Romans 6:3-11

Romans 6:3-11
Easter Vigil A


Do you not knowA that all of us who were baptizedB into ChristC JesusD were baptized into his death?E 

Notes on verse 3

A “not know” = agnoeo. From a (not) + noieo (to perceive, think, understand); {from nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}. This is unaware not to know. Sometimes it is willful ignorance, but other times it is simply not knowing.
B “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.
C “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
D “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
E “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.

Therefore we were buriedF with him by baptismG into death, so that, just as Christ was raisedH

Notes on verse 4a

F “buried” = sunthapto. 2x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + thapto (to bury, hold a funeral). This is to bury together with.
G “baptism” = baptisma. Related to “baptized” in v3. From baptizo (see note B above). This is dipping or sinking. Also, the rite of baptism.
H “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.

from the deadI by the gloryJ of the Father,K

Notes on verse 4b

I “dead” = nekros. Perhaps from nekus (corpse). This is dead or lifeless, mortal, corpse. It can also be used figuratively for powerless or ineffective. It is where the word “necrotic” comes from.
J “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
K “Father” = Pater. This is father in a literal or figurative sense. Could be elder, senior, ancestor, originator, or patriarch.

so we also might walkL in newnessM of life.N

Notes on verse 4c

L “walk” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.
M “newness” = kainotes. 2x in NT. From kainos (not new as in new versus old; new  in the sense of novel, innovative, or fresh). This is newness, novelty, or renewal.
N “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

For if we have beenO unitedP with him in a death likeQ his, we will certainly beR united with him in a resurrectionS like his. 

Notes on verse 