Psalm 78

Psalm 78


A MaskilI of Asaph.II

Give ear,III O my people,IV to my teaching;V

Notes on superscript - verse 1a

I “Maskil” = Maskiyl. 13x in OT. From sakal (to consider or be prudent; to instruct, be an expert; dealing prudently, which implies success and prospering; can mean laying cross-wise). This is maskil or maschil. It is a poem used for instruction.
II “Asaph” = Asaph. From asaph (to gather, assemble, bring, take away, destroy, or remove). This is Asaph, meaning “gatherer” or “collector.” It is a personal name.
III “give ear” = azan. Perhaps from ozen (ear, hearing, audience, show; properly, broadness – applied to its ear in reference to its shape). Properly, this is to expand or broaden one’s ear i.e. listen intently, pay attention, heed.
IV “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
V “teaching” = torah. From yarah (to throw, shoot, be stunned; to flow as water so figuratively to instruct or teach). This is law, instruction, teaching, or statute. It can also refer to the first five books of the Bible – the Torah.

    inclineVI your earsVII to the wordsVIII of my mouth.IX

Notes on verse 1b

VI “incline” = natah. This is to stretch or spread out, to extend, or bend. In can also imply moral deflection.
VII “ears” = ozen. Related to “give ear” in v1. See note III above.
VIII “words” = emer. From amar (to say, answer, challenge). This is something that is said – a word, saying, speech.
IX “mouth” = peh. This is mouth in a literal or figurative sense. So, more literally, it can be beak or jaws. More figuratively, it refers to speech, commands, or promises.

2 I will openX my mouth in a parable;XI
    I will utterXII dark sayingsXIII from of old,XIV

Notes on verse 2

X “open” = pathach. This is to open wide in a literal or figurative sense. So, it is open, draw out, let something go free, break forth. It can also mean to plow, engrave, or carve.
XI “parable” = mashal. From mashal (to compare, speak in a proverb or riddle – to speak in allegory or liken). This is proverb, parable, taunt, discourse, maxim, adage, poem.
XII “utter” = naba. 11x in OT. This is to spring up, flow, gush, or spout. It can also mean to belch as in emitting a bad smell. Figuratively, it can mean to speak, whether positively or negatively.
XIII “dark sayings” = chidah. 17x in OT– including the riddle of Samson’s marriage in Judges 14 and “hard questions” posed by the Queen of Sheba in 1 Kings 10. Perhaps from chud (to tie a knot, offer a riddle). This is a riddle, proverb, question, puzzle, intrigue, dark saying.
XIV “old” = qedem. Perhaps from qadam (to come in front or be in front; to meet, anticipate, confront, receive, or rise; sometimes to meet for help). This is front, formerly, before, east, eternal, everlasting, antiquity.

3 things that we have heardXV and known,XVI
    that our ancestorsXVII have toldXVIII us.

Notes on verse 3

XV “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
XVI “known” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
XVII “ancestors” = ab. This is father, chief, or ancestor. It is father in a literal or figurative sense.
XVIII “told” = saphar. From sepher (writing, document, book, evidence). This is properly to tally or record something. It can be enumerate, recount, number, celebrate, or declare.

We will not hideXIX them from their children;XX
    we will tell to the comingXXI generationXXII

Notes on verse 4a

XIX “hide” = kachad. This is to hide or conceal or destroy. It can also refer to doing secret actions or secret speech.
XX “children” = ben. From banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense.
XXI “coming” = acharon. From achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is end, last, coming behind, to loiter, later. It can also refer to the west.
XXII “generation” = dor. From dur (to move in a circle, which implies living somewhere or remaining there; it can also be the sense of piling or heaping up). This is a revolution of time, which is to say, an age or generation. It can also be a dwelling or one’s posterity.

the glorious deedsXXIII of the Lord,XXIV and his might,XXV
    and the wondersXXVI that he has done.XXVII

Notes on verse 4b

XXIII “glorious deeds” = tehillah. From halal (to praise, be boastful). This is praise or a song of praise. It is to offer God a hymn, to boast in God. This shares a root with “hallelujah.”
XXIV “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.
XXV “might” = ezuz. 3x in OT. From azaz (to be strong, become fixed, be bold, prevail, be impudent; it means to be stout literally or figuratively. A Late Hebrew word). This is strength, power, forcibleness.
XXVI “wonders” = pala. From pele (wonder, miracle, wonderful, marvelous thing). This is to be extraordinary, to arise, to be great or accomplish.
XXVII “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.

5 He establishedXXVIII a decreeXXIX in Jacob,XXX

Notes on verse 5a

XXVIII “established” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XXIX “decree” = eduth. From ed (witness, testimony, recorder); from ud (to admonish, repeat, duplicate, testify, restore, record, relieve). This is testimony, ordinance, decree, warning, or witness.
XXX “Jacob” = Yaaqob. From the same as aqeb (heel, hind part, hoof, rear guard of an army, one who lies in wait, usurper). This is Isaac’s son and his descendants. The name means heel-catcher or supplanter.

    and appointedXXXI a lawXXXII in Israel,XXXIII
which he commandedXXXIV our ancestors
    to teachXXXV to their children;

Notes on verse 5b

XXXI “appointed” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XXXII “law” = torah. Same as “teaching” in v1. See note V above.
XXXIII “Israel” = Yisrael. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (God or god). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
XXXIV “commanded” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
XXXV “teach” = yada. Same as “known” in v3. See note XVI above.

6 that the nextXXXVI generation might know them,
    the children yet unborn,XXXVII
and rise upXXXVIII and tell them to their children,
    so that they should setXXXIX their hopeXL in God,XLI

Notes on verses 6-7a

XXXVI “next” = acharon. Same as “coming” in v4. See note XXI above.
XXXVII “yet unborn” = yalad. Literally, “to be born.” This is to bear or bring forth. It can mean to act as midwife or to show one’s lineage. This is often used for birth or begetting.
XXXVIII “rise up” = qum. Same as “established” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
XXXIX “set” = sum. Same as “appointed” in v5. See note XXXI above.
XL “hope” = kesel. 13x in OT. From kasal (being or becoming stupid or foolish; properly, being fat and so figuratively silly or foolish). This is loins, thigh, flank, fatness. It can also be folly, silliness, confidence, or hope.
XLI “God” = Elohim. Related to “Israel” in v5. See note XXXIII above.

and not forgetXLII the worksXLIII of God,XLIV
    but keepXLV his commandments;XLVI

Notes on verse 7b

XLII “forget” = shakach. This is to forget because of not remembering something or not paying attention to it. It can also mean to mislay.
XLIII “works” = maalal. From alal (to affect, do, practice, mock, overdo, glean, abuse, pain). This is some kind of deed, action, invention or practice whether good or bad.
XLIV “God” = El. Related to “Israel” in v5 & “God” in v7. See note XXXIII above.
XLV “keep” = natsar. This is to watch, guard, protect. It can be positive – preserve or obey. It can be negative as conceal.
XLVI “commandments” = mitsvah. Related to “commanded” in v5. From tsavah (see note XXXIV above). This is a commandment, law, ordinance obligation, or tradition. It is something commanded whether by God or by a human authority. This term is sometimes used collectively to refer to the Law.

