Philippians 1:3-11

Philippians 1:3-11
Advent C2


I thankA my GodB everyC time I rememberD you, 

Notes on verse 3

A “thank” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
B “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
C “every” = pas. This is all or every.
D “remember” = mneia. 7x in NT – all uses in epistles for remembering you in prayers and 1x to remember us kindly (1 Th 3:6). From mimnesko (to remind or remember; memory through an active, intentional process or being mindful; not incidentally or accidentally remembering); from mnaomai (to remember; by implication give reward or consequence); perhaps from meno (to stay, abide, wait, endure). Properly, this is bringing someone or something to mind or mentioning them. It can also be a memory or commemoration. Further, it can be a specific focus on an aspect of someone or something.

constantlyE prayingF with joyG in every one of my prayersH for allI of you, 

Notes on verse 4

E “constantly” = pantote. Related to “every” in v3. From pas (see note C above) + tote (then, whether past or future); {from hote (when); from ho (the)}. This is literally every when. It is always, at all times.
F “praying” = deesis + poieo. Literally, “prayer making.” Deesis is the same as ”prayers” in v4. See note H below. Poieo is to make, do, act, construct, abide, or cause.
G “joy” = chara. Related to “thank” in v3. From chairo (see note A above). This is joy, delight, gladness. Can be understood as the feeling you get when you are aware of grace.
H “prayers” = deesis. 18x in NT. From deomai (having an urgent need because one is missing or needing something so it is an earnest appeal or pressing request); from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is a request coming from a deep personal need or want. So, it is supplication or prayer.
I “all” = pas. Same as “every” in v3. See note C above.

because of your sharingJ in the gospelK from the firstL dayM until now. 

Notes on verse 5

J “sharing” = koinonia. 19x in NT. From koinonos (partner, companion, partaker, sharer); From koinos (common, shared, unclean, ritually profane); probably from sun (with, together with). This is sharing in common so it is fellowship, participation, communion, and aid that comes from the community.
K “gospel” = euaggelion. Related to “thank” in v3. From eu (see note A above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel); {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is literally “the good news,” used for the gospel. This is also where “evangelism” comes from.
L “first” = protos. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier). This is what is first, which could be the most important, the first in order, the main one, the chief.
M “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.

I am confidentN of this, that the one who beganO a goodP workQ among you

Notes on verse 6a

N “am confident” = peitho. This is to have confidence, to urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust. It is the root from which the Greek word for faith is drawn (pistis).
O “began” = enarchomai. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with, among) + archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power). This is to begin.
P “good” = agathos. This is good, a benefit, or a good thing. It is good by its very nature, intrinsically good. A different word, kalos, refers to external signs of goodness.
Q “work” = ergon. From ergo (to work, accomplish, do). This is work, task, deed, labor, effort.

will bring it to completionR by the day of JesusS Christ.T 

Notes on verse 6b

R “bring…to completion” = epiteleo. 10x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + teleo (to complete, fulfill, accomplish, end); {from telos (an end, aim, purpose, completion, end goal, consummation, tax; going through the steps to complete a stage or phase and then moving on to the next one)}. This is to complete or make perfect, execute, accomplish, undergo or finish.
S “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
T “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

It is rightU for me to thinkV this way about all of you, because you holdW me in your heart,X 

Notes on verse 7a

U “right” = dikaios. From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person. It implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice.
V “think” = phroneo. From phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb). This is to think, judge, use one’s mind, have an opinion, shape one’s opinion through action. It refers to one’s insight or inner perspective expressing itself through behavior.
W “hold” = echo. This is to have, hold, or possess.
X “heart” = kardia. Literally the heart, but figuratively mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings. Also, the center of something. The word heart is only used figuratively in the Old and New Testaments. This is where “cardiac” comes from.

for all of you shareY in God’s graceZ with me, both in my imprisonmentAA and in the defenseBB and confirmationCC of the gospel. 

Notes on verse 7b

Y “share” = sugkoinonos. Related to “sharing” in v5. 4x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + koinonos (see note J above) This is co-partner, someone with whom you share something together – a close companion.
Z “grace” = charis. Related to “thank” in v3 & “joy” in v4. See note A above.
AA “imprisonment” = desmos. Related to “prayers” in v4. 18x in NT. From deo (see note H above). This is something that binds, whether a chain or a ligament. It can also refer to imprisonment (as the condition of being bound in chains) or to a physical disability (as a binding of the body).
BB “defense” = apologia. 8x in NT. From apologeomai (to make an accounting or defend oneself – particularly in court; present prof or evidence using sound logic); {from apo (from, away from) + logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is a verbal defense, especially in a legal setting, that is well reasoned to respond to the issue at hand. It is an apology, clearing, plea, or vindication.
CC “confirmation” = bebaiosis. 2x in NT. From bebaioo (secure, guarantee, reliable, firm, dependable; something you can put your trust in); from bebaios (properly, ground that is solid enough to walk over; firm, unshakable; figuratively, guaranteed, valid, sure, steadfast, enduring; literally and figuratively “solid footing”); from the same as basis (a step; hence, a foot, pace, or base); from baino (to walk or go). This is something that upholds or is validated. It is a confirmation.

For God is my witness,DD how I long forEE all of you with the compassionFF of Christ Jesus. 

Notes on verse 8

DD “witness” = martus. This is a witness whether having heard or seen something. It refers to a witness literally, judicially, or figuratively. By analogy, this is a martyr. This is also where the word “martyr” comes from.
EE “long for” = epipotheo. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + potheo (to yearn). This is to long for, greatly desire, or strain towards. It can also imply doting or a desire to possess something or someone, whether legitimately or wrongfully.
FF “compassion” = splagchnon. 11x in NT. Perhaps from splen (spleen). This is inner organs, entrails, heart, liver. The guts were seen as the root of emotions. So, this could be visceral empathy or sympathy.

And this is my prayer,GG that your loveHH may overflowII moreJJ and more

Notes on verse 9a

GG “is…prayer” = proseuchomai. From pros (advantageous for, at, toward) + euchomai (to wish, make a request, pray). This is to pray or pray for, to worship or supplicate. It is more literally exchanging one’s own wishes for God’s.
HH “love” = agape. From agapao (to love, take pleasure in, esteem; to prefer). This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
II “overflow” = perisseuo. From perissos (abundant, more, excessive, advantage, vehemently); from peri (all-around, encompassing, excess). This is more than what is ordinary or necessary. It is abounding, overflowing, being leftover, going above and beyond. It is super-abounding in number or quality.
JJ “more” = mallon. This is rather, more than, or better.

with knowledgeKK and fullLL insightMM 

Notes on verse 9b

KK “knowledge” = epignosis. From epiginosko (to perceive, discern, acknowledge, recognize, know exactly because of direct interaction) ; {from epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is knowledge, intuition, or discernment. It is firsthand knowledge of someone or something gained through contact or experience. This is full discernment or true knowledge.
LL “full” = pas. Same as “every” in v3. See note C above.
MM “insight” = aisthesis. 1x in NT. From aisthanomai (to perceive – to understand using the senses); from aio (to perceive through the senses). This is understanding or discernment. It is using one’s perception to gain insight on unclear ethical matters.

10 to help you to determineNN what is best,OO so that in the day of Christ you may be purePP and blameless,QQ 

Notes on verse 10

NN “determine” = dokimazo. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}. This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.
OO “is best” = diaphero. 13x in NT. From dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry through as in all the way to the end. It is differing or fully distinguishing – separating by comparison. Literally, it means transport – figuratively it can mean report or surpass.
PP “pure” = eilikrines. 2x in NT. Perhaps from heile (ray of the sun) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging). This is unmixed or pure. It is something that is seen in the sunlight or full light and judged positively. It can also be a full light that brings insight or discernment.
QQ “blameless” = aproskopos. 3x in NT. From a (not, without) + proskopto (to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense; to trip up in a literal or figurative sense); {from pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}. This is not stumbling, inoffensive, without fault, blameless. It can also be unharmed.

11 having producedRR the harvestSS of righteousnessTT that comes through Jesus Christ for the gloryUU and praiseVV of God.

Notes on verse 11

RR “produced” = pleroo. From pleres (to be full, complete, abounding in, occupied with). This is to fill, make full or complete. Properly, this is filling something up to the maximum extent that it can be filled – an appropriate amount for its individual capacity. So, this is used figuratively for furnish, influence, satisfy, finish, preach, perfect, and fulfill.
SS “harvest” = karpos. Perhaps from harpazo (to seize by force, snatch away); from haireo (to choose, take). This is a fruit or vegetable, through sometimes it refers to an animal. Figuratively, it is deeds, results, profits, or gain.
TT “righteousness” = dikaosune. Related to “right” in v7. From dikaios (see note U above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
UU “glory” = doxa. Related to “determine” in v10. From dokeo (see note NN above). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
VV “praise” = epainos. 11x in NT. From epi (on, upon, to, what is fitting) + ainos (praise, saying, story, proverb). This is fitting praise, fame, approval. It is recognizing something or someone that is deserving of praise.

Image credit: Praying hands at a cemetery in Weilheim-Schongau, Germany. Photo by GFreihalter.

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