Numbers 15

Numbers 15


The LordI spokeII to Moses,III saying, 

Notes on verse 1

I “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
II “spoke” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
III “Moses” = Mosheh. From mashah (to pull out in a literal or figurative sense, to draw out) OR from Egyptian mes or mesu (child, son i.e. child of…). This is Moses – the one drawn out from the water, which is to say, rescued. If derived from the Egyptian, his name would share a root with Rameses and Thutmose.

“Speak to the IsraelitesIV and say to them: When you comeV into the landVI

Notes on verse 2a

IV “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
V “come” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
VI “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

you are to inhabit,VII which I am givingVIII you, and you makeIX an offering by fireX to the Lord 

Notes on verses 2b-3a

VII “inhabit” = moshab. From yashab (to sit and so to remain and so to dwell; sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly; can mean settling or marrying; continue, endure, or establish). This is dwelling, seat, assembly, settlement, population.
VIII “giving” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
IX “make” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
X “offering by fire” = ishsheh. From eshshah (a fire); from esh (fire, burning, flaming, hot; fire in a literal or figurative sense). This is an offering by fire or a burnt offering. More broadly, it can refer to any kind of sacrifice.

from the herdXI or from the flockXII—whether a burnt offeringXIII or a sacrifice,XIV to fulfillXV a vowXVI

Notes on verse 3b

XI “herd” = baqar. From baqar (to plow, break forth; figuratively, to inquire, inspect, consider). This is cattle – an animal used for plowing.
XII “flock” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
XIII “burnt offering” = olah. From alah (to go up, climb, approach, bring; to be high or actively climb; can be literal or figurative). This is a step, stairs, or some kind of ascent. It is also used for whole burnt offerings, being the offering in which the whole things is burned and rises as smoke. Burnt offerings were the least common of the offerings: most were eaten, shared with the priest and the one bringing the offering.
XIV “sacrifice” = zebach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is a slaughter – literally of an animal. So, it implies the act or the animals used in sacrifice. Further, it can mean offering.
XV “fulfill” = pala. From pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing). This is to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish.
XVI “vow” = neder. From nadar (to vow or promise). This is a vow – literally, that which was promised.

or as a freewill offeringXVII or at your appointed festivalsXVIII—to make a pleasingXIX odorXX for the Lord, 

Notes on verse 3c

XVII “freewill offering” = nedabah. From nadab (to offer willingly, volunteer, freely give, be willing). This is a freewill offering, something giving spontaneously.
XVIII “appointed festivals” = moed. From yaad (to appoint, assemble or gather selves, agree). This is a meeting, assembly, fixed time. It can be used for a festival or feast. It can also refer to a meeting place.
XIX “pleasing” = nichoach. From nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is soothing, restful, sweet, pleasant.
XX “odor” = reyach. From ruach (to blow, breath; smell, anticipate; figuratively, to perceive, understand). This is a scent or breath – a savor, ointment. It is also used for the odor of sacrifices that pleases God.

then whoever presentsXXI such an offeringXXII to the Lord shall present also a grain offering,XXIII one-tenthXXIV of an ephah of choice flour,XXV

Notes on verse 4a

XXI “presents” = qarab. This is to come near, offer, make ready, approach, take.
XXII “offering” = qorban. Related to “presents” in v4. From qarab (see note XXI above). This is an oblation or offering, which is to say, a sacrifice.
XXIII “grain offering” = minchah. This is a gift or an offering, particularly a sacrificial one that is generally bloodless and given spontaneously (voluntarily).
XXIV “one-tenth” = issaron. From the same as eser (ten, -teen); from asar (to tithe, render a tenth of). This is a tenth.
XXV “choice flour” = soleth. It may come from a word that means to strip. This is fine flour.

mixedXXVI with one-fourthXXVII of a hinXXVIII of oil.XXIX 

Notes on verse 4b

XXVI “mixed” = balal. This is to anoint, mix, overflow. It can also be to fodder or temper.
XXVII “one-fourth” = rebii. From the same as arba (four); perhaps from raba (to make something square). This is fourth or square-shaped.
XXVIII “hin” = hin. From Egyptian hwn (jar, unit of measurement for liquid; around .48 liters). This is hin, a unit of measurement used for liquids. See
XXIX “oil” = shemen. From shamen (to shine, which implies being oily, growing fat). This is fat, oil, grease, olive oil – often with perfume. Used figuratively for fertile, lavish, rich.