8 and that they should not beXLVII like their ancestors,
    a stubbornXLVIII and rebelliousXLIX generation,

Notes on verse 8a

XLVII “be” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v4. See note XXIV above.
XLVIII “stubborn” = sarar. 17x in OT. This is turning away, backsliding, rebellious.
XLIX “rebellious” = marah. This is to be contentious, rebellious, bitter, provoking, disobedient. It can be to be or make bitter or unpleasant. Figuratively, it is to rebel or resist and causatively to provoke. This is the root of “Miriam.”

a generation whose heartL was not steadfast,LI
    whose spiritLII was not faithfulLIII to God.LIV

Notes on verse 8b

L “heart” = leb. May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.
LI “was…steadfast” = kun. Properly, this means in a perpendicular position. So, it is set up in a literal sense – establish, fix, fasten, prepare. In a figurative sense, it is certainty, to be firm, faithfulness, render sure or prosperous.
LII “spirit” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
LIII “was…faithful” = aman. This is to believe, endure, fulfill, confirm, support, be faithful. It is to put one’s trust in, be steadfast. Figuratively, this is to be firm, steadfast, or faithful, trusting, believing, being permanent, morally solid. This is where the word “amen” comes from.
LIV “God” = El. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLIV above.

9 The Ephraimites,LV armedLVI with the bow,LVII
    turned backLVIII on the dayLIX of battle.LX

Notes on verse 9

LV “Ephraimites” = ben + Ephrayim. Literally, “children of Ephraim.” Ben is the same as “children” in v4. See note XX above. Ephrayim is from the same as aphar (ashes or dust – properly something strewn) OR from parah (to grow, increase, be fruitful in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ephraim, one of Joseph’s sons, his descendants, and their land.
LVI “armed” = nashaq + ramah. Nashaq is to kiss in a literal or figurative sense. It can mean to touch, rule, or equip with weapons. Ramah is 13x in OT. This is to hurl, shoot, carry, or throw. Figuratively, it is to beguile, delude or betray. It can also refer to an archer.
LVII “bow” = qeshet. Perhaps from qush (to set a trap, lure, ensnare) OR from qashah (to be fierce, cruel, dense, tough, severe). This is a bow, arrow, or archer. Bow can be used figuratively for strength.
LVIII “turned back” = haphak. This is to turn, overturn, change, return, turn over, pervert.
LIX “day” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
LX “battle” = qerab. 9x in OT. From qarab (to come near, approach). This is a battle or other violent encounter.

10 They did not keepLXI God’s covenant,LXII
    but refused to walkLXIII according to his law.
11 They forgot what he had done,LXIV
    and the miraclesLXV that he had shownLXVI them.

Notes on verses 10-11

LXI “keep” = shamar. This is to keep, watch, or preserve. It means to guard something or to protect it as a thorny hedge protects something.
LXII “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.
LXIII “walk” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
LXIV “what he had done” = alilah. Related to “works” in v7. From alal (see note XLIII above). This is a deed or action – something that causes an effect. It could be a wanton or shameful deed or an opportunity.
LXV “miracles” = pala. Same as “wonders” in v4. See note XXVI above.
LXVI “shown” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

12 In the sight ofLXVII their ancestors he workedLXVIII marvelsLXIX
    in the landLXX of Egypt,LXXI in the fieldsLXXII of Zoan.LXXIII

Notes on verse 12

LXVII “in the sight of” = neged. From nagad (to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain). This is in front of, opposite to. It can refer to a counterpart or partner, one corresponding to or in the sight of.
LXVIII “worked” = asah. Same as “done” in v4. See note XXVII above.
LXIX “marvels” = pele. Related to “wonders” in v4. 13x in OT. See note XXVI above.
LXX “land” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.
LXXI “Egypt” = Mitsrayim. Perhaps from matsor (besieged or fortified place, bulwark, entrenchment; something hemmed in; a siege or distress or fastness); from tsur (to confine, besiege, to cramp). This is Egypt.
LXXII “fields” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
LXXIII “Zoan” = Tsoan. 7x in OT. From tsaan (to lay packs on animals and so to wander or travel) OR from Egyptian (low region) OR Ancient Egyptian d’n.t (Tanis). This is Zoan or Tsoan, a location in Egypt. It may mean, “low region,” “itinerant,” or “moving about.” See &

13 He dividedLXXIV the seaLXXV and let them pass throughLXXVI it,
    and made the watersLXXVII standLXXVIII like a heap.LXXIX

Notes on verse 13

LXXIV “divided” = baqa. This is to break open, breach, divide, rip, shake, tear. It can also mean dash into pieces or being ready to burst.
LXXV “sea” = yam. Root may mean to roar. This is the sea, often referring to the Mediterranean. It comes from the root in the sense of the roar of crashing surf. This word is sometimes used for rivers or other sources of water. It can mean to the west or to the south.
LXXVI “pass through” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
LXXVII “waters” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LXXVIII “made…stand” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
LXXIX “heap” = ned. 6x in OT. From nud (to nod, waver, wander, flee, show grief, disappear; nodding the head as a sign of sympathy or consolation; tossing one’s head to show contempt or to taunt). This is a heap or mound – it can imply a wave.

14 In the daytimeLXXX he ledLXXXI them with a cloud,LXXXII

Notes on verse 14a

LXXX “daytime” = yomam. Related to “day” in v9. From yom (see note LIX above). Root may mean to be hot. So, this is day as the hours that are hot. This can be daytime in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXI “led” = nachah. This is lead, guide, or bring. It can be used for transporting into exile or coming in as colonists. This is the word used in Psalm 23 “he leads me in the paths of righteousness.”
LXXXII “cloud” = anan. May be from anan (cover, cloud over; figuratively, acting in a secret way, practicing magic or soothsaying). This is a cloud as something that covers the sky.

    and all nightLXXXIII long with a fieryLXXXIV light.LXXXV

Notes on verse 14b

LXXXIII “night” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.
LXXXIV “fiery” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXV “light” = or. From or (to be or become light). This is light, sun, sunshine, dawn, or daylight. Figuratively, it can refer to light from instruction, light of a face (that is to say one that is cheerful or finds favor). It can refer to prosperity or salvation; a light that guides, a light eternal from Zion.

15 He splitLXXXVI rocksLXXXVII open in the wilderness,LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 15a

LXXXVI “split” = baqa. Same as “divided” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
LXXXVII “rocks” = tsur. Related to “Egypt” in v12. Perhaps from tsur (see note LXXI above). This is rock, stone, cliff, boulder, rocky. It can also be a refuge, a way to refer to God.
LXXXVIII “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.

    and gave them drinkLXXXIX abundantlyXC as from the deep.XCI

Notes on verse 15b

LXXXIX “gave…drink” = shaqah. This is to give water to, to cause to drink – to irrigate, drown. It can be used for watering plants or giving water to flocks.
XC “abundantly” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XCI “deep” = tehom. Perhaps from hum (to roar, murmur, cause an uproar, agitate; to defeat in battle, destroy). This is the deep or the abyss. Either understood as a formless empty place of nothingness or as a place of confusion filled with water – the deep the feeds the waters of the earth.

