Numbers 14

Numbers 14


Then allI the congregationII raised a loud cry,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
II “congregation” = edah. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
III “raised a loud cry” = nasanatan + et + qol. Literally, “lifted up…and gave their voices.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively. Qol is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.

and the peopleIV weptV that night.VI 

Notes on verse 1b

IV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
V “wept” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.
VI “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.

And all the IsraelitesVII complainedVIII against MosesIX and Aaron;X

Notes on verse 2a

VII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
VIII “complained” = lun. This is to stop – usually to lodge for the night. It can imply dwelling, enduring, or staying permanently. Figuratively, it can mean being obstinate, particularly with one’s words – to complain.
IX “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.
X “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See

the wholeXI congregation said to them, “Would thatXII we had diedXIII in the landXIV of Egypt!XV Or would that we had died in this wilderness!XVI 

Notes on verse 2b

XI “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note I above.
XII “would that” = lu. This is if, oh that. It is an interjection. It could indicate something one would like or a polite request.
XIII “died” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XIV “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XV “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
XVI “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

Why is the LordXVII bringingXVIII us into this land to fallXIX by the sword?XX

Notes on verse 3a

XVII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XVIII “bringing” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XIX “fall” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
XX “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.

Our wivesXXI and our little onesXXII will becomeXXIII

Notes on verse 3b

XXI “wives” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
XXII “little ones” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.
XXIII “become” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.

plunder;XXIV would it not be betterXXV for us to go backXXVI to Egypt?” 

Notes on verse 3c

XXIV “plunder” = baz. From bazaz (to spoil, loot, pillage). This is robbery, spoil, booty, prey.
XXV “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
XXVI “go back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

So they said to one another,XXVII “Let us chooseXXVIII a captainXXIX and go back to Egypt.”

Notes on verse 4

XXVII “to one another” = ish + el + ach. Literally, “one to his brother.” Ish is related to “wives” in v3. See note XXI above. Ach is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.
XXVIII “choose” = natan. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.
XXIX “captain” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).

Then Moses and Aaron fell on their facesXXX beforeXXXI all the assemblyXXXII of the congregation of the Israelites. And JoshuaXXXIII sonXXXIV of NunXXXV

Notes on verses 5-6a

XXX “faces” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
XXXI “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v5. See note XXX above.
XXXII “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
XXXIII “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “Lord” and “become” in v3. From YHVH (see note XVII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
XXXIV “son” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note VII above.
XXXV “Nun” = Nun. From nun (to propagate, continue, resprout, be perpetual). This is Nun or Non, meaning “perpetuity.”

and CalebXXXVI son of Jephunneh,XXXVII who were among those who had spied outXXXVIII the land, toreXXXIX their clothesXL 

Notes on verse 6b

XXXVI “Caleb” = Kaleb. From the same as keleb (a dog, male prostitute; perhaps from a word meaning to yelp or attack). This is Caleb or Kaleb, meaning “dog” or “unsophisticated servant.” See
XXXVII “Jephunneh” = Yephunneh. Related to “faces” in v5. 16x in OT. From panah (see nte XXX above). This is Jephunneh or Yephunneh, meaning “he will be prepared” or “he will turn to” or “he will face” or “he will be beheld.” See
XXXVIII “spied out” = tur. This is to seek out, explore, investigate. It is often used of trading or spying.
XXXIX “tore” = qara. This is to tear or cut out in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be to revile or to apply eye make up – as though they are made to look larger.
XL “clothes” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

and said to all the congregation of the Israelites, “The land that we went throughXLI as spiesXLII is an exceedinglyXLIII goodXLIV land. 

Notes on verse 7

XLI “went through” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
XLII “spies” = tur. Same as “spied out” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIII “exceedingly” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XLIV “good” = tob. Same as “better” in v3. See note XXV above.

If the Lord is pleasedXLV with us, he will bring us into this land and giveXLVI it to us, a land that flowsXLVII with milkXLVIII and honey.XLIX 

Notes on verse 8

XLV “is pleased” = chaphets. Properly, this means inclined towards or bending to. Figuratively, it means to desire, delight in, or be pleased with.
XLVI “give” = natan. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.
XLVII “flows” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
XLVIII “milk” = chalab. Perhaps from the same as cheleb (fat, finest, marrow; fat in a literal or figurative sense; the richest or best part). This is milk or cheese or suckling.
XLIX “honey” = debash. Root may mean being gummy. This is honey or honeycomb because it is so sticky. It can also refer to syrup.

