LXXXVIII above) + Shaddai (see note CVI above). This is Ammishaddai, meaning “my kin is Shaddai” or “people of the Almighty.”

26 Over the company of the tribe ofCXL AsherCXLI was PagielCXLII son of Ochran,CXLIII 

Notes on verse 26

CXL {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXLI “Asher” = Asher. From ashar (to go straight, lead, guide; to be level and so to be right, blessed, honest, happy). This is Asher, one of Jacob’s children and his tribe. It means “happy one.”
CXLII “Pagiel” = Pagiel. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 & “Shelumiel” in v19 & “Eliasaph” and “Deuel” in v20 & “Elishama” in v22 & “Gamliel” in v23. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From paga (to meet or happen, unintentionally or violently; to plead, spare, reach, or intercede) + El (see note XXIV above). This is Pagiel, meaning “occurrence of God.”
CXLIII “Ochran” = Okran. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From akar (properly to stir water – figuratively, to trouble, harm, afflict, or worsen). This is Ochran, meaning “muddler.”

27 and over the company of the tribe ofCXLIV NaphtaliCXLV was AhiraCXLVI

Notes on verse 27a

CXLIV {untranslated} = ben. Same as “sons” in v8. See note XXXVI above.
CXLV “Naphtali” = Naphtali. Naphtali is from pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is Naphtali, meaning “my wrestling.” It can refer to Naphtali, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
CXLVI “Ahira” = Achira. Related to “Ahiezer” in v25. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From ach (see note CXXXVIII above) + ra’ (bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity; anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin); {from ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex)}. This is Ahira, meaning “my brother is evil.”

son of Enan.CXLVII 28 This was the order of marchCXLVIII of the Israelites, company by company, when they set out.CXLIX

Notes on verses 27b-28

CXLVII “Enan” = Enan. 5x in OT– all in Numbers. From Ayin (Ain; a place whose name means “spring” or “fountain”); {from the same as ayin (eye, appearance; eye in a literal or figurative sense; a fountain)}. This is Enan, meaning “having fountains” or “having eyes.”
CXLVIII “order of march” = massa. Same as “breaking” in v2. See note XII above.
CXLIX “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

29 Moses said to HobabCL son of ReuelCLI the Midianite,CLII Moses’s father-in-law,CLIII

Notes on verse 29a

CL “Hobab” = Chobab. 2x in OT. From chabab (to love, to cherish). This is Hobab or Chobab, meaning “cherished.”
CLI “Reuel” = Reuel. Related to “Israel” in v4 & “God” in v9 & “Nethanel” in v15 & “Eliab” in v16 & “Elizur” in v18 & “Shelumiel” in v19 & “Eliasaph” and “Deuel” in v20 & “Elishama” in v22 & “Gamliel” in v23 & “Pagiel” in v26. 11x in OT. From raah (to associate with) + El (see note XXIV above). This is Reuel, meaning “friend of God.”
CLII “Midianite” = Midyani. Related to “Abidan” in v24 & “Dan” in v25. 8x in OT. From midyan (Midian, Midianite, meaning “strife” or “place of judgment”); from the same as midyan (brawling, contention); from the same as madon (strife, contention, brawling); from din (see note CXXXI above). This is Midianite.
CLIII “father-in-law” = chathan. Perhaps from chathan (bridegroom, son-in-law; someone who is related through marriage; figuratively can be a child who is circumcised). This is to intermarry, make an alliance through marriage, father-in-law, son-in-law, give one’s daughter in marriage.

“We are setting outCLIV for the placeCLV of which the Lord said, ‘I will giveCLVI it to you’;

Notes on verse 29b

CLIV “setting out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLV “place” = maqom. Related to “set up” in v21. From qum (see note CXVIII above). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CLVI “give” = natan. Related to “Nethanel” in v15. See note XCII above.

comeCLVII with us, and we will treat you well,CLVIII for the Lord has promisedCLIX goodCLX to Israel.” 

Notes on verse 29c

CLVII “come” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
CLVIII “treat…well” = yatab. This is to be good or pleasing, joyful. It can also mean doing good in an ethical sense or be beautiful, happy, successful, or right.
CLIX “promised” = dabar. Same as “spoke” in v1. See note II above.
CLX “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.