16 He made streamsXCII come outXCIII of the rock,XCIV
    and caused waters to flow downXCV like rivers.XCVI

Notes on verse 16

XCII “streams” = nazal. 16x in OT. This is to drip or flow, pour down, flood, distill, or melt.
XCIII “come out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
XCIV “rock” = sela. Root may mean being lofty. This is a rock, cliff, crag, mountain. It could be used figuratively for obstinance or to show God as a refuge. It can also more generally mean fortress or stronghold.
XCV “flow down” = yarad. This is to go down, descend; going down in a literal or figurative sense. It can be going to the shore or a boundary, bringing down an enemy.
XCVI “rivers” = nahar. From nahar (to flow, sparkle, be cheerful). This is a stream, river, or flood. Particularly used for the Nile or Euphrates. Figuratively, this can mean prosperity.

17 Yet they sinnedXCVII still moreXCVIII against him,
    rebelling against the Most HighXCIX in the desert.C

Notes on verse 17

XCVII “sinned” = chata. This is properly to miss, and so figuratively it is used for sinning, bearing the blame. It implies a forfeiture or loss of something.
XCVIII “still more” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.
XCIX “Most High” = Elyon. From alah (to go up, ascend, be high, be a priority; to arise in a literal or figurative sense). This is most high, upper. It refers to elevation – so, lofty.
C “desert” = tsiyyah. 16x in OT. This is dryness or parched. So, it can also mean drought or dry places. By extension, it can mean a solitary place or a wilderness.

18 They testedCI GodCII in their heart
    by demandingCIII the foodCIV they craved.CV

Notes on verse 18

CI “tested” = nasah. This is to test, prove, try, tempt, or attempt.
CII “God” = El. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CIII “demanding” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
CIV “food” = okel. From akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.
CV “craved” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.

19 They spokeCVI against God,CVII saying,
    “CanCVIII GodCIX spreadCX a tableCXI in the wilderness?

Notes on verse 19

CVI “spoke” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v15. See note LXXXVIII above.
CVII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLI above.
CVIII “can” = yakol. This is to be able, endure, overcome, prevail.
CIX “God” = El. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CX “spread” = arak. This is to arrange by setting in a row. It can also mean to set a battle, estimate, put in order, or compare.
CXI “table” = shulchan. Perhaps from shalach (to send, send for, forsake). This is a table or meal.

20 CXIIEven though he struckCXIII the rock so that water gushed outCXIV
    and torrentsCXV overflowed,CXVI

Notes on verse 20a

CXII {untranslated} = hen. This is a remark of surprise or excitement: lo! Behold! It can also mean if or though.
CXIII “struck” = nakah. This is to hit whether lightly or severely. It can be used in a literal or figurative sense. So, this could be beat, punish, give wounds, kill, or slaughter.
CXIV “gushed out” = zub. This is to flow or gush. It is to flow like water or overflow. It can also be discharge, pine, waste away, or have a sexual flow.
CXV “torrents” = nachal. From nachal (to take as heritage, inherit, or distribute). This is a river or stream. It could be a wadi or arroyo – sometimes a narrow valley with no water at all, but in strong rains or when winter snow melts, it swells or floods with water.
CXVI “overflowed” = shataph. This is to overflow, rinse, overwhelm, run, drown, rush, flood, cleanse, gallop, conquer.

can he also giveCXVII bread,CXVIII
    or provideCXIX meatCXX for his people?”

Notes on verse 20b

CXVII “give” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXVIII “bread” = lechem. From lacham (to eat, feed on). This is bread, food, loaf. It can refer to food more generally for people or for animals.
CXIX “provide” = kun. Same as “was…steadfast” in v8. See note LI above.
CXX “meat” = sheer. 16x in OT. Perhaps from sha’ar (properly, swelling up i.e. being left over; a remnant, remaining, being redundant). This is flesh, body, meat, kin, self.

21 Therefore,CXXI when the Lord heard, he was full of rage;CXXII
    a fireCXXIII was kindledCXXIV against Jacob,
    his angerCXXV mountedCXXVI against Israel,

Notes on verse 21

CXXI “therefore” = ken. Related to “was…steadfast” in v8. Perhaps from kun (see note LI above). This is to set upright. Generally used figuratively to mean thus, so, afterwards, rightly so.
CXXII “was full of rage” = abar. Same as “pass through” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CXXIII “fire” = esh. Same as “fiery” in v14. See note LXXXIV above.
CXXIV “was kindled” = nasaq. 3x in OT. Perhaps from the same as salaq (to burn, kindle). This is to catch fir or kindle.
CXXV “anger” = aph. From anaph (to be angry; properly, breathing hard as a signifier of being enraged). This properly refers to the nose or nostril and by extension the face. It can specifically refer to anger or wrath as one breathes hard and nostrils flare in times of great anger.
CXXVI “mounted” = alah. Related to “Most High” in v17. See note XCIX above.

22 because they had no faithCXXVII in God,CXXVIII
    and did not trustCXXIX his saving power.CXXX

Notes on verse 22

CXXVII “had…faith” = aman. Same as “was…faithful” in v8. See note LIII above.
CXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLI above.
CXXIX “did…trust” = batach. This is to hide for refuge, be secure or sure. Figuratively, it refers to trust, being confident, or hoping.
CXXX “saving power” = yeshuah. From yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue, be safe. Properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. Used causatively, it means to free). This is salvation, deliverance, health, victory, prosperity.

23 Yet he commanded the skiesCXXXI above,CXXXII
    and opened the doorsCXXXIII of heaven;CXXXIV

Notes on verse 23

CXXXI “skies” = shachaq. From shachaq (to rub off, wear away, pulverize). This is powder, dust, vapor. It can also refer to the sky or a cloud.
CXXXII “above” = maal. Related to “Most High” in v17 & “mounted” in v21. From alah (see note XCIX above). This is the upper part, forward, high above, upwards, greater, heaven, or exceedingly.
CXXXIII “doors” = delet. From dalah (to draw, lift up; properly, to dangle; draw water; figuratively, to deliver). This is something that swings like a door, gate, leaf, lid, or other opening.
CXXXIV “heaven” = shamayim. Root may mean being lofty. This is sky, the air, or heaven. It is in a dual noun form so this might refer to the part of the sky where the clouds move on the one hand and the part beyond that where the sun, moon, and stars are on the other hand.

24 he rained down on them mannaCXXXV to eat,CXXXVI
    and gave them the grainCXXXVII of heaven.

Notes on verse 24

CXXXV “manna” = man. 14x in OT. From mah (what, how, how long, why – a question or exclamation). This is manna, literally a whatzit.
CXXXVI “eat” = akal. Related to “food” in v18. See note CIV above.
CXXXVII “grain” = dagan. Perhaps from dagah (to multiply, move quickly, breed greatly, grow). This is grain or other cereal.

25 MortalsCXXXVIII ate of the bread of angels;CXXXIX
    he sentCXL them foodCXLI in abundance.CXLII

Notes on verse 25

CXXXVIII “mortals” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.
CXXXIX “angels” = abbir. 17x in OT. From abir (strong, mighty); from abar (to fly, soar). This is mighty or valiant. It could refer to a mighty one broadly, an angel, or a bull.
CXL “sent” = shalach. Related to “table” in v19. See note CXI above.
CXLI “food” = tsedah. 11x in OT. From the same as tsayid (food or provision). This is food, meat, or other provisions.
CXLII “abundance” = soba. 8x in OT. From saba (to be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense; to have plenty of). This is abundance, fullness, satisfaction. Properly, it is being sated – having enough food. Figuratively, it is fullness of joy.