Only,L do not rebelLI against the Lord, and do not fearLII the people of the land, for they are no more than breadLIII for us;

Notes on verse 9a

L “only” = ak. Related to aken (surely, truly, nevertheless); from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a positive statement – surely, also, certainly, alone, only.
LI “rebel” = marad. This is to rebel or be rebellious.
LII “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
LIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.

their protectionLIV is removedLV from them, and the Lord is with us; do not fear them.” 10 But the whole congregation threatened to stoneLVI them.

Notes on verses 9b-10a

LIV “protection” = tsel. From tsalal (to be or become dark, shade; this is the shade as during twilight or shadow as associated with something opaque). This is shade in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be shadow, shade, protection, shelter, or defense.
LV “removed” = sur. This is to turn aside in a literal or figurative sense – to depart, decline, rebel, remove, or withdraw.
LVI “stone” = ragam + et + eben. Ragam is 16x in OT. This is to kill by throwing stones. Eben is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”

Then the gloryLVII of the Lord appearedLVIII at the tentLIX of meetingLX to all the Israelites. 

Notes on verse 10b

LVII “glory” = kabod. From kabad (to be heavy, weighty, burdensome). This is weighty. Figuratively, glorious, abundant, riches, honor, splendor – a reference to one’s reputation or character. This word is often used to describe God and God’s presence.
LVIII “appeared” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
LIX “tent” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
LX “meeting” = moed. Related to “congregation” in v1. From yaad (see note II above). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.

11 And the Lord said to Moses, “How longLXI will this people despiseLXII me? And how long will they refuse to believeLXIII in me,

Notes on verse 11a

LXI “long” = anah. 6x in OT. This is to meet, happen, approach.
LXII “despise” = naats. This is to spurn, reject, provoke, abhor, treat with contempt. It can also mean bloom or flourish.
LXIII “believe” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.

in spite of all the signsLXIV that I have doneLXV amongLXVI them? 

Notes on verse 11b

LXIV “signs” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
LXV “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXVI “among” = qereb. Perhaps from qarab (to come near or approach). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

12 I will strikeLXVII them with pestilenceLXVIII and disinheritLXIX them, and I will makeLXX of you

Notes on verse 12a

LXVII “strike” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
LXVIII “pestilence” = deber. Related to “wilderness” in v2. From dabar (see note XVI above). This is plague or thorns.
LXIX “disinherit” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
LXX “make” = asah. Same as “done” in v11. See note LXV above.

a nationLXXI greaterLXXII and mightierLXXIII than they.”

Notes on verse 12b

LXXI “nation” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
LXXII “greater” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
LXXIII “mightier” = atsum. From atsom (to be many or mighty; could also refer to breaking bones). This is mighty or mighty one. It means powerful, which implies large numbers.

13 But Moses said to the Lord, “Then the EgyptiansLXXIV will hearLXXV of it, for in your mightLXXVI you brought upLXXVII this people from among them, 

Notes on verse 13

LXXIV “Egyptians” = Mitsri. Related to “Egypt” in v2. From the same as mitsrayim (see note XV above). This is Egyptian.
LXXV “hear” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
LXXVI “might” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
LXXVII “brought up” = alah. This is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.

14 and they will tell the inhabitantsLXXVIII of this land. They have heard that you, O Lord, are in the midstLXXIX of this people, for you, O Lord, are seenLXXX faceLXXXI to face,LXXXII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXVIII “inhabitants” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
LXXIX “in the midst” = qereb. Same as “among” in v11. See note LXVI above.
LXXX “seen” = raah. Same as “appeared” in v10. See note LVIII above.
LXXXI “face” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
LXXXII “face” = ayin. Same as “face” in v14. See note LXXXI above.

and your cloudLXXXIII standsLXXXIV over them and you goLXXXV

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXIII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.
LXXXIV “stands” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LXXXV “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.

in frontLXXXVI of them, in a pillarLXXXVII of cloud by dayLXXXVIII and in a pillar of fireLXXXIX by night. 