Moreover, you shall offerXXX one-fourth of a hin of wineXXXI as a drink offeringXXXII with the burnt offering or the sacrifice, for eachXXXIII lamb.XXXIV 

Notes on verse 5

XXX “offer” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
XXXI “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.
XXXII “drink offering” = nesek. From nasak (to pour out or melt; used especially for libations or for the process of making cast metal; can also be used figuratively for anointing a king). This is a drink offering or a molten image.
XXXIII “each” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XXXIV “lamb” = kebes. Root may mean to dominate. This is a young male sheep – having just reached the age where it can butt other sheep.

For a ram,XXXV you shall offer a grain offering, twoXXXVI-tenthsXXXVII of an ephah of choice flour mixed with one-thirdXXXVIII of a hin of oil, and as a drink offering you shall offerXXXIX one-third of a hin of wine, a pleasing odor to the Lord. 

Notes on verses 6-7

XXXV “ram” = ayil. From the same as ul (mighty, strength, body, belly; root may mean to twist and that implies strength and power). This is strength so it is used to indicate things that are strong or powerful: political chiefs, rams, posts, trees, oaks.
XXXVI “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.
XXXVII “tenths” = issaron. Same as “one-tenth” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XXXVIII “one-third” = shelishi. From shalosh (three, fork, triad). This is third or one-third of something.
XXXIX “offer” = qarab. Same as “presents” in v4. See note XXI above.

When you offerXL a bullXLI as a burnt offering or a sacrifice, to fulfill a vow or as an offering of well-beingXLII to the Lord, then you shall present with the bull a grain offering, threeXLIII-tenths of an ephah of choice flour, mixed with halfXLIV a hin of oil, 10 and you shall present as a drink offering half a hin of wine, as an offering by fire, a pleasing odor to the Lord.

Notes on verses 8-10

XL “offer” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
XLI “bull” = ben + baqar. Literally, “child of the herd.” Ben is the same as “Israelites” in v2. See note IV above. Baqar is the same as “herd” in v3. See note XI above.
XLII “offering of well-being” = shelem. From shalam (to make amends, finish, be safe, be friendly, to be complete or sound). This is a peace offering or a sacrifice of well-being. It was a voluntary offering given when one celebrated thanksgiving, alliance, or friendship.
XLIII “three” = shalosh. Related to “third” in v6. See note XXXVIII above.
XLIV “half” = chatsi. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half, middle, midnight, midst.

11 “ThusXLV it shall be doneXLVI for each oxXLVII or ram or for each of the male lambsXLVIII or the kids.XLIX 

Notes on verse 11

XLV “thus” = kakah. From koh (like this, thus, here, now) + ki (that, for when, certainly) + hu (he, she, it). This is even so, like this, thus
XLVI “done” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
XLVII “ox” = shor. Perhaps from shur (to travel, turn, journey; travelling like a prostitute or a merchant). This is bull, ox, head of cattle, cow.
XLVIII “male lambs” = seh + kebes. Seh is perhaps from sha’ah (to make a loud noise or crash, devastate, rush). This is a lamb, sheep, or goat – a part of a flock. Kebes is the same as “lamb” in v5. See note XXXIV above.
XLIX “kids” = ez. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is a female goat, but can refer to male goats when plural.

12 According to the numberL that you offer,LI soLII you shall do with each and every one.LIII 

Notes on verse 12

L “number” = mispar. From the same as sepher (writing itself or something that is written like a document, book, letter, evidence, bill, scroll, or register); from saphar (to tally or record something; to enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare). This is a number, whether definite or symbolic – could be innumerable, few, abundance. It can also be a tally or account – or a narration.
LI “offer” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
LII “so” = kakah. Same as “thus” in v11. See note XLV above.
LIII “each and every one” = echad + mispar. Literally, “for one according to their number.” Echad is the same as “each” in v5. See note XXXIII above. Mispar is the same as “number” in v12. See note L above.

13 EveryLIV nativeLV Israelite shall do these things in this way,LVI in presenting an offering by fire, a pleasing odor to the Lord. 14 An alienLVII who livesLVIII with you

Notes on verses 13-14a

LIV “every” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LV “native” = ezrach. 17x in OT. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is native or native-born. It can also refer to spontaneous growth, a bay tree.
LVI “in this way” = kakah. Same as “thus” in v11. See note XLV above.
LVII “alien” = ger. Related to “lives” in v14. From gur (see note LVIII below). This is sojourner, guest, stranger, foreigner.
LVIII “lives” = gur. Properly, this is the act of turning off the road for any reason. So, it means sojourning, becoming a guest. It can mean being fearful since one is outside of home territory. It can also mean dwelling, living, or inhabiting if one has turned off the root to encamp for a longer duration. This word is where the Hebrew “ger” comes from, which is the word translated “stranger” or “resident alien.”

or who takes up permanent residenceLIX amongLX you and wishes to offerLXI an offering by fire, a pleasing odor to the Lord, shall do asLXII you do. 

Notes on verse 14b

LIX “takes up permanent residence” = dor. Literally, “among you throughout your generations.” From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.
LX “among” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
LXI “offer” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
LXII “as” = ken. From the same as ken (to set upright; generally used figuratively for thus, so, afterwards, rightly so); perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is a stand, place, right, honest, office.

15 As for the assembly,LXIII there shall be for both you and the residentLXIV alien a singleLXV statute,LXVI

Notes on verse 15a

LXIII “assembly” = qahal. This is an assembly, congregation, or multitude.
LXIV “resident” = gur. Same as “lives” in v14. See note LVIII above.
LXV “single” = echad. Same as “each” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
LXVI “statute” = chuqqah. From choq (statute, boundary, condition, custom, limit, ordinance; something that is prescribed or something that is owed); from chaqaq (to inscribe, carve, or decree; a lawmaker; literally, this is engraving, but it implies enacting a law because laws were carved into stone or metal). This is something prescribed such as a statue, custom, or ordinance.

a perpetualLXVII statute throughout your generations;LXVIII you and the alien shall beLXIX alike beforeLXX the Lord. 

Notes on verse 15b

LXVII “perpetual” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
LXVIII “generations” = dor. Same as “take up permanent residence” in v14. See note LIX above.
LXIX “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
LXX “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

16 You and the alien who residesLXXI with you shall haveLXXII the sameLXXIII lawLXXIV and the same ordinance.”LXXV

Notes on verse 16

LXXI “resides” = gur. Same as “lives” in v14. See note LVIII above.
LXXII “have” = hayah. Same as “be” in v15. See note LXIX above.
LXXIII “same” = echad. Same as “each” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
LXXIV “law” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.
LXXV “ordinance” = mishpat. From shaphat (to judge, defend, pronounce judgment, condemn, govern). This is a verdict or formal sentence whether from humans or from God. It includes the act of judging as well as the place that judging takes place, the suit itself, and the penalty. Abstractly, this is justice, which includes the rights of the participants.

17 The Lord spoke to Moses, saying, 18 “Speak to the Israelites and say to them: After you come into the land to which I am bringingLXXVI you, 19 LXXVIIwhenever you eatLXXVIII of the breadLXXIX of the land you shall presentLXXX a donationLXXXI to the Lord. 

Notes on verses 17-19

LXXVI “bringing” = bo. Same as “come” in v2. See note V above.
LXXVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “be” in v15. See note LXIX above.
LXXVIII “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXIX “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
LXXX “present” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
LXXXI “donation” = terumah. Related to “present” in v19. From rum (see note LXXX above). This is offering, gift – a sacred offering. It could also be a tribute or a bribe.

20 From your firstLXXXII batch of doughLXXXIII you shall presentLXXXIV

Notes on verse 20a

LXXXII “first” = reshith. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
LXXXIII “batch of dough” = arisah. 4x in OT. It may come from a word that means to pulverize. This is coarse meal or dough.
LXXXIV “present” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note LXXX above.

a loafLXXXV as a donation; you shall presentLXXXVI it just as you present a donation from the threshing floor.LXXXVII 21 Throughout your generations you shall give to the Lord a donation from the first of your batch of dough.

Notes on verses 20b-21

LXXXV “loaf” = challah. 14x in OT. From chalal (to pierce, which implies to wound; used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word; to begin as though one opened a wedge; to eat something as a common thing). This is a cake offered up in the Tabernacle/Temple.
LXXXVI “present” = rum. Same as “present” in v19. See note LXXX above.
LXXXVII “threshing floor” = goren. Root may mean to smooth. It is a threshing floor, barn, or open areas more generally.

22 “But if you unintentionallyLXXXVIII fail to observeLXXXIX allXC these commandmentsXCI that the Lord has spoken to Moses— 

Notes on verse 22

LXXXVIII “unintentionally” = shagah. This is to mislead, stray, wander, deceive. It is to sin from ignorance, to make a mistake. It can also mean being enraptured.
LXXXIX “observe” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
XC “all” = kol. Same as “every” in v13. See note LIV above.
XCI “commandments” = mitsvah. From tsavah (to charge, command, order, enjoin). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.

23 everythingXCII that the Lord has commandedXCIII you byXCIV Moses, from the dayXCV the Lord gave commandmentXCVI and thereafter, throughout your generations— 

Notes on verse 23

XCII “everything” = kol. Same as “every” in v13. See note LIV above.
XCIII “commanded” = tsavah. Related to “commandments” in v22. See note XCI above.
XCIV {untranslated} = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
XCV “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XCVI “gave commandment” = tsavah. Same as “commanded” in v23. See note XCIII above.

24 thenXCVII if it was done unintentionallyXCVIII without the knowledgeXCIX of the congregation,C the wholeCI congregation shall offerCII

Notes on verse 24a

XCVII {untranslated} = hayah. Same as “be” in v15. See note LXIX above.
XCVIII “unintentionally” = shegagah. 19x in OT. From shagag (to go astray, sin, be deceived; to sin through ignorance). This is an inadvertent sin or a sin that came from an error/mistake.
XCIX “knowledge” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
C “congregation” = edah. Related to “appointed festivals” in v3. From yaad (see note XVIII above) OR from ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is a congregation, assembly, or company. It could be a family, crowd, or fixture.
CI “whole” = kol. Same as “every” in v13. See note LIV above.
CII “offer” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.

oneCIII youngCIV bullCV for a burnt offering, a pleasing odor to the Lord, together with its grain offering and its drink offering, according to the ordinance, and one male goatCVI for a purification offering.CVII 

Notes on verse 24b

CIII “one” = echad. Same as “each” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CIV “young” = ben + baqar. Literally, “child of the herd.” Ben is the same as “Israelites” in v2. See note IV above. Baqar is the same as “herd” in v3. See note XI above.
CV “bull” = par. Perhaps related to parar (to break, defeat, frustrate, caste off, clean, cease). This is a young bull or ox.
CVI “male goat” = sa’iyr + ez. Sa’iyr is from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, fear, storm tossed; to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is hairy, rough, male goat, shaggy. It could also refer to a devil. Ez is the same as “kids” in v11. See note XLIX above.
CVII “purification offering” = chatta’ah. From chata’ (to miss or go wrong and so to sin, bear the blame; it can also include the sense of forfeiting or lacking). This is sin itself as well as punishment for sin. It is sometimes used specifically to refer to sin that is habitual.

25 The priestCVIII shall make atonementCIX for all the congregation of the Israelites, and they shall be forgiven;CX it was unintentional, and they have brought their offering, an offering by fire to the Lord, and their purification offering beforeCXI the Lord, for their error.CXII 26 All the congregation of the Israelites shall be forgiven, as well as the aliens residing amongCXIII you, because the whole peopleCXIV was involved in the error.

Notes on verses 25-26

CVIII “priest” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CIX “make atonement” = kaphar. This is to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, make atonement, placate. Specifically, it can mean to cover with bitumen.
CX “forgiven” = salach. This is to pardon or spare.
CXI “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v15. See note LXX above.
CXII “error” = shegagah. Same as “unintentionally” in v24. See note XCVIII above.
CXIII “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v14. See note LX above.
CXIV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.

27 “AnCXV individualCXVI who sinsCXVII unintentionally shall presentCXVIII a female goatCXIX a yearCXX oldCXXI for a purification offering. 

Notes on verse 27

CXV “an” = echad. Same as “each” in v5. See note XXXIII above.
CXVI “individual” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
CXVII “sins” = chata. Related to “purification offering” in v24. See note CVII above.
CXVIII “present” = qarab. Same as “presents” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXIX “female goat” = ez. Same as “kids” in v11. See note XLIX above.
CXX “year” = shanah. From shana (to change, alter). This is a year, age, old. It can also mean yearly.
CXXI “old” = bat. Related to “Israelites” in v2. From ben (see note IV above). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.

28 And the priest shall make atonement beforeCXXII the Lord for the oneCXXIII who commits an error,CXXIV when it isCXXV unintentional,CXXVI to make atonement for the person, who then shall be forgiven. 

Notes on verse 28

CXXII “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v15. See note LXX above.
CXXIII “one” = nephesh. Same as “individual” in v27. See note CXVI above.
CXXIV “commits an error” = shegagah. Same as “unintentionally” in v24. See note XCVIII above.
CXXV “is” = chata. Same as “sins” in v27. See note CXVII above.
CXXVI “unintentional” = shagag. Related to “unintentionally” in v24. 4x in NT. See note XCVIII above.

29 For both the native amongCXXVII the Israelites and the alien residing among you, you shall have the same law for anyone who actsCXXVIII in error. 30 But whoeverCXXIX acts high-handedly,CXXX whether native-bornCXXXI or an alien,

Notes on verses 29-30a

CXXVII “among” = tavek. Same as “among” in v14. See note LX above.
CXXVIII “facts” = asah. Same as “make” in v3. See note IX above.
CXXIX “whoever” = nephesh. Same as “individual” in v27. See note CXVI above.
CXXX “high-handedly” = yad + ramah. Yad is the same as {untranslated} in v23. See note XCIV above. Ramah is 13x in OT. This is to hurl, shoot, carry, or throw. Figuratively, it is to beguile, delude or betray. It can also refer to an archer.
CXXXI “native-born” = ezrach. Same as “native” in v13. See note LV above.

affrontsCXXXII the Lord and shall be cut offCXXXIII, CXXXIV from amongCXXXV the people. 

Notes on verse 30b

CXXXII “affronts” = gadaph. 7x in OT. This is to revile, reproach, use harsh words, blaspheme.
CXXXIII “cut off” = karat. This is to cut down, cut off, or make a covenant (idiom for making a covenant is “to cut a covenant”). It can also mean to destroy, fail, or consume.
CXXXIV {untranslated} = nephesh. Same as “individual” in v27. See note CXVI above.
CXXXV “among” = qereb. Related to “presents” and “offering” in v4. Perhaps from qarab (see note XXI above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.

31 Because of having despisedCXXXVI the wordCXXXVII of the Lord and brokenCXXXVIII his commandment,

Notes on verse 31a

CXXXVI “despised” = bazah. This is to despise, hold in contempt, disesteem, or a person who is vile.
CXXXVII “word” = dabar. Related to “spoke” in v1. From dabar (see note II above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CXXXVIII “broken” = parar. Related to “bull” in v24. See note CV above.

such a personCXXXIX shall be utterly cut offCXL and bear the guilt.”CXLI

Notes on verse 31b

CXXXIX “person” = nephesh. Same as “individual” in v27. See note CXVI above.
CXL “utterly cut off” = karat + karat. Same as “cut off” in v30. See note CXXXIII above. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXLI “guilt” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.

32 When the Israelites were in the wilderness,CXLII they foundCXLIII a manCXLIV

Notes on verse 32a

CXLII “wilderness” = midbar. Related to “spoke” in v1 & “word” in v31. From dabar (see note II above). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
CXLIII “found” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
CXLIV “man” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

gatheringCXLV sticksCXLVI on the SabbathCXLVII day. 33 Those who found him gathering sticks broughtCXLVIII him to Moses, Aaron,CXLIX and the whole congregation. 

Notes on verses 32b-33

CXLV “gathering” = qashash. 8x in OT. This is to gather or forage, generally either sticks or straw.
CXLVI “sticks” = ets. Perhaps from atsah (to shut, fasten, firm up, to close one’s eyes). This is tree or other things related to trees like wood, sticks, or stalks. It can also refer to wood products like a plank or staff or gallows. Additionally, this can refer to a carpenter.
CXLVII “Sabbath” = shabbath. From shabath (to rest, stop, repose, cease working; by implication, to celebrate). This is sabbath, literally meaning rest or intermission.
CXLVIII “brought” = qarab. Same as “presents” in v4. See note XXI above.
CXLIX “Aaron” = Aharon. Derivation uncertain. May mean “bearer of martyrs” OR be related to Ancient Egyptian ꜥḥꜣ rw (warrior lion) OR elevated, exalted, high mountain. This is Aaron. See

34 They putCL him in custodyCLI because it was not clearCLII what should be done to him. 35 Then the LordCLIII said to Moses, “The man shall be put to death;CLIV

Notes on verses 34-35a

CL “put” = yanach. Related to “pleasing” in v3. Perhaps from the same as nuach (see note XIX above). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
CLI “custody” = mishmar. From shamar (to keep, watch, or preserve; to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something). This is jail, guard, watch, guard post.
CLII “was…clear” = parash. 5x in OT. This is to make clear, sting like a snake, scatter, disperse. It can be literal or figurative.
CLIII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v1 & “be” in v15. It has a different vowel pointing, but the same meaning as “Lord.” See note I above.
CLIV “put to death” = mut + mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

all the congregation shall stoneCLV him outsideCLVI the camp.”CLVII 36 The whole congregation broughtCLVIII him outside the camp and stoned him to death, just as the LordCLIX had commanded Moses.

Notes on verses 35b-36

CLV “stone” = ragam + et + eben. Ragam is 16x in OT. It is to stone until someone dies. Eben is a stone, weight, or mason. It is part of the word “Ebenezer.”
CLVI “outside” = chuts. Root may mean to sever. So, this is something that is separated by a wall – the outside, the street, a field, highway, or abroad.
CLVII “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
CLVIII “brought” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CLIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

37 The LordCLX said to Moses, 38 “Speak to the Israelites, and tell them to make fringesCLXI on the cornersCLXII of their garmentsCLXIII throughout their generations

Notes on verses 37-38a

CLX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXI “fringes” = tsitsith. 4x in OT. Perhaps from tsiyts (is a blossom or flower. In the sense of glistening, it could also be a polished plate or the wing of a bird); from tsuts (to twinkle, shine, blossom; figuratively to flourish). This is a lock of hair, fringe.
CLXII “corners” = kanaph. This is wing, edge, corner, extremity. It can also be a flap or fold of a garment or the pinnacle of a building.
CLXIII “garments” = beged. From bagad (to cover or conceal; figuratively, to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage). This is clothing, garment, robe, or some other kind of clothing. Figuratively, it can be treachery or pillaging.

and to putCLXIV a blueCLXV cordCLXVI on the fringe at each corner. 

Notes on verse 38b

CLXIV “put” = natan. Same as “giving” in v2. See note VIII above.
CLXV “blue” = tekeleth. Perhaps from shechelet (something that is in incense; maybe onycha, a mussel); from the same as shachal (lion). This is violet or blue. It refers to a mussel that contains a dye or things dyed using that dye.
CLXVI “cord” = pathil. 11x in OT. From pathal (to twist, twine, wrestle, struggle, behave in an unsavory way). This is a cord, string, twine, lace, thread.

39 You have the fringe so that, when you seeCLXVII it, you will rememberCLXVIII all the commandments of the LordCLXIX and do them and not followCLXX

Notes on verse 39a

CLXVII “see” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
CLXVIII “remember” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CLXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXX “follow” = tur + achar. Tur is to seek out, explore, investigate. It is often used of trading or spying. Achar is from achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

the lustCLXXI, CLXXII of your own heartCLXXIII andCLXXIV your own eyes.CLXXV 

Notes on verse 39b

CLXXI “lust” = zanah. This is to fornicate, commit adultery, be a prostitute. Figuratively, it can mean committing idolatry.
CLXXII {untranslated} = achar. Same as “follow” in v39. See note CLXX above.
CLXXIII “heart” = lebab. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
CLXXIV {untranslated} = achar. Same as “follow” in v39. See note CLXX above.
CLXXV “eyes” = ayin. Same as “knowledge” in v24. See note XCIX above.

40 SoCLXXVI you shall remember and do all my commandments, and you shall be holyCLXXVII to your God.CLXXVIII 

Notes on verse 40

CLXXVI “so” = maan. From anah (to answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify; to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk; singing, shouting, testifying, etc.). This is because of, occurring because of a motive or purpose.
CLXXVII “holy” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).
CLXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israelites” in v2. See note IV above.

41 I am the LordCLXXIX your God who brought you outCLXXX of the land of EgyptCLXXXI to be your God: I am the LordCLXXXII your God.”

Notes on verse 41

CLXXIX “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXX “brought…out” = yatsa. Same as “brought” in v36. See note CLVIII above.
CLXXXI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
CLXXXII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v1. See note I above.

Image credit: “Hazbani” – river in northern Israel. Photo by Adiel Io, 2007.

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