30 But he said to him, “I will not go,CLXI but I will go backCLXII to my own land and to my kindred.”CLXIII 

31 He said, “Do notCLXIV leaveCLXV us, forCLXVI

Notes on verses 30-31a

CLXI “go” = halak. Same as “come” in v29. See note CLVII above.
CLXII “go back” = halak. Same as “come” in v29. See note CLVII above.
CLXIII “kindred” = moledeth. From yalad (to bear, bring forth, beget, calve, act as midwife, show lineage). This is kindred, offspring, birthplace, lineage, native country, or family.
CLXIV {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
CLXV “leave” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
CLXVI “for” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.

you knowCLXVII where we should camp in the wilderness, and you will serve as eyesCLXVIII for us. 32 CLXIXMoreover, if you goCLXX with us, CLXXIwhatever good the Lord doesCLXXII for us, the same we will doCLXXIII for you.”

Notes on verses 31b-32

CLXVII “know” = yada. Related to “Deuel” in v20. See note CXIV above.
CLXVIII “eyes” = ayin. Related to “Enan” in v27. See note CXLVII above.
CLXIX {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “use” in v2. See note IX above.
CLXX “go” = halak. Same as “come” in v29. See note CLVII above.
CLXXI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “use” in v2. See note IX above.
CLXXII “does” = yatab. Same as “treat…well” in v29. See note CLVIII above.
CLXXIII “do” = yatab. Same as “treat…well” in v29. See note CLVIII above.

33 So they setCLXXIV out from the mountCLXXV of the Lord threeCLXXVI days’ journeyCLXXVII with the arkCLXXVIII of the covenantCLXXIX of the Lord 

Notes on verse 33a

CLXXIV “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXV “’mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CLXXVI “three” = shalosh. This is three, fork, three times.
CLXXVII “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CLXXVIII “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
CLXXIX “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

goingCLXXX beforeCLXXXI them three days’ journey, to seek outCLXXXII a resting placeCLXXXIII for them, 34 the cloud of the Lord being over them by dayCLXXXIV when they set outCLXXXV from the camp.

Notes on verses 33b-34

CLXXX “going” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXXI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v9. See note XLIX above.
CLXXXII “seek out” = tur. This is to seek out, explore, investigate. It is often used of trading or spying.
CLXXXIII “resting place” = menuchah. From manoach (resting place, quiet, home); from nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is resting place, consolation, ease, quiet. It is the same word in Psalm 23:2, “he leads me beside the still waters.”
CLXXXIV “by day” = yomam. Related to “days” in v10. From yom (see note LIII above). Root may mean to be hot. So, this is day as the hours that are hot. This can be daytime in a literal or figurative sense
CLXXXV “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.

35 CLXXXVIWhenever the ark set out,CLXXXVII Moses would say,

“Arise,CLXXXVIII O Lord, let your enemies be scatteredCLXXXIX
    and your foesCXC fleeCXCI beforeCXCII you.”

Notes on verse 35

CLXXXVI {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “use” in v2. See note IX above.
CLXXXVII “set out” = nasa. Same as “set out” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
CLXXXVIII “arise” = qum. Same as “set up” in v21. See note CXVIII above.
CLXXXIX “scattered” = puts. This is to dash in pieces, scatter, disperse, drive.
CXC “foes” = sane. This is to hate, an enemy. It is a personal hatred and not an abstract one.
CXCI “flee” = nus. This is to flee, vanish away, hide, escape, be displayed.
CXCII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v9. See note XLIX above.

36 And whenever it came to rest,CXCIII he would say,

“Return,CXCIV O Lord, to the ten thousandCXCV thousandsCXCVI of Israel.”

Notes on verse 36

CXCIII “came to rest” = nuach. Related to “resting place” in v33. See note CLXXXIII above.
CXCIV “return” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXCV “ten thousand” = rebabah. 16x in OT. From rabab (being many or much, abounding, increasing, multiplying; cast together and so the sense of increasing, generally in number). This is abundance, a myriad. It can be an indefinite large amount or mean ten thousand or a million.
CXCVI “thousands” = eleph. Same as “tribes” in v4. See note XXIII above.

Image credit: “Ashburn Penatucht Folio – Folio 76 recto of the Ashburnham Pentateuch, Moses receiving the Law” by Meister des Ashburneham-Pentateuch, 7th century.

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