Notes on verse 14c

LXXXVI “in front” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v5. See note XXX above.
LXXXVII “pillar” = ammud. Related to “stands” in v14. From amad (see note LXXXIV above). This is a pillar, stand, or platform.
LXXXVIII “by day” = yomam. From yom (day, age, daily, each, today). Root may mean to be hot. So, this is day as the hours that are hot. This can be daytime in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXIX “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.

15 Now if you killXC thisXCI people as one,XCII then the nations who have heardXCIII about you will say, 

Notes on verse 15

XC “kill” = mut. Same as “died” in v2. See note XIII above.
XCI {untranslated} = ish. Same as “one” in v4. See note XXVII above.
XCII “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XCIII {untranslated} = shema. Related to “hear” in v13. 18x in OT. From shama (see note LXXV above). This is something that is heart like a report, speech, fame, rumor, or fame.

16 ‘It is because the Lord was notXCIV ableXCV to bring this people into the land he sworeXCVI to give them that he has slaughteredXCVII them in the wilderness.’ 

Notes on verse 16

XCIV “because…not” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
XCV “was…able” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
XCVI “swore” = shaba. Perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness). This is to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant. Properly, it can mean to be complete. This is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times.
XCVII “slaughtered” = shachat. This is to slaughter, slay, or beat. It can be slaying for a sacrifice or in a massacre.

17 And now, therefore, let the powerXCVIII of the LordXCIX be greatC, CI in the way that you promised when you spoke,CII saying,

Notes on verse 17

XCVIII “power” = koach. Same as “might” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
XCIX “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
C “be great” = gadal. Related to “greater” in v12. See note LXXII above.
CI {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
CII “promised…spoke” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v2 & “pestilence” in v12. See note XVI above.

18 ‘The LordCIII is slowCIV to angerCV

Notes on verse 18a

CIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CIV “slow” = arek. 15x in OT. From arak (to be long in a literal or figurative sense, to continue, defer, draw out, endure, delay). This is long, patience, or slow.
CV “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.

and aboundingCVI in steadfast love,CVII
forgivingCVIII iniquityCIX and transgression,CX

Notes on verse 18b

CVI “abounding” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
CVII “steadfast love” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
CVIII “forgiving” = nasa. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.
CIX “iniquity” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CX “transgression” = pesha. From pasha (to rebel, offend, quarrel; making a break from proper authority so can also refer to an apostate). This is transgression, rebellion, or sin. It could be a revolt on a national scale or an individual moral one.

but by no means clearing the guilty,CXI
visitingCXII the iniquity of the parentsCXIII

Notes on verse 18c

CXI “clearing the guilty” = naqahnaqah. This is to be empty, cleanse, acquit, blameless, immune, innocent. It is to be clean or to make clean in a literal or figurative sense. It can also be bare in a negative sense, destroyed. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXII “visiting” = paqad. This is to attend to or visit – can be used for a friendly or violent encounter. So, it can be to oversee, care for, avenge, or charge.
CXIII “parents” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.

upon the childrenCXIV
to the thirdCXV and the fourthCXVI generation.’

Notes on verse 18d

CXIV “children” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note VII above.
CXV “third” = shillesh. 5x in OT. From the same as shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or relating to the third. Here, it refers to a great-grandchild.
CXVI “fourth” = ribbea. 4x in OT. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is fourth or related to the fourth. Here, it would be a great, great grandchild.

19 “ForgiveCXVII, CXVIII the iniquity of this people according to the greatnessCXIX of your steadfast love, just as you have pardonedCXX this people, from Egypt even until now.”CXXI

Notes on verse 19

CXVII “forgive” = salach. This is to pardon or spare.
CXVIII {untranslated} = na. Same as {untranslated} in v17. See note CI above.
CXIX “greatness” = godel. Related to “greater” in v12 & “be great” in v17. 13x in OT. From gadal (see note LXXII above). This greatness, arrogance, or magnitude. It can be used in a literal or a figurative sense.
CXX “pardoned” = nasa. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.
CXXI “now” = hennah. Perhaps from hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is here in a location or here in a time, i.e. now.