26 He caused the east windCXLIII to blowCXLIV in the heavens,
    and by his powerCXLV he led outCXLVI the south wind;CXLVII

Notes on verse 26

CXLIII “east wind” = qadim. Related to “old” in v2. From the same as qedem (see note XIV above). This is east, toward the east, the front, wind from the east.
CXLIV “blow” = nasa. This is properly pulling up as when one pulls up tent pegs or stakes. This would imply striking tents in order to start a journey. So this could be bring, pullout, set out, journey, or cause to go away.
CXLV “power” = oz. Related to “might” in v4. From azaz (see note XXV above). This is strength in the sense of force, majesty, praise, material and physical strength, the abstract notion of security. It can also speak of social or political power.
CXLVI “led out” = nahag. This is to drive as in driving flocks, but also driving in animal or vehicle like a chariot. It can mean to carry away, lead, drive away, proceed, or guide. It can also relate to behavior and what one is accustomed to.
CXLVII “south wind” = teman. From the same as yamin (right hand or side; that which is stronger or more agile; the south); {perhaps yamam (to go or choose the right, use the right hand; to be physically fit or firm)}. This is south, towards the south, wind from the south.

27 he rained fleshCXLVIII upon them like dust,CXLIX
    wingedCL birdsCLI like the sandCLII of the seas;

Notes on verse 27

CXLVIII “flesh” = sheer. Same as “meat” in v20. See note CXX above.
CXLIX “dust” = aphar. Related to “Ephraim” in v9. From aphar (see note LV above). This is dust as powdered, perhaps gray colored. It could be ashes, powder, ground, dry earth, clay mud, or rubbish.
CL “winged” = kanaph. This is wing, edge, corner, extremity. It can also be a flap or fold of a garment or the pinnacle of a building.
CLI “birds” = oph. From uph (to fly, flee, shine, be weary, be faint). This is a flying creature.
CLII “sand” = chol. From chul (whirling around so dancing as in a circle or writhing in pain; used particularly for the pain of childbirth or from writhing due to fear; can also be falling in pain or waiting). This is sand, perhaps because of its roundness or the way that the grains can whirl.

28 he let them fallCLIII withinCLIV their camp,CLV
    all aroundCLVI their dwellings.CLVII

Notes on verse 28

CLIII “fall” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
CLIV “within” = qereb. Related to “battle” in v9. Perhaps from qarab (see note LX above). This is among, in the midst, before, the center It is the inward part, whether literal or figurative. It can also be used for the heart, the site of thoughts and feelings. This word is also used as a technical term for the entrails of the animals who are sacrificed.
CLV “camp” = machaneh. From chanah (to decline, bending down, or living in tents; can be camping to create a home or camping as a part of battle). This is an encampment, whether of people traveling together or soldiers. So, it can be a camp band, or company as well as an army of soldiers. Also can be used of other groups like animals, angels or stars.
CLVI “all around” = sabib. From sabab (turning around, going around; to surround, cast, walk, fetch; to revolve or border in a literal or figurative sense). This is a circuit or a circle. It could refer to an environment, one’s neighbors, or a circular path round about.
CLVII “dwellings” = mishkan. From shakan (to settle down in the sense of residing somewhere or staying there permanently; to abide or continue). This is a place where one lives – a tabernacle, tent, or other kind of dwelling. It can also be a lair where animals live, the grave, the Temple, or the Tabernacle.

29 And they ate and were wellCLVIII filled,CLIX
    for he gaveCLX them what they craved.CLXI
30 But before they had satisfiedCLXII their craving,
    while the food was still in their mouths,

Notes on verses 29-30

CLVIII “well” = meod. Perhaps from the same as uwd (firebrand, a poker). This is very, greatly, exceedingly. It can also mean vehemence, force, abundance.
CLIX “were…filled” = saba. Related to “abundance” in v25. See note CXLII above.
CLX “gave” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
CLXI “what they craved” = taavah. From the same as avah (to desire, crave, wish for, lust after). This is what is desirable, a delight, greedy, satisfaction, a charm.
CLXII “satisfied” = zur. This is to come from someone else – a stranger. It is to stop for lodging. Figuratively, it can also mean to profane or commit adultery.

31 the anger of GodCLXIII roseCLXIV against them
    and he killedCLXV the strongestCLXVI of them,
    and laid lowCLXVII the flowerCLXVIII of Israel.

Notes on verse 31

CLXIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLI above.
CLXIV “rose” = alah. Same as “mounted” in v21. See note CXXVI above.
CLXV “killed” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
CLXVI “strongest” = mashman. 7x in OT. From shaman (to grow fat, shine, be oily). This is fat in a literal sense – one who is fat or robust. It can also refer to the general concept of fatness. Figuratively, it could be a food that is rich or a place that is fertile.
CLXVII “laid low” = kara. This is to bow, crouch, kneel down, subdue. It is to bend the knee in many senses. It can also mean to smite, a woman crouching in childbirth, or bowing to worship God.
CLXVIII “flower” = bachur. From bachar (to choose, appoint, try, excellent). This is choice, chosen, selected. It is a youth or young man.

32 In spite of all this they still sinned;
    they did not believeCLXIX in his wonders.
33 So he made their days vanishCLXX like a breath,CLXXI
    and their years in terror.CLXXII

Notes on verses 32-33

CLXIX “believe” = aman. Same as “was…faithful” in v8. See note LIII above.
CLXX “vanish” = kalah. This is to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed.
CLXXI “breath” = hebel. Perhaps from habal (to be vain, behave in an empty way). This is emptiness, vapor, breath. It can refer to something that is fleeting or futile, worthless or a delusion. Something that is passing and so does not satisfy. This is related to the root for the name “Abel.”
CLXXII “terror” = behalah. 4x in OT. From bahal (to be afraid, dismayed, amazed; deep trembling within; figuratively, being suddenly agitated; implies moving or acting quickly/anxiously). This is trouble, terror, ruin.

34 When he killed them, they soughtCLXXIII for him;
    they repentedCLXXIV and sought GodCLXXV earnestly.CLXXVI

Notes on verse 34

CLXXIII “sought” = darash. This is seek, ask, inquire, care for. Generally it means following in pursuit or following as part of a search, which implies seeking or asking. Also used specially to mean worship.
CLXXIV “repented” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
CLXXV “God” = El. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CLXXVI “sought…earnestly” = shachar. 12x in OT. From shachar (dawn, early light, or morning). This is to seek in a diligent or eager way. It is to look for early as someone who stays up for the morning watch to see at the dawn. Often used for seeking God or seeking good.

35 They rememberedCLXXVII that GodCLXXVIII was their rock,
    the Most High GodCLXXIX their redeemer.CLXXX

Notes on verse 35

CLXXVII “remembered” = zakar. This is to remember, to mark something so that it can be recalled, to be mindful of, to mention.
CLXXVIII “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLI above.
CLXXIX “God” = El. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CLXXX “redeemer” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.

36 But they flatteredCLXXXI him with their mouths;
    they liedCLXXXII to him with their tongues.CLXXXIII
37 Their heart was not steadfast toward him;
    they were not trueCLXXXIV to his covenant.

Notes on verses 36-37

CLXXXI “flattered” = pathah. This is to be wide, open, or roomy. Figuratively, it can mean to be simple. Alternately, it can mean to delude, deceive, entice, or flatter.
CLXXXII “lied” = kazab. 18x in OT. This is to lie, be false or in vain, to fail. It is to deceive in a literal or figurative sense.
CLXXXIII “tongues” = lashon. This is tongue, talker, language, or wedge. It can also be a tongue of flame or a water cove.
CLXXXIV “were…true” = aman. Same as “was…faithful” in v8. See note LIII above.

38 Yet he, being compassionate,CLXXXV
    forgaveCLXXXVI their iniquity,CLXXXVII
    and did not destroyCLXXXVIII them;

Notes on verse 38a

CLXXXV “compassionate” = rachum. 13x in OT. From the same as rechem (womb); from racham (to love, have compassion, have mercy); from racham (compassion, tender love, womb, compassion; the womb as that which cherishes the fetus). This is compassionate or merciful.
CLXXXVI “forgave” = kaphar. This is to appease, cover, pacify, cancel, make atonement, placate. Specifically, it can mean to cover with bitumen.
CLXXXVII “iniquity” = avon. Perhaps related to avah (to bend, twist, be amiss). This is sin, mischief, guilt, fault, punishment for iniquity, or moral evil.
CLXXXVIII “destroy” = shachat. This is to go to ruin, perish, decay, batter, cast off, lose, one who destroys. This can be used in a literal or figurative sense.

oftenCLXXXIX he restrainedCXC his anger,
    and did not stir upCXCI all his wrath.CXCII

Notes on verse 38b

CLXXXIX “often” = rabah. This is increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.
CXC “restrained” = shub. Same as “repented” in v34. See note CLXXIV above.
CXCI “stir up” = ur. This is to arise, lift, exult, or stir. It is to wake in a literal or figurative sense.
CXCII “wrath” = chemah. From yacham (to be hot, mate; figuratively, to conceive). This is heat – figuratively it can be anger or fury. It can also refer to poison or venom as they can cause fever.

39 He remembered that they were but flesh,CXCIII
    a windCXCIV that passesCXCV and does not come again.CXCVI
40 How often they rebelled against him in the wilderness
    and grievedCXCVII him in the desert!CXCVIII

Notes on verses 39-40

CXCIII “flesh” = basar. From basar (being a messenger, publish, carry preach; properly, this is being fresh, rosy or cheerful as one bearing news). This is flesh, the body, fat, skin, self, nakedness, humankind, or kin. It can also refer to private parts.
CXCIV “wind” = ruach. Same as “spirit” in v8. See note LII above.
CXCV “passes” = halak. Same as “walk” in v10. See note LXIII above.
CXCVI “come again” = shub. Same as “repented” in v34. See note CLXXIV above.
CXCVII “grieved” = atsab. 17x in OT. This is to hurt, grieve, carve, create, worry, anger.
CXCVIII “desert” = yeshimon. 13x in OT. From yasham (to be stripped, destroyed, desolate). This is a wilderness or desert. It can also refer to a place called Jeshimon. It means “wasteland” or “wilderness.” See

41 They tested GodCXCIX again and again,CC
    and provokedCCI the Holy OneCCII of Israel.

Notes on verse 41

CXCIX “God” = El. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLIV above.
CC “again and again” = shub. Same as “repented” in v34. See note CLXXIV above.
CCI “provoked” = tavah. 1x in OT. This is to make a mark or limit. It could also be to wound , grieve, or provoke.
CCII “Holy One” = qadosh. From qodesh (set apart and so sacred; God is different from us and so God is holy/set apart; things we dedicate to God’s service are set apart for God and so they, too, are holy); related to qadash (set apart, consecrated, hallowed, sanctified; something or someone set apart for a holy purpose or use – ceremonially or morally clean). This is sacred or holy in a ritual or moral sense. As a noun, it refers to a holy one (like a saint or angel), a holy place (the sanctuary), or God (the Holy One).

42 They did not keep in mindCCIII his power,CCIV
    or the day when he redeemedCCV them from the foe;CCVI

Notes on verse 42

CCIII “keep in mind” = zakar. Same as “remembered” in v35. See note CLXXVII above.
CCIV “power” = yad. This is hand, ability, power. Hand in a literal sense, but also what one can do or the means by which one does it.
CCV “redeemed” = padah. This is to sever, which is to say to ransom. To secure someone’s release (by paying their debt to free them from slavery) and thus redeem, rescue, deliver, preserve. Can also be the redemption price.
CCVI “foe” = tsar. From tsarar (to bind, restrict, narrow, be cramped, an adversary). Properly, this is a narrow or constricted place. Figuratively, it can be trouble, a pebble, an enemy, anguish, or distress.

43 when he displayedCCVII his signsCCVIII in Egypt,
    and his miraclesCCIX in the fields of Zoan.

Notes on verse 43

CCVII “displayed” = sum. Same as “appointed” in v5. See note XXXI above.
CCVIII “signs” = oth. From avah (to mark, sign, point out); OR from uth (to agree). This is a sign in a literal or figurative sense. It could be a flag or monument. It could be evidence or a mark. It could also be an omen or a miracle. 
CCIX “miracles” = mopheth. Perhaps from yaphah (to be beautiful, decorate; root means being bright, which implies being beautiful). This is a wonder, miracle, symbol, sign, or omen.

44 He turned their riversCCX to blood,CCXI
    so that they could not drinkCCXII of their streams.

Notes on verse 44

CCX “rivers” = yeor. From Egyptian yeor (river). This is the Nile as the main river in Egypt. It is also used for the Tigris for its similar status in Assyria. It can also more generally mean river, steam, channel, or flood.
CCXI “blood” = dam. Perhaps from damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, die). This is blood, bloodshed, bloodguilt, lifeblood, and death. It is used for people and animals. More often blood from a wound or the blood of the innocent. Used figuratively for violence or for wine. Closely tied to life and death.
CCXII “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.

45 He sent among them swarmsCCXIII of flies, which devouredCCXIV them,
    and frogs,CCXV which destroyed them.

Notes on verse 45

CCXIII “swarms” = arob. 9x in OT – used of the fourth plague of Egypt in Exodus 8 and twice in the Psalms referring to that event. From the same as ereb (mixed company, woof of a cloth, mixture); from arab (to bargain, barter, give or take in pledge; to braid or intermingle). This is a swarm – perhaps of flies or mosquitos.
CCXIV “devoured” = akal. Same as “eat” in v24. See note CXXXVI above.
CCXV “frogs” = tsephardea. 13x in OT – used of the second plague of Egypt in Exodus 8 and twice in the Psalms referring to that event. Perhaps from tsaphar (to skip about, maybe to depart) + a word for swamp. This is frog. It is perhaps as one who jumps from a marsh.

46 He gave their cropsCCXVI to the caterpillar,CCXVII
    and the fruit of their laborCCXVIII to the locust.CCXIX

Notes on verse 46

CCXVI “crops” = yebul. 13x in OT. From yabal (to lead, bring, carry, conduct; properly, to flow; to bring or lead with fanfare). This is yield, produce. Literally, it refers to crops and figuratively to wealth.
CCXVII “caterpillar” = chasil. 6x in OT. From chasal (to finish or consume). This is a locust as having a ravenous appetite – one that strips plants, a grasshopper or caterpillar.
CCXVIII “fruit of their labor” = yegia. 16x in OT. From yaga (to work, become weary, to gasp or be exhausted). This is that which comes from labor – product, possession, fruit, toil, wages, etc.
CCXIX “locust” = arbeh. Related to “often” in v38. From rabah (see note CLXXXIX above). This is a locust from its abundance – a swarming locust or grasshopper.

47 He destroyedCCXX their vinesCCXXI with hail,
    and their sycamoresCCXXII with frost.CCXXIII

Notes on verse 47

CCXX “destroyed” = harag. Same as “killed” in v31. See note CLXV above.
CCXXI “vines” = gephen. Root may mean to twine or bend. So, it is a vine, particularly referring to grapes.
CCXXII “sycamores” = shiqmah. 7x in OT. This is a sycamore tree or its fruit. It may be the root of the word sycamore, also used for trees in North America.
CCXXIII “frost” = chanamel. 1x in OT. This could be frost or maybe some kind of bug that attacks plants.

48 He gave overCCXXIV their cattleCCXXV to the hail,
    and their flocksCCXXVI to thunderbolts.CCXXVII

Notes on verse 48

CCXXIV “gave over” = sagar. This is to shut up, imprison, lock, hand over, or figuratively surrender.
CCXXV “cattle” = beir. 6x in OT. From baar (to consume, feed, kindle, be brutish). This is animal or cattle.
CCXXVI “flocks” = miqneh. From qanah (to get, acquire, purchase, move to jealousy, buyer, keep cattle). This is something that is bought, which implies property or possession. However, it is generally used of livestock – cattle, flock, herds.
CCXXVII “thunderbolts” = resheph. 7x in OT. Perhaps from saraph (to burn or kindle). This is a flame, thunderbolt, spark, arrow, fever, plague. Earliest sense was of a burning coal and all other senses derive from that by analogy.

49 He let looseCCXXVIII on them his fierceCCXXIX anger,
    wrath,CCXXX indignation,CCXXXI and distress,CCXXXII

Notes on verse 49a

CCXXVIII “let loose” = shalach. Same as “sent” in v25. See note CXL above.
CCXXIX “fierce” = charon. From charah (to be displeased, burn with anger, glow, become warn; figuratively a blaze of anger, zeal, or jealousy). This is burning anger, fierceness, or wrathfulness.
CCXXX “wrath” = ebrah. Related to “pass through” in v13. From eber (the region beyond, passage, quarter, opposite side; generally the east); from abar (see note LXXVI above). This is overflow or a passionate outburst. So, fury, anger, or rage.
CCXXXI “indignation” = zaam. From zaam (properly, foaming at the mouth and so being enraged or angry; to curse or denounce). This is indignation, anger, fury. Also used of God’s anger at sin.
CCXXXII “distress” = tsarah. Related to “foe” in v42. From tsar (see note CCVI above). This is tightness, distress, affliction, trouble, or adversary.

    a companyCCXXXIII of destroyingCCXXXIV angels.CCXXXV

Notes on verse 49b

CCXXXIII “company” = mishlachath. Related to “table” in v19 & “sent” in v25. 2x in OT. From shalach (see note CXI above). This is a sending, mission, discharge.
CCXXXIV “destroying” = ra’. From ra’a’ (to be evil, bad, afflict; properly, to spoil – to destroy by breaking into pieces; figuratively, to cause something to be worthless; this is bad in a physical, social, or moral sense; that which displeases, to do harm or mischief, to punish or vex). This is bad, disagreeable, that which causes pain, misery, something having little or no value, something that is ethically bad, wicked, injury, calamity. This refers to anything that is not what it ought to be – a natural disaster, a disfigurement, an injury, a sin.
CCXXXV “angels” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.

50 He madeCCXXXVI a pathCCXXXVII for his anger;
    he did not spareCCXXXVIII themCCXXXIX from death,CCXL
    but gave their livesCCXLI over to the plague.CCXLII

Notes on verse 50

CCXXXVI “made” = palas. 6x in OT. Perhaps from peles (a scale, weight). This is to flatten, make level, create a road, weigh, ponder.
CCXXXVII “path” = nathib. This is a beaten path or a traveler.
CCXXXVIII “spare” = chasak. This is to restrain, refrain, or hold back. It can mean to spare, to preserve or to punish, depending on the context.
CCXXXIX “them” = nephesh. Same as “craved” in v18. See note CV above.
CCXL “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.
CCXLI “lives” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CCXLII “plague” = deber. Related to “wilderness” in v15 & “spoke” in v19. From dabar (see note LXXXVIII above). This is plague or thorns.

51 He struck all the firstbornCCXLIII in Egypt,
    the first issueCCXLIV of their strengthCCXLV in the tentsCCXLVI of Ham.CCXLVII

Notes on verse 51

CCXLIII “firstborn” = bekor. From bakar (to bear fruit, be firstborn, firstling, that which opens the womb, give the birthright to). This is firstborn or chief.
CCXLIV “first issue” = reshit. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is beginning, first place, highest rank, chief thing.
CCXLV “strength” = on. 12x in OT. Perhaps from aven (root may mean panting as one does when expending a lot of energy, especially when it comes to nothing; nothingness, trouble, sorrow, distress, wickedness, evil, harm, sorrow, misfortune, and mischief.; used specifically to refer to idols). This is strength, power, ability, wealth, substance, or vigor.
CCXLVI “tents” = ohel. Perhaps from ahal (to shine, be clear). This is a tent, covering, home, or side pillar.
CCXLVII “Ham” = Cham. 16x in OT. Perhaps from the same as cham (hot, warm); from chamam (to be warm, heat; to be hot in a literal or figurative sense; to mate). This is Ham, meaning “hot” or “protective wall.” See

52 Then he led outCCXLVIII his people like sheep,CCXLIX
    and guidedCCL them in the wilderness like a flock.CCLI

Notes on verse 52

CCXLVIII “led out” = nasa. Same as “blow” in v26. See note CXLIV above.
CCXLIX “sheep” = tson. This is a flock of sheep and goats.
CCL “guided” = nahag. Same as “led out” in v26. See note CXLVI above.
CCLI “flock” = eder. From adar (fail, missing) OR from adar (to dig, help, keep rank; properly, to muster troops as for battle; to miss or lack since you can see who is missing following muster; to arrange like a vineyard and so to hoe). This is arrangement – of animals, a flock or herd.

53 He ledCCLII them in safety,CCLIII so that they were not afraid;CCLIV
    but the sea overwhelmedCCLV their enemies.CCLVI

Notes on verse 53

CCLII “led” = nachah. Same as “led” in v14. See note LXXXI above.
CCLIII “safety” = betach. Related to “did…trust” in v22. From batach (see note CXXIX above). This is a place of refuge. So, abstractly, it can be confidence, security, hope, trust, or assurance.
CCLIV “were…afraid” = pachad. To dread, be afraid, thrill, be in awe. This is properly feeling startled from a sudden sound or alarm and so, more generally, to be afraid.
CCLV “overwhelmed” = kasah. This is to cover, conceal, overwhelm. It is to cover as clothes do or to hide a secret.
CCLVI “enemies” = oyeb. From ayab (to hate or be hostile to). This is a foe or enemy as one that you are hostile to.

54 And he broughtCCLVII them to his holyCCLVIII hill,CCLIX
    to the mountainCCLX that his right handCCLXI had won.CCLXII

Notes on verse 54

CCLVII “brought” = bo. Same as “gave” in v29. See note CLX above.
CCLVIII “holy” = qodesh. Related to “Holy One” in v41. See note CCII above.
CCLIX “hill” = gebul. Perhaps from gabal (to border, twist like rope). This is boundary, limit, coast, space. Properly, it is a line that is twisted, which implies a boundary and, by extension, the boundaries of a territory or other enclosed space.
CCLX “mountain” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
CCLXI “right hand” = yamin. Related to “south wind” in v26. See note CXLVII above.
CCLXII “won” = qanah. Related to “flocks” in v48. See note CCXXVI above.

55 He drove outCCLXIII nationsCCLXIV beforeCCLXV them;

Notes on verse 55a

CCLXIII “drove out” = garash. This is to cast out or expel. It can be to exile someone or to divorce them.
CCLXIV “nations” = goy. From the same root as gevah (the back, person, or body); related to gev (among); related to gaah (to rise up). This is nation or people. Often used to refer to Gentiles or foreign nations. It can also be used figuratively for a group of animals. This is where the Yiddish “goy” comes from.
CCLXV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.

    he apportionedCCLXVI them for a possessionCCLXVII
    and settledCCLXVIII the tribesCCLXIX of Israel in their tents.

Notes on verse 55b

CCLXVI “apportioned” = naphal + chebel. Naphal is the same as “fall” in v28. See note CLIII above. Chebel is from chabal (to bind, pledge, or wind tight; figuratively, can refer to perverting or destroying something; can also be used of writhing in pain, particularly in reference to childbirth). This is a band, rope, measuring line, noose. It can be a company, territory, or country. It can also refer to a throe of labor or ruin.
CCLXVII “possession” = nachalah. Related to “torrents” in v20. Perhaps from nachal (see note CXV above). This is properly something that was inherited. It can mean occupancy generally or, more particularly, an heirloom or an estate. This can be an inheritance, gift, possession, or portion.
CCLXVIII “settled” = shakan. Related to “dwellings” in v28. See note CLVII above.
CCLXIX “tribes” = shebet. This is a rod, staff, club, scepter, dart, or tribe. Literally a stick that can be used for punishing, writing, fighting, walking, ruling; thus, used figuratively for a clan.

56 Yet they tested the Most High God,CCLXX
    and rebelled against him.
    They did not observeCCLXXI his decrees,CCLXXII
57 but turned awayCCLXXIII and were faithlessCCLXXIV like their ancestors;
    they twistedCCLXXV like a treacherousCCLXXVI bow.

Notes on verses 56-57

CCLXX “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLI above.
CCLXXI “observe” = shamar. Same as “keep” in v10. See note LXI above.
CCLXXII “decrees” = edah. Related to “decree” in v5 & “still more” in v17. From ed (see note XXIX above). This is testimony or witness.
CCLXXIII “turned away” = sug. 14x in OT. This is to turn back, aside, or away. Properly, it means to flinch, which implies moving away or going back. Literally it can mean retreat or figuratively it can mean backslide i.e. apostatize.
CCLXXIV “were faithless” = bagad. This is to cover or conceal. Figuratively, it is to act in a covert or treacherous way, to transgress or pillage.
CCLXXV “twisted” = haphak. Same as “turned back” in v9. See note LVIII above.
CCLXXVI “treacherous” = rmiyah. Related to “armed” in v9. 15x in OT. From ramah (see note LVI above). This is deceit, treachery, or guile. It could also mean idle or slothful.

58 For they provoked him to angerCCLXXVII with their high places;CCLXXVIII
    they moved him to jealousyCCLXXIX with their idols.CCLXXX
59 When GodCCLXXXI heard, he was full of wrath,CCLXXXII
    and he utterlyCCLXXXIII rejectedCCLXXXIV Israel.

Notes on verses 58-59

CCLXXVII “provoked him to anger” = kaas. This is to provoke, be angry, grieve, trouble.
CCLXXVIII “high places” = bamah. The root might mean being high. This is height, wave, or elevation.
CCLXXIX “moved him to jealousy” = qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy.
CCLXXX “idols” = pasil. From pasal (to hew, carve; used for wood or stone). This is an idol or other image.
CCLXXXI “God” = Elohim. Same as “God” in v7. See note XLI above.
CCLXXXII “was full of wrath” = abar. Same as “pass through” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CCLXXXIII “utterly” = meod. Same as “well” in v29. See note CLVIII above.
CCLXXXIV “rejected” = ma’as. This is to reject, refuse, despise, disdain, reject, or spurn. It can also be to disappear or melt away.

60 He abandonedCCLXXXV his dwelling at Shiloh,CCLXXXVI
    the tent where he dweltCCLXXXVII among mortals,CCLXXXVIII

Notes on verse 60

CCLXXXV “abandoned” = natsah. This is to strike – to hit so that something is spread away. It can be abandon, cast away, neglect, spread, leave, thrust out.
CCLXXXVI “Shiloh” = Shiloh. From shalah (to draw out, take away, require) OR from the same as Shiyloh (Shiloh; perhaps “he whose it is” or “tranquil”); perhaps from shalah (to be quiet, safe, tranquil; can imply success or happiness; could also mean to deceive or be negligent). This is Shiloh, perhaps “he whose it is” or “tranquil.”
CCLXXXVII “dwelt” = shakan. Same as “settled” in v55. See note CCLXVIII above.
CCLXXXVIII “mortals” = adam. Perhaps from adam (to be red, make ruddy); related to adamah (ground, dirt, earth). This is man, humankind, also Adam’s name. It refers to a human individual or humanity.

61 and deliveredCCLXXXIX his powerCCXC to captivity,CCXCI
    his gloryCCXCII to the handCCXCIII of the foe.

Notes on verse 61

CCLXXXIX “delivered” = natan. Same as “give” in v20. See note CXVII above.
CCXC “power” = oz. Same as “power” in v26. See note CXLV above.
CCXCI “captivity” = shbiy. From shebo (valuable stone, maybe agate) OR from shabah (to take captive, keep, a captor). This is prisoner, exiled, captivity, booty.
CCXCII “glory” = tipharah. From paar (to beautify or adorn, to gleam; can refer to showing honor or glorifying someone; also to boast or to shake a tree for harvest). This is beautiful, splendor, adornment, honor, bravery.
CCXCIII “hand” = yad. Same as “power” in v42. See note CCIV above.

62 He gaveCCXCIV his people to the sword,CCXCV
    and vented his wrathCCXCVI on his heritage.CCXCVII
63 Fire devoured their young men,CCXCVIII
    and their girlsCCXCIX had no marriage song.CCC

Notes on verses 62-63

CCXCIV “gave” = sagar. Same as “gave over” in v48. See note CCXXIV above.
CCXCV “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.
CCXCVI “vented his wrath” = abar. Same as “pass through” in v13. See note LXXVI above.
CCXCVII “heritage” = nachalah. Same as “possession” in v55. See note CCLXVII above.
CCXCVIII “young men” = bachur. Same as “flower” in v31. See note CLXVIII above.
CCXCIX “girls” = betulah. This is virgin, maiden, or bride. Can also be used figuratively for a place.
CCC “had…marriage song” = halal. Related to “glorious deeds” in v4. See note XXIII above.

64 Their priestsCCCI fell by the sword,
    and their widowsCCCII made no lamentation.CCCIII

Notes on verse 64

CCCI “priests” = kohen. This is literally the one who officiates i.e. the priest. This is where the Jewish last name “Cohen” (and its variants) comes from.
CCCII “widows” = almanah. Related to alman (widowed); from alam (to be silent, bound). This is a widow or a house that is desolate.
CCCIII “made…lamentation” = bakah. This is to weep, complain, or lament.

65 Then the LordCCCIV awoke as from sleep,CCCV
    like a warriorCCCVI shoutingCCCVII because of wine.CCCVIII

Notes on verse 65

CCCIV “Lord” = Adonai. From adon (lord, master, owner); root means to rule or be sovereign. This is the actual Hebrew word for Lord used (in a different form) of humans and (in the present form) of God. It means someone who is in control.
CCCV “sleep” = yashen. 5x in OT. From yashen (to be languid or go slack; it can mean to sleep, become old or stale, or die). This is sleeping, sleepy, those who sleep.
CCCVI “warrior” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.
CCCVII “shouting” = ranan. This is a cry of joy or a joyful song. Properly, it is emitting a shrill sound, especially one of joy.
CCCVIII “wine” = yayin. Root may mean to effervesce, referring to the fermentation process. This is wine, grape, or banquet. It can imply intoxication.

66 He put his adversariesCCCIX to rout;CCCX
    he putCCCXI them to everlastingCCCXII disgrace.CCCXIII

Notes on verse 66

CCCIX “adversaries” = tsar. Same as “foe” in v42. See note CCVI above.
CCCX “put…to rout” = nakahachor. Nakah is the same as “struck” in v20. See note CXIII above. Achor is related to “coming” in v4. From achar (see note XXI above). This is the back, behind, backward, time to come. It can also refer to facing to the north or the west.
CCCXI “put” = natan. Same as “give” in v20. See note CXVII above.
CCCXII “everlasting” = olam. This is a long scope of time whether in the past (antiquity, ancient time) or in the future (eternal, everlasting).
CCCXIII “disgrace” = cherpah. From charaph (to expose and so figuratively to reproach, defame, carp at, defy). This is reproach, rebuke, shame, or disgrace. It can also refer to genitals.

67 He rejected the tent of Joseph,CCCXIV
    he did not chooseCCCXV the tribe of Ephraim;
68 but he chose the tribe of Judah,CCCXVI
    MountCCCXVII Zion,CCCXVIII which he loves.CCCXIX

Notes on verses 67-68

CCCXIV “Joseph” = Yoseph. Related to “still more” in v17. From yasaph (see note XCVIII above). This is Joseph, meaning “he increases” or “let him add.”
CCCXV “choose” = bachar. Related to “flower” in v31. See note CLXVIII above.
CCCXVI “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
CCCXVII “Mount” = har. Same as “mountain” in v54. See note CCLX above.
CCCXVIII “Zion” = Tsiyyon. Related to “commanded” in v5 & “commandments” in v7 & “desert” in v17. Related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (see note XXXIV above); from the same as tsiyyah (see note C above); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. Zion can refer to a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people.
CCCXIX “loves” = aheb. This is to love, beloved, friend. It is to have affection for sexually or otherwise.

69 He builtCCCXX his sanctuaryCCCXXI like the high heavens,CCCXXII
    like the earth,CCCXXIII which he has foundedCCCXXIV forever.CCCXXV

Notes on verse 69

CCCXX “built” = banah. Related to “children” in v4. See note XX above.
CCCXXI “sanctuary” = miqdash. Related to “Holy One” in v41 & “holy” in v54. From the same as qodesh (see note CCII above). This is a sacred place, sanctuary, holy place. It is something or somewhere that is consecrated, whether to God or to another.
CCCXXII “high heavens” = rum. This is to rise or raise, to be high literally or figuratively. So it can also mean to exalt or extol.
CCCXXIII “earth” = erets. Same as “land” in v12. See note LXX above.
CCCXXIV “founded” = yasad. This is to establish, appoint, instruct. It is to set in a literal or figurative sense. Also means to sit down together and so to consult or take counsel.
CCCXXV “forever” = olam. Same as “everlasting” in v66. See note CCCXII above.

70 He chose his servantCCCXXVI David,CCCXXVII
    and tookCCCXXVIII him from the sheepfolds;CCCXXIX

Notes on verse 70

CCCXXVI “servant” = ebed. From abad (to work, serve, compel; any kind of work; used causatively, can mean to enslave or keep in bondage). This is a servant, slave, or bondservant.
CCCXXVII “David” = David. From the same as dod (beloved, love, uncle); the root may mean to boil, which is used figuratively to describe love. So, this implies someone you love such as a friend, a lover, or a close family member like an uncle. David’s name likely means something like “beloved one.”
CCCXXVIII “took” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
CCCXXIX “sheepfolds” = miklaah + tson. Miklaah is 3x in OT. From kala (to stop in the sense of holding back or restraining; to keep, refuse, forbid, or to prohibit by word). This is an enclosure such as a fold for sheep or goats. Tson is the same as “sheep” in v52. See note CCXLIX above.

71 from tendingCCCXXX the nursing ewesCCCXXXI he brought him
    to be the shepherdCCCXXXII of his people Jacob,
    of Israel, his inheritance.CCCXXXIII

Notes on verse 71

CCCXXX “tending” = achar. Related to “coming” n v4 & “put…to rout” in v66. From achar (see note XXI above). This is after or the last part, following.
CCCXXXI “nursing ewes” = ul. 5x in OT. This is to nurse or suckle. It can also be used of a suckling lamb.
CCCXXXII “be shepherd” = ra’ah. This is to tend a flock, pasture, or graze. It can mean to rule or to associate with someone. Figuratively, it can be ruler or teacher.
CCCXXXIII “inheritance” = nachalah. Same as “possession” in v55. See note CCLXVII above.

72 With uprightCCCXXXIV heart he tendedCCCXXXV them,
    and guidedCCCXXXVI them with skillfulCCCXXXVII hand.CCCXXXVIII

Notes on verse 72

CCCXXXIV “upright” = tom. From tamam (to finish or accomplish; to make perfect, demonstrate that you are upright; consume; to complete in a literal or figurative sense). This is completeness or full measure. So, it can be blameless, moral innocence, prosperity, or integrity. Also used to refer to a portion of the high priest’s breastplate.
CCCXXXV “tended” = ra’ah. Same as “be shepherd” in v71. See note CCCXXXII above.
CCCXXXVI “guided” = nachah. Same as “led” in v14. See note LXXXI above.
CCCXXXVII “skillful” = tebunah. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is understanding, discernment, discretion, intelligence, skill, fruit, an argument.
CCCXXXVIII “hand” = kaph. From kaphaph (to bend – from a root meaning curve or bend down). This is palm of the hand or sole of the foot, footstep, grasp. Figuratively, it can also mean power.

Image credit: “Moses Aharon Sea” – “Still from the 2018 animated feature film Seder-Masochism by Nina Paley”.

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