Deuteronomy 3

Deuteronomy 3


“When we headed upI the roadII to Bashan,III

Notes on verse 1a

I “headed up” = panah + alah. Panah is to turn, regard, appear, look, prepare. Alah is to go up, approach, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense.
II “road” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
III “Bashan” = Bashan. Bashan is a place whose name may mean “smooth.”

KingIV OgV of Bashan came outVI againstVII us,

Notes on verse 1b

IV “King” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
V “Og” = Og. From the same as uggah (bread cake, round ash cake); from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is Og, a name perhaps meaning “round.”
VI “came out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
VII “against” = qirah. From the same as qara (to happen, meet, bring about). This is any kind of encounter, whether peaceful, hostile, or incidental. It can also mean help or seek.

he and allVIII his people,IX for battleX at Edrei.XI 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
IX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
X “battle” = milchamah. From lacham (to eat or feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction). This is battle, war, fighting, or one who fights (i.e. a warrior).
XI “Edrei” = Edrei. 8x in OT. Perhaps from Aramaic edra (arm, strength, power); from Aramaic dera (arm); akin to Hebrew zeroa (arm, shoulder, or foreleg of an animal; figuratively, power, force, might, or help); Perhaps from zara (to sow, scatter seed, conceive).  This is Edrei, meaning “mighty.”

The LordXII saidXIII to me, ‘Do not fearXIV him, for I have handedXV him over to you,

Notes on verse 2a

XII “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XIII “said” = amar. This is to speak, say, answer, command, promise, report.
XIV “fear” = yare. This is to fear, be afraid, dreadful. It can also refer to fearful reverence – to fear in a moral sense is to say to revere, respect.
XV “handed” = yad + natan. Literally, “into your hand I have delivered.” Yad is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it. Natan is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.

along withXVI his people and his land.XVII DoXVIII to him as you did to King SihonXIX

Notes on verse 2b

XVI {untranslated} = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note VIII above.
XVII “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
XVIII “do” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
XIX “Sihon” = Sichon. Perhaps from the same as suach (Suach, a name); from the same as suchah (something swept away, refuse). This is Sihon or Sichon, a name perhaps meaning “tempestuous.”

of the Amorites,XX who reignedXXI in Heshbon.’XXII

Notes on verse 2c

XX “Amorites” = Emori. Related to “said” in v2. From amar (see note XIII above). This is Amorite or Emori, perhaps meaning talkers.
XXI “reigned” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXII “Heshbon” = Cheshbon. From chashab (properly, to braid or interpenetrate; literally, to create or to wear; figuratively, plotting – generally in a negative sense; think, consider, or make account of). This is Heshbon or Cheshbon, meaning “library of synthetic wisdom” or “intelligence” or “reason.” See

So the Lord our GodXXIII alsoXXIV handed overXXV to us King Og of Bashan and all his people. We struck him downXXVI until not a singleXXVII survivorXXVIII was left.XXIX 

Notes on verse 3

XXIII “God” = Elohim.
XXIV “also” = gam. This is also, moreover, again.
XXV “handed over” = natanyad. Same as “handed” in v2. See note XV above.
XXVI “struck…down” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
XXVII “not a single” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
XXVIII “survivor” = sarid. From sarad (to escape or remain; properly, this refers to a puncture, so figuratively it is remaining or escaping by slipping out). This is survivor, remnant, or alive.
XXIX “was left” = shaar. Properly, this is swelling up i.e. being left over, a remnant, remaining, being redundant.

At that timeXXX we capturedXXXI all his towns;XXXII

Notes on verse 4a

XXX “time” = eth. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
XXXI “captured” = lakad. This is to capture, seize, or imprison. It is to catch something in a snare or net or trap. It can also mean to occupy of select something by casting lots.
XXXII “towns” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.

there wasXXXIII no citadelXXXIV that we did not takeXXXV from them: sixtyXXXVI towns,

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIII “was” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v2. See note XII above.
XXXIV “citadel” = qiryah. From qarah (to happen, meet, bring about). This is a place where there are buildings so it could be a fortress or a town.
XXXV “take” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XXXVI “sixty” = shishshim. From shesh (six; figuratively, a surplus since it is one more than the number of fingers on the hand). This is sixty.

the wholeXXXVII regionXXXVIII of Argob,XXXIX the kingdomXL of Og in Bashan. 

Notes on verse 4c

XXXVII “whole” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note VIII above.
XXXVIII “region” = chebel. From chabal (to bind, pledge, or wind tight; figuratively, can refer to perverting or destroying something; can also be used of writhing in pain, particularly in reference to childbirth). This is a band, rope, measuring line, noose. It can be a company, territory, or country. It can also refer to a throe of labor or ruin.
XXXIX “Argob” = Argob. 5x in OT. From the same as regeb (clump of dirt, clay; may be from a root that means pile together). This is Argob, meaning “stony.”
XL “kingdom” = mamlakah. Related to “King” in v1. From the same as melek (see note IV above). This is kingdom, dominion, sovereignty, rule. It can also refer to the realm.

All these were fortressXLI towns with highXLII walls,XLIII

Notes on verse 5a

XLI “fortress” = batsar. This is to enclose, wall up, or make something inaccessible, impenetrable, isolated. It can also mean to fortify, something mighty. It can also mean to gather grapes.
XLII “high” = gaboah. From gabah (to be tall, high, exalted, proud, haughty). This is high, tall, long, proud, or arrogant. It could also be a high ranking official, someone exalted, or something lofty. 
XLIII “walls” = chomah. From the same as cham (father-in-law – one’s husband’s father; perhaps from a root meaning to join). This is a wall – a wall as used for protection.

double gates,XLIV and bars,XLV besidesXLVI a greatXLVII manyXLVIII villages.XLIX 

Notes on verse 5b

XLIV “gates” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.
XLV “bars” = beriach. From barach (to flee, drive away, hurry, to bolt). This is a bar or a bolt. It can also be used for a fugitive.
XLVI “besides” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
XLVII “great” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
XLVIII “many” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
XLIX “villages” = iyr + perazi. Iyr is the same as “towns” in v4. See note XXXII above. Perazi is 3x in OT. From the same as perazah (rural, village without walls, open country); from the same as paraz (root may mean to separate; perhaps warriors, chieftain, or throng). This is rural area or land that has no walls.

And we utterly destroyedL them, as we had done to King Sihon of Heshbon, in eachLI cityLII utterly destroying men,LIII women,LIV and children.LV 

Notes on verse 6

L “utterly destroyed” = charam. This is to ban, destroy, devote, seclude. It is to dedicate to a religious purpose, often for destruction.
LI “each” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note VIII above.
LII “city” = iyr. Same as “towns” in v4. See note XXXII above.
LIII “men” = math. Perhaps from the same as mathay (when, how, length of time). This is a man, associate, friend, number. It is an adult or mortal.
LIV “women” = ishshah. From ish (man); perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is woman, wife, or female.
LV “children” = taph. From taphaph (walking along with small, tripping steps like children do). This is little ones, children, families.

But all the livestockLVI and the plunderLVII of the towns we kept as spoilLVIII for ourselves.

“So at that time we took fromLIX the twoLX kings of the Amorites

Notes on verses 7-8a

LVI “livestock” = behemah. This is animal or cattle. It is often used of large quadrupeds.
LVII “plunder” = shalal. From shalal (to plunder, loot, capture). This is spoil, prey, or plunder.
LVIII “kept as spoil” = bazaz. This is to spoil, loot, pillage.
LIX {untranslated} = yad. Literally, “from the hand of.” Same as “handed” in v2. See note XV above.
LX “two” = shenayim. From sheni (double, again, another, second); from shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is two, both, second, couple.

the land beyondLXI the Jordan,LXII from the WadiLXIII ArnonLXIV

Notes on verse 8b

LXI “beyond” = eber. From abar (to pass over, pass through, or pass by; cross over or to alienate; used for transitions). This is the place across or beyond, by, from, other, the opposite side, against, over. It often refers to the other side of the Jordan river or toward the east.
LXII “Jordan” = Yarden. From yarad (to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense; going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy). This is the Jordan River, meaning “descending.”
LXIII “Wadi” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
LXIV “Arnon” = Arnon. From the same as Aran (Aran, a name that may mean “stridulous”); {perhaps from ranan (a cry of joy or a joyful song; properly, emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy)} OR from aran (to be agile, to inspire cheerfulness). This is Arnon, a wadi and stream in Moab whose nae means “a roaring stream” or “a brawling stream” or “murmuring” or “roaring” or “cheering” or “agile.” See

to MountLXV HermonLXVI (the SidoniansLXVII callLXVIII Hermon Sirion,LXIX

Notes on verses 8c-9a

LXV “Mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LXVI “Hermon” = Chermon. Related to “utterly destroyed” in v6. 13x in OT. From charam (see note L above). This is Hermon, meaning “sacred mountain” or “abrupt.” It is in southern Syria and northern Israel.
LXVII “Sidonians” = Tsidoni. 16x in OT. From Tsidon (Sidon – a city in Phoenicia); from Phoenician tsydon (Sidon; probably meaning fishery or fishing town). This is Sidonian or Zidonian. See &
LXVIII “call” = qara. This is to call or call out – to call someone by name. Also used more broadly for calling forth.
LXIX “Sirion” = Siryon. Related to “Lord” in v2 & “was” in v4. 2x in OT. Perhaps from the same as serayah (Seraiah, meaning “the Lord persists” or “the Lord has prevailed); {from sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (see note XII above)}. This is Sirion, a named given to Mount Hermon by the Sidonions.

while the Amorites call it Senir),LXX 10 all the towns of the tableland,LXXI the whole of Gilead,LXXII and all of Bashan, as far as SalecahLXXIII and Edrei, towns of Og’s kingdom in Bashan. 

Notes on verses 9b-10

LXX “Senir” = Shenir. 4x in OT. May come from a word that means pointed. It is what the Amorites call Mount Hermon. It may mean “peak.”
LXXI “tableland” = mishor. From yashar (to be straight, right, even, smooth, or agreeable; figuratively, to make something pleasant or prosperous) This is a level place like a plain. It can also be the proper name of a level place. Figuratively, it can refer to straightness in the sense of justice, equity, fairness, righteousness, or uprightness. It can also refer to a concord.
LXXII “Gilead” = Gilad. From gala (to lay bare, quarrel, expose) OR from gal’ed (heap of testimony); {from gal (wave, billow, rock pile; something rolled; a spring of water); {from galal (to roll, roll away, wallow, commit, remove; rolling in a literal or figurative sense)} + ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve)}}. This is Gilead, meaning “perpetual fountain” or “heap of testimony.” See
LXXIII “Salecah” = Salkah. 4x in OT. May come from a word that means to walk. It is Salecah, Salcah, or Salchah, meaning “walking.”

11 (Now onlyLXXIV King Og of Bashan was left of the remnantLXXV of the Rephaim.LXXVI

Notes on verse 11a

LXXIV “only” = raq. From the same as raq (thin, surely, only); perhaps from raqaq (to spit). This is but, except, at least. In the sense of being thin, it figuratively refers to some kind of limit.
LXXV “remnant” = yether. From yathar (to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel). This is a remainder or excess. It can imply abundant or superiority. Additionally, it can be cord a free-hanging rope.
LXXVI “Rephaim” = Rapha. From raphah (to slacken in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be to hang, be feeble, fail, drop, be helpless, relax, slink, subside, or wait) OR from rapha (properly, to repair by stitching – figuratively to heal or cure; to make whole). This is Rapha or Rephaim. It is someone who lived east of Jordan, a giant. It may mean “faded ones,” “healed ones,” or “what we’ve been healed from.” See

In fact,LXXVII his bed,LXXVIII an ironLXXIX bed,

Notes on verse 11b

LXXVII “in fact” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
LXXVIII “bed” = eres. 10x in OT. Root may refer to an arch. So, this would be a couch or bed that has a canopy.
LXXIX “iron” = barzel. From the same as Birzoth (a name meaning holes). Root may mean to pierce. This is iron as something used as a cutting implement. It can also specifically mean ax head.

can still be seen in RabbahLXXX of the Ammonites.LXXXI By the commonLXXXII cubit

Notes on verse 11c

LXXX “Rabbah” = Rabbah. 15x in OT. From rab (abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great; abundance of amount, rank, or status); from rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is Rabbah, a place whose name means “great,” “great city,” or “populous.” See
LXXXI “Ammonites” = ben + Ammon. Literally, “children of Ammon.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Ammon is related to “people” in v1. From im (with, against, before, beside); {perhaps from amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together)} OR from am (people or nation; a tribe, troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals); {from amam (see above)}. This is Ammon or Ammonite, which may mean tribal.
LXXXII “common” = ish. Related to “women” in v6. See note LIV above.

it is nineLXXXIII cubitsLXXXIV longLXXXV and fourLXXXVI cubits wide.)LXXXVII 

Notes on verse 11d

LXXXIII “nine” = tesha. Perhaps from sha’ah (to gaze at, gaze around, regard – to look to, especially for help; to consider or be compassionate; to look at in amazement or while confounded). This is nine, perhaps as looking to the next number associated with fullness (10).
LXXXIV “cubits” = ammah. From the same as em (mother). This is a cubit, post, threshold, pivot. It is mother as the basic measure (the length of the forearm). It is also mother as the which bonds an entryway i.e. the base of the door.
LXXXV “long” = orek. From arak (to be long in a literal or figurative sense, to continue, defer, draw out). This is length, long, or forever.
LXXXVI “four” = arba. From raba (to make square or be four-sided). This is four.
LXXXVII “wide” = rochab. From rachab (to grow wide or enlarge in a literal or figurative sense; extend, relieve, rejoice, or speak boldly). This is breadth, depth, thickness, expanse. It is width in a literal or figurative sense.

12 As for the land that we took possessionLXXXVIII of at that time, I gaveLXXXIX to the ReubenitesXC and GaditesXCI

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXVIII “took possession” = yarash. This is inheriting or dispossessing. It refers to occupying or colonizing – taking territory by driving out the previous inhabitants and living there instead of them. By implication, it can mean to seize or rob, to expel, ruin, or impoverish.
LXXXIX “gave” = natan. Same as “handed” in v2. See note XV above.
XC “Reubenites” = Reubeni. Related to “Ammonites” in v11. 18x in OT. From Reuben (Reuben, “behold a son”); {from raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense) + ben (see note LXXXI above)}. This is Reuben or Reubenite – someone who comes from the tribe of Reuben.
XCI “Gadites” = Gadi. 15x in OT. From Gad (Gad, “fortune” or “fortunate”); perhaps from gad (fortune, troop; Gad, the name of a god of Babylon); from gad (fortunate, a troop); from gud (to invade, overcome, attack). This is Gadite, someone who comes from the tribe of Gad.

the territory north of AroerXCII that is on the edge of the Wadi Arnon, as well as halfXCIII the hill countryXCIV of Gilead with its towns, 13 and I gave to the half-tribeXCV of ManassehXCVI the restXCVII of Gilead and all of Bashan, Og’s kingdom. (The whole region of Argob: all that portion of Bashan used to be called a land of Rephaim; 

Notes on verses 12b-13

XCII “Aroer” = Aroer. 16x in OT. From the same as aroer (shrub or tree; may be a juniper); from arar (to strip, make bare, destroy). This is Aroer, a city whose name means “accumulation” or “stripped” or “heath.” See
XCIII “half” = chatsi. From chatsah (to halve, divide, reach, participate). This is half, middle, midnight, midst.
XCIV “hill country” = har. Same as “Mount” in v8. See note LXV above.
XCV “tribe” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.
XCVI “Manasseh” = Menashsheh. From nashah (to forget, neglect, remove, deprive). This is Manasseh, literally “causing to forget.” It is Manasseh, his tribe, or the lands of the tribe.
XCVII “rest” = yether. Same as “remnant” in v11. See note LXXV above.

14 JairXCVIII the ManassiteXCIX acquiredC the whole region of Argob

Notes on verse 14a

XCVIII “Jair” = Yair. 9x in OT. From or (to be or become light). This is Jair or Yair, meaning “enlightens” or “enlightener” or “he will diffuse light” or “one giving light.” See
XCIX “Manassite” = ben + Menashsheh. Literally, “son of Manasseh.” Ben is the same as “Ammonites” in v11. See note LXXXI above. Menashsheh is the same as “Manasseh” in v13. See note XCVI above.
C “acquired” = laqach. Same as “take” in v4. See note XXXV above.

as far as the borderCI of the GeshuritesCII and the Maacathites,CIII

Notes on verse 14b

CI “border” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
CII “Geshurites” = Geshuri. 6x in OT. From Geshur (Geshur or Geshurite; “bridge”). This is Geshurite, a person from Geshur.
CIII “Maacathites” = Maakathi. 8x in OT. From Maakah (Maacah or Maakath; “depression,” “oppression,” “squeezer”); from maak (to pierce, squeeze, stick, handle). This is Maacathite – someone living in Maacah.

and he namedCIV them—that is, Bashan—after himself, Havvoth-jair,CV as it is to this day.)CVI 

Notes on verse 14c

CIV “named” = qara +et + al + shem. Qara is the same as “call” in v9. See note LXVIII above. Shem may be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
CV “Havvoth-jair” = Chavvoth Yair. Related to “Jair” in v14 & to “towns” in v4. 3x in OT. From chavvah (a place of living; a village of tents or a settlement); {from the same as Chavvah (Eve or Chavvah, a name meaning “life” or “life-giver); from chavah (show, tell, live, declare)} + Yaor (Yaor or Jair, a name meaning “wooded”); {from uwr (see note XXXII above) or the same as ya’ar (honeycomb, forest, thicket)}. This is Havvoth-jair or Chavvoth Yair, it is a region whose name means “tent villages of Jair” or “hamlets of Jair” or “villages of the enlightener.” See &
CVI “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.

15 To MachirCVII I gave Gilead. 16 And to the Reubenites and the Gadites I gave the territory from Gilead as far as the Wadi Arnon, with the middleCVIII of the wadi as a boundary,CIX and up to the Jabbok,CX the wadi being boundary of the Ammonites; 

Notes on verses 15-16

CVII “Machir” = Makir. From makar (to sell – could be commerce/trade, a daughter to be married, someone into slavery; figuratively, to surrender). This is Machir or Makir, it is a name meaning “salesman.”
CVIII “middle” = tavek. This is among, middle, in the midst, the center. Perhaps, properly, to sever.
CIX “boundary” = gebul. Same as “border” in v14. See note CI above.
CX “Jabbok” = Yabboq. 7x in OT. Probably from baqaq (to empty, devastate, demoralize, luxuriate, depopulate). This is Jabbok or Yabboq, meaning “emptying” or “he will empty.” See

17 the ArabahCXI also, with the Jordan and its banks,CXII from ChinnerethCXIII down to the seaCXIV of the Arabah,

Notes on verse 17a

CXI “Arabah” = Arabah. From the same as arab (desert plateau, Arabia) OR from arab (to become evening); {from ereb (evening) or from arab (to exchange, give or take on pledge, braid, intermix)}. This is a desert valley or plain, wilderness. Also, the name of a place Arabah.
CXII “banks” = gebul. Same as “border” in v14. See note CI above.
CXIII “Chinnereth” = Kinaroth. 7x in OT. Related to kinnor (lyre, harp; may come from a word meaning to twang). This is Chinnereth, Kinaroth, or Kinnereth. It may mean “harp-shaped.
CXIV “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.

the DeadCXV Sea, with the lowerCXVI slopesCXVII of PisgahCXVIII on the east.CXIX

Notes on verse 17b

CXV “Dead” = melach. Perhaps from malach (properly, to pulverize, temper together, dissipate; also to season or salt). This is powder; used for salt or salt pit.
CXVI “with the lower” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
CXVII “slopes” = ashedah. 6x in OT. From eshed (bottom, slope, outpouring, stream). This is a foundation, slope, or spring.
CXVIII “Pisgah” = Pisgah. 8x in OT. From pasag (to go between, pass through; figuratively to contemplate or consider). This is Pisgah, meaning cleft. It is a mountain in Moab.
CXIX “east” = mizrach. From zarach (to rise, shine, or dawn; can also describe symptoms of leprosy). This is the east as the place where the sun rises. It can also refer to the sunrise itself.

18 “At that time, I chargedCXX you as follows:CXXI ‘Although the Lord your God has given you this land to occupy,CXXII all your troopsCXXIII shall cross overCXXIV

Notes on verse 18a

CXX “charged” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
CXXI “follows” = amar. Same as “said” in v2. See note XIII above.
CXXII “occupy” = yarash. Same as “took possession” in v12. See note LXXXVIII above.
CXXIII “troops” = ben + chayil. Literally, “children of valor.” Ben is the same as “Ammonites” in v11. See note LXXXI above. Chayil is from chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
CXXIV “cross over” = abar. Related to “beyond” in v8. See note LXI above.

armedCXXV as the vanguardCXXVI of your IsraeliteCXXVII kin.CXXVIII 

Notes on verse 18b

CXXV “armed” = chalats. This is to pull off, withdraw, arm, loose, depart, deliver, prepare for a battle, strengthen.
CXXVI “vanguard” = paneh. Related to “headed up” in v1. From panah (see note I above). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
CXXVII “Israelite” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is the same as “Ammonites” in v11. See note LXXXI above. Yisrael is related to “Sirion” in v9 & to “God” in v3. From sarah (see note LXIX above) + El (see note XXIII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
CXXVIII “kin” = ach. This is brother, kindred, another, other, like. It is literally brother, but it can also be someone who is similar, resembling, or related to.

19 Only your wives,CXXIX your children, and your livestockCXXX—I knowCXXXI

Notes on verse 19a

CXXIX “wives” = ishshah. Same as “women” in v6. See note LIV above.
CXXX “livestock” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
CXXXI “know” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.

that you have muchCXXXII livestockCXXXIII—shall stayCXXXIV behind in the towns that I have given to you. 20 When the Lord gives restCXXXV to your kindred,CXXXVI as to you, and they also have occupied the land that the Lord your God is giving them beyond the Jordan,

Notes on verses 19b-20a

CXXXII “much” = rab. Related to “Rabbah” in v11. See note LXXX above.
CXXXIII “livestock” = miqneh. Same as “livestock” in v19. See note CXXX above.
CXXXIV “stay” = yashab. Same as “reigned” in v2. See note XXI above.
CXXXV “gives rest” = nuach. This is to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait. It is rest and so implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense. This is perhaps the root verb of the name “Noah.”
CXXXVI “kindred” = ach. Same as “kin” in v18. See note CXXVIII above.

then eachCXXXVII of you may returnCXXXVIII to the propertyCXXXIX that I have given to you.’ 

Notes on verse 20b

CXXXVII “each” = ish. Same as “common” in v11. See note LXXXII above.
CXXXVIII “return” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CXXXIX “property” = yerushshah. Related to “took possession” in v12. 14x in OT. From yarash (see note LXXXVIII above). This is possession, heritage – something that has been occupied, an inheritance or conquest.

21 And I charged JoshuaCXL as well at that time, saying: ‘Your own eyesCXLI have seenCXLII

Notes on verse 21a

CXL “Joshua” = Yehoshua. Related to “Lord” in v2 & “was” in v4 & “Sirion” in v9. From YHVH (see note XII above) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone). This is Joshua, Jeshua, or Yehoshua, which means “the Lord is salvation.”
CXLI “eyes” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
CXLII “seen” = raah. Related to “Reubenites” in v12. See note XC above.

everythingCXLIII that the Lord your God has done to these two kings; soCXLIV the Lord will do to all the kingdoms into which you are about to cross. 22 Do not fear them, for it is the Lord your God who fightsCXLV for you.’

Notes on verses 21b-22

CXLIII “everything” = kol. Same as “all” in v1. See note VIII above.
CXLIV “so” = ken. Perhaps from kun (properly, in a perpendicular position; literally, to establish, fix, fasten, prepare; figuratively, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CXLV “fights” = lacham. Related to “battle” in v1. See note X above.

23 “At that time, too, I entreatedCXLVI the Lord, saying, 24 ‘O LordCXLVII God,CXLVIII you have only begunCXLIX

Notes on verses 23-24a

CXLVI “entreated” = chanan. This is to beseech, show favor, be gracious. Properly, it is to bend in kindness to someone with less status.
CXLVII “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
CXLVIII “God” = YHVH. Related to “Lord” in v2 & “was” in v4 & “Sirion” in v9 & “Joshua” in v21. From the same as YHVH (see note XII above). This is a secondary spelling of the Lord, the name of the God of Israel. It has the same meaning.
CXLIX “begun” = chalal. This is to pierce, which implies to wound. It is used figuratively for making someone or something profane or breaking your word. It can also mean to begin as though one opened a wedge. Also, to eat something as a common thing.

to showCL your servantCLI your greatnessCLII and your might.CLIII

Notes on verse 24b

CL “show” = raah. Same as “seen” in v21. See note CXLII above.
CLI “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CLII “greatness” = godel. 13x in OT. From gadal (to grow, grow up, be great, magnify, exalt). This greatness, arrogance, or magnitude. It can be used in a literal or a figurative sense.
CLIII “might” = yad + chazaq. Literally, “your mighty hand.” Yad is the same as “handed” in v2. See note XV above. Chazaq is from chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.

What godCLIV in heavenCLV or on earthCLVI

Notes on verse 24c

CLIV “god” = el. Related to “God” in v3 & “Israelites” in v18. See note XXIII above.
CLV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.
CLVI “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v2. See note XVII above.

can performCLVII deedsCLVIII and mightyCLIX acts like yours? 

Notes on verse 24d

CLVII “perform” = asah. Same as “do” in v2. See note XVIII above.
CLVIII “deeds” = maaseh. Related to “do” in v2. From asah (see note XVIII above). This is a work – any action whether positive or negative. It can also be a transaction, construction, activity, property, or something that is produced.
CLIX “mighty” = geburah. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is force in a literal or figurative sense. So, it could be strength, power, courage, triumph, victory, or mastery.

25 Let me cross overCLX to see the goodCLXI land beyond the Jordan, that good hill country and the Lebanon.’CLXII 

Notes on verse 25

CLX {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”
CLXI “good” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CLXII “Lebanon” = Lebanon. From laben (to be white, make white, make bricks) OR form Aramaic lebab (heart); corresponding to Hebrew lebab (heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will). This is Lebanon. The sense of “white” comes from the snow on the top of its mountains. See

26 But the LordCLXIII was angryCLXIV with me on your account and would not heedCLXV me.

Notes on verse 26a

CLXIII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXIV “was angry” = abar. Same as “cross over” in v18. See note CXXIV above.
CLXV “heed” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.

The LordCLXVI said to me, ‘EnoughCLXVII from you! NeverCLXVIII speakCLXIX to me of this matterCLXX again!CLXXI 

Notes on verse 26b

CLXVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v2. See note XII above.
CLXVII “enough” = rab. Same as “much” in v19. See note CXXXII above.
CLXVIII {untranslated} = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
CLXIX “speak” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
CLXX “matter” = dabar. Related to “speak” in v26. From dabar (see note CLXIX above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
CLXXI “again” = od. From ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is still, yet, again, more.

27 Go upCLXXII to the topCLXXIII of Pisgah and look aroundCLXXIV you to the west,CLXXV

Notes on verse 27a

CLXXII “go up” = alah. Same as “headed up” in v1. See note I above.
CLXXIII “top” = rosh. This may come a word that means to shake. It is the head, captain, or chief. It can also be excellent or the forefront. It can be first in position or in statue or in time (i.e. the beginning).
CLXXIV “look around” = nasa + ayin. Literally, “lift your eyes.” Nasa is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept. Ayin is the same as “eyes” in v21. See note CXLI above.
CLXXV “west” = yam. Same as “sea” in v17. See note CXIV above.

to the north,CLXXVI to the south,CLXXVII and to the east. LookCLXXVIII well,CLXXIX for you shall not cross over this Jordan. 

Notes on verse 27b

CLXXVI “north” = tsaphon. From tsaphan (to hide, hoard, reserve; to cover over or figuratively to deny; also to lurk). This is properly hidden, dark, or gloomy. It can also be used to refer to the north.
CLXXVII “south” = teman. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is south, towards the south, wind from the south.
CLXXVIII “look” = raah. Same as “seen” in v21. See note CXLII above.
CLXXIX “well” = ayin. Literally, “with your eyes.” Ayin is the same as “eyes” in v21. See note CXLI above.

28 But charge Joshua and encourageCLXXX and strengthenCLXXXI him, because it is he who shall cross over at the headCLXXXII of this people and who shall secure their possessionCLXXXIII of the land that you will see.’ 

Notes on verse 28

CLXX “encourage” = chazaq. Related to “might” in v24. See note CLIII above.
CLXXI “strengthen” = amets. This is to be strong, stout, alert, or bold, It can also mean harden, make firm, be courageous or mighty, fortify, or establish. It can refer to physical alertness or mental courage or steadfastness.
CLXXII “head” = paneh. Same as “vanguard” in v18. See note CXXVI above.
CLXXIII “secure…possession” = nachal. Related to “Wadi” in v8. See note LXIII above.

29 So we remainedCLXXXIV in the valleyCLXXXV oppositeCLXXXVI Beth-peor.CLXXXVII

Notes on verse 29

CLXXXIV “remained” = yashab. Same as “reigned” in v2. See note XXI above.
CLXXXV “valley” = gay. Perhaps from the same as gevah (pride, confidence); from gevah (the back or body); from gey (the back, among); from ga’ah (to grow up, rise, triumph, be majestic). This is valley or gorge that has high walls. It is, perhaps, a narrow valley, but not a winter-torrent.
CLXXXVI “opposite” = mul. Perhaps from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy). This is in front of, opposite, with, abrupt. Literally, it refers to some kind of precipice.
CLXXXVII “Beth-peor” = Beth peor. Related to “Ammonites” in v11 7 “Reubenites” in v12. 4x in OT. From bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {from banah (see note LXXXI above)} + Peor (Peor – a mountain in Moab and a god of Moab; perhaps meaning gap); {from paar (to gape, yawn; open wide – especially the mouth – in a literal or figurative sense)}. This is Beth-Peor, meaning House of Peor.

Image credit: “Facing the Giants Sihon and Og” by Richard Gunther.

You May Also Like

Leave a Reply