20 Then the LordCXXII said, “I do forgive,CXXIII just as you have asked;CXXIV 21 nevertheless, as I liveCXXV and as all the earthCXXVI shall be filledCXXVII with the glory of the Lord,CXXVIII 

Notes on verses 20-21

CXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CXXIII “forgive” = salach.  Same as “forgive” in v19. See note CXVII above.
CXXIV “asked” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v2 & “pestilence” in v12 & “promised…spoke” in v17. See note XVI above.
CXXV “live” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CXXVI “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v2. See note XIV above.
CXXVII “filled” = male. This is fill, satisfy, replenish, accomplish, fulfill, confirm, or consecrate. It is fill in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXVIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.

22 noneCXXIX of the peopleCXXX who have seen my glory and the signs that I did in Egypt and in the wilderness and yet have testedCXXXI me these tenCXXXII timesCXXXIII and have not obeyedCXXXIV my voiceCXXXV 

Notes on verse 22

CXXIX {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note I above.
CXXX “people” = enosh. Related to “wives” in v3 & “one” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXXXI “tested” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
CXXXII “ten” = eser. Perhaps from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is ten or -teen. While 7 is symbolically the number of perfection, ten is also symbolically a number of perfection (but to a lesser degree than 7 is).
CXXXIII “time” = paam. From paam (to move, trouble; to tap in a regular rhythm; to agitate). This is a beat, stroke, footstep, or occurrence.
CXXXIV “obeyed” = shama. Same as “hear” in v13. See note LXXV above.
CXXXV “voice” = qol. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.

23 shall see the land that I swore to give to their ancestors;CXXXVI none of those who despised me shall see it. 24 But my servantCXXXVII Caleb, becauseCXXXVIII

Notes on verses 23-24a

CXXXVI “ancestors” = ab. Same as “parents” in v18. See note CXIII above.
CXXXVII “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CXXXVIII “because” = eqeb. 15x in OT. Perhaps from aqab (to assail, supplant, overreach, follow or grab someone’s heel, to trip someone up); perhaps from aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is a heel as the final part of something i.e. the result, consequence, or reward. It can also be used as an adverb to mean as ever.

he hasCXXXIX a differentCXL spiritCXLI and has followed me wholeheartedly,CXLII

Notes on verse 24b

CXXXIX “has” = hayah. Same as “become” in v3. See note XXIII above.
CXL “different” = acher. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is following, next, strange, other.
CXLI “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
CXLII “followed…wholeheartedly” = male + achar. Male is the same as “filled” in v21. See note CXXVII above. Achar is related to “different” in v24. From achar (see note CXL above). This is after or the last part, following.

I will bring into the land into which he went,CXLIII and his descendantsCXLIV shall possessCXLV it. 

Notes on verse 24c

CXLIII “went” = bo. Same as “bringing” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CXLIV “descendants” = zera. From zara (to sow or scatter seed; conceive or yield). This is seed or sowing. It can, thus, mean a fruit, plant, sowing time, child, offspring, or posterity.
CXLV “possess” = yarash. Same as “disinherit” in v12. See note LXIX above.

25 Now, since the AmalekitesCXLVI and the CanaanitesCXLVII liveCXLVIII in the valleys,CXLIX

Notes on verse 25a

CXLVI “Amalekites” = Amaleqi. 12x in OT. From Amaleq (Amalek or Amalekites;  the person and their descendants); perhaps from amal (to work – hard labor) OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} + laqaq (to lap, lick) OR from am (see above) + malaq (to wring, nip; to remove a bird’s head). This is Amalekite, perhaps meaning “people that wring,” “people that lap,” “nippers,” or “lickers.” See &
CXLVII “Canaanites” = Knaaniy. From Kanaan (Canaan, his descendants, and the land where they settled; perhaps meaning lowlands, describing their land or subjugated in reference to being conquered by Egypt); from kana (to be humble, subdue; properly, bend the knee). This is Canaanite, which in some instances would imply a peddler or sometimes used in place of Ishmaelite. See
CXLVIII “live” = yashab. Same as “inhabitants” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CXLIX “valleys” = emeq. From amoq (to be deep in a literal or figurative sense; profound). This is Vale or valley – frequently part of place names.

turnCL tomorrowCLI and set outCLII for the wilderness

Notes on verse 25b

CL “turn” = panah. Related to “faces” in v5 & “Jephunneh” in v6. See note XXX above.
CLI “tomorrow” = machar. Related to “different” and “followed…wholeheartedly” in v24. Perhaps from achar (see note CXL above). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.
CLII “set out” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.

by the wayCLIII to the RedCLIV Sea.”CLV

Notes on verse 25c

CLIII “way” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
CLIV “Red” = suph. Perhaps from Egyptian twfi (reeds). This is reeds or rushes. It can be used particularly to refer to papyrus, or a flag. See
CLV “Sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

26 And the LordCLVI spoke to Moses and to Aaron, saying, 27 “How longCLVII shall this wickedCLVIII congregation complain against me? I have heard the complaintsCLIX of the Israelites, which they complain against me. 

Notes on verses 26-27

CLVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLVII “long” = mathay. It may come from a word that means to extend. It is a length of time, but it appears in the Bible as an adverb. So, it is when or how long.
CLVIII “wicked” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CLIX “complaints” = tlunah. Related to “complained” in v2. 9x in OT. From lun (see note VIII above). This is murmuring or grumbling.

28 Say to them, ‘As I live,’CLX saysCLXI the Lord,CLXII ‘I will do to you the veryCLXIII things I heard you say:CLXIV 

Notes on verse 28

CLX “live” = chay. Same as “live” in v21. See note CXXV above.
CLXI “says” = neum. From na’am (to speak a prophecy; properly, to whisper, which implies saying an oracle). This is an utterance or speaking an oracle.
CLXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXIII “very” = ken. Related to “only” in v9. Perhaps from kun (see note L above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CLXIV “heard you say” = dabar + ozen. Dabar is the same as “promised…spoke” in v17. See note CII above. Ozen is ear, hearing, audience, show. Properly, it is broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape.

29 your dead bodiesCLXV shall fall in this very wilderness, and of all your numberCLXVI, CLXVII included in the censusCLXVIII

Notes on verse 29a

CLXV “dead bodies” = peger. From pagar (to be exhausted, relax). This is a carcass or remains, whether a person or animal. Figuratively, it can also refer to an idol.
CLXVI “number” = paqad. Same as “visiting” in v18. See note CXII above.
CLXVII {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note I above.
CLXVIII “census” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.

from twentyCLXIX yearsCLXX oldCLXXI and upCLXXII who have complained against me, 

Notes on verse 29b

CLXIX “twenty” = esrim. Related to “ten” in v22. From the same as eser (see note CXXXII above). This is twenty or twentieth.
CLXX “years” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
CLXXI “old” = ben. Same as “Israelites” in v2. See note VII above.
CLXXII “up” = maal. Related to “brought up” in v13. From alah (see note LXXVII above). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.

30 not one of you shall comeCLXXIII into the land in which I sworeCLXXIV to settleCLXXV you, except Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun. 

Notes on verse 30

CLXXIII “come” = bo. Same as “bringing” in v3. See note XVIII above.
CLXXIV “swore” = nasa + et + yad. Literally, “I lifted up my hand.” Nasa is the same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above. Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CLXXV “settle” = shakan. This is to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently. It can mean abide or continue. “Mishkan,” taken from this verb, is the Hebrew word for the Tabernacle (as a place where God abided).

31 But your little ones, who you said would become plunder, I will bring in, and they shall knowCLXXVI the land that you have despised.CLXXVII 32 But as for you, your dead bodies shall fall in this wilderness. 33 And your children shall be shepherdsCLXXVIII in the wilderness for fortyCLXXIX years and shall sufferCLXXX for your faithlessness,CLXXXI until the last of your dead bodies liesCLXXXII in the wilderness. 

Notes on verses 31-33

CLXXVI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
CLXXVII “despised” = maas. This is to reject, refuse, despise. It can also be to disappear or melt away.
CLXXVIII “shepherds” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
CLXXIX “forty” = arbaim. Related to “fourth” in v18. From the same as arba (see note CXVI above). This is forty.
CLXXX “suffer” = nasa. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.
CLXXXI “faithlessness” = zenuth. 9x in OT. From zanah (being or playing a prostitute; figuratively, fornicating). This is prostitution, infidelity, or idolatry.
CLXXXII “last…lies” = tamam. This is to finish or accomplish. It is to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright, consume or cease. It is to complete in a literal or figurative sense, positive or negative.

34 According to the numberCLXXXIII of the daysCLXXXIV in which you spied out the land, forty days, for every day a year, you shall bearCLXXXV your iniquity, forty years, and you shall know my displeasure.’CLXXXVI 35 I the LordCLXXXVII have spoken; surely I will do thus to all this wicked congregation gathered togetherCLXXXVIII against me: in this wilderness they shall come to a full end,CLXXXIX and there they shall die.”

Notes on verses 34-35

CLXXXIII “number” = mispar. Same as “census” in v29. See note CLXVIII above.
CLXXXIV “days” = yom. Related to “by day” in v14. See note LXXXVIII above.
CLXXXV “bear” = nasa. Same as “raised a loud cry” in v1. See note III above.
CLXXXVI “displeasure” = tenuah. 2x in OT. From nu (to hinder, discourage, refuse, break, or disallow). This is alienation, breach of promise, displeasure, or enmity.
CLXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CLXXXVIII “gathered together” = yaad. Related to “congregation” in v1 & “meeting” in v10. See note II above.
CLXXXIX “come to a full end” = tamam. Same as “last…lies” in v33. See note CLXXXII above.

36 And the menCXC whom Moses sentCXCI to spy out the land who returnedCXCII and made all the congregation complain against him by bringingCXCIII a bad reportCXCIV about the land, 

Notes on verse 36

CXC “men” = ish. Same as “one” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CXCI “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
CXCII “returned” = shub. Same as “go back” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXCIII “bringing” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCIV “bad report” = dibbah. 9x in OT. From dabab (to glide, flow gently, move slowly, speak). This is flowing so it can mean whispering, bad report, slander, or infamy.

37 the menCXCV who broughtCXCVI an unfavorableCXCVII report about the land died by a plagueCXCVIII beforeCXCIX the Lord.CC 

Notes on verse 37

CXCV “men” = enosh. Same as “people” in v22. See note CXXX above.
CXCVI “brought” = yatsa. Same as “bringing” in v36. See note CXCIII above.
CXCVII “unfavorable” = ra’. Same as “wicked” in v27. See note CLVIII above.
CXCVIII “plague” = maggephah. From nagaph (to strike, beat, hurt, stumble, defeat, inflict disease). This is a blow, calamity, plague, or defeat.
CXCIX “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v5. See note XXX above.
CC “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” and “become” in v3 & “Joshua” in v6. From YHVH (see note XVII above). It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as “Lord.”

38 But Joshua son of Nun and Caleb son of Jephunneh alone remained alive,CCI of those menCCII who wentCCIII to spy out the land.

39 When Moses toldCCIV these wordsCCV to all the Israelites,

Notes on verses 38-39a

CCI “remained alive” = chayah. Related to “live” in v21. See note CXXV above.
CCII “men” = ish. Same as “one” in v4. See note XXVII above.
CCIII “went” = halak. Same as “go” in v14. See note LXXXV above.
CCIV “told” = dabar. Same as “promised…spoke” in v17. See note CII above.
CCV “words” = dabar. Same as “asked” in v20. See note CXXIV above.

the peopleCCVI mournedCCVII greatly.CCVIII 40 They rose earlyCCIX in the morningCCX and went upCCXI

Notes on verses 39b-40a

CCVI “people” = am. Same as “people” in v1. See note IV above.
CCVII “mourned” = abal. This is to mourn  or lament.
CCVIII “greatly” = meod. Same as “exceedingly” in v7. See note XLIII above. Perhaps from the same as uwd (see note XLIII above). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CCIX “rose early” = shakam. This is leaning one’s shoulder into a burden or load, whether a person or an animal. Thus, it meant starting or rising early.
CCX “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
CCXI “went up” = alah. Same as “brought up” in v13. See note LXXVII above.

to the heightsCCXII of the hill country,CCXIII saying, “HereCCXIV we are. We will go up to the placeCCXV that the LordCCXVI has promised, for we have sinned.”CCXVII 

Notes on verse 40b

CCXII “heights” = rosh. Same as “captain” in v4. See note XXIX above.
CCXIII “hill country” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CCXIV “here” = hen. Related to “now” in v19. See note CXXI above.
CCXV “place” = maqom. From qum(to arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide; rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action; standing in a figurative sense). This is a standing, which is to say a spot or space a place. It can also refer to a locality or a physical/mental condition. HaMaqom is also a Jewish name for God – the place, i.e. the Omnipresent One.
CCXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXVII “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.

41 But Moses said, “Why do you continue to transgressCCXVIII the commandCCXIX of the Lord?CCXX That will not succeed.CCXXI 

Notes on verse 41

CCXVIII “continue to transgress” = abar. Same as “went through” in v7. See note XLI above.
CCXIX “command” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.
CCXX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXXI “succeed” = tsalach. This is pushing forward in a literal or figurative sense. So it could be to break out, to come mightily, to rush, to go over. Figuratively, it could mean to prosper.

42 Do not go up, for the LordCCXXII is notCCXXIII withCCXXIV you; do not let yourselves be struck downCCXXV beforeCCXXVI your enemies.CCXXVII 

Notes on verse 42

CCXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXXIII “not” = ayin. Perhaps from a word that means to be nothing. This means nothing, none, non-existent. It can also simply mean not or are not.
CCXXIV “with” = qereb. Same as “among” in v11. See note LXVI above.
CCXXV “struck down” = nagaph. Related to “plague” in v37. See note CXCVIII above.
CCXXVI “before” = paneh. Same as “faces” in v5. See note XXX above.
CCXXVII “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

43 For the Amalekites and the Canaanites will confront you there,CCXXVIII and you shall fall by the sword; becauseCCXXIX you have turned backCCXXX from followingCCXXXI the Lord,CCXXXII the LordCCXXXIII will not be with you.” 

Notes on verse 43

CCXXVIII {untranslated} = paneh. Same as “faces” in v5. See note XXX above.
CCXXIX {untranslated} = ken. Same as “very” in v28. See note CLXIII above.
CCXXX “turned back” = shub. Same as “go back” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CCXXXI “following” = achar. Same as “followed…wholeheartedly” in v24. See note CXLII above.
CCXXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.
CCXXXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.

44 But they presumedCCXXXIV to go up to the heights of the hill country, even though the arkCCXXXV of the covenantCCXXXVI of the LordCCXXXVII 

Notes on verse 44a

CCXXXIV “presumed” = aphal. 2x in OT. This is to swell, lift up, presume, be elated.
CCXXXV “ark” = aron. Perhaps from arah (to gather or pluck). This is a chest, box, or coffin. It is used for the Ark of the Covenant.
CCXXXVI “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
CCXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v3. See note XVII above.

and Moses had not leftCCXXXVIII, CCXXXIX the camp.CCXL 

Notes on verse 44b

CCXXXVIII “left” = mush. Perhaps from the same as muwsh (to touch, handle). This is to depart, take away, stop. It is to withdraw in a literal or figurative sense.
CCXXXIX {untranslated} = qereb. Same as “among” in v11. See note LXVI above.
CCXL “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.

45 Then the Amalekites and the Canaanites who livedCCXLI in that hill country came downCCXLII and defeatedCCXLIII them, pursuingCCXLIV them as far as Hormah.CCXLV

Notes on verse 45

CCXLI “lived” = yashab. Same as “inhabitants” in v14. See note LXXVIII above.
CCXLII “came down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
CCXLIII “defeated” = nakah. Same as “strike” in v12. See note LXVII above.
CCXLIV “pursuing” = kathath. 17x in OT. This is to crush into pieces, to beat with a hammer, smash, bruise.
CCXLV “Hormah” = Chormah. 9x in OT. From charam (to ban, destroy, devote, seclude; to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction). This is Hormah or Chormah, meaning “asylum” or “devoted” or “dedicated” or “devoted to destruction” or “anathema.” See

Image credit: “The Exodus (Path to Freedom)” by Curtis and Pip Reid of Bible Pathway Adventures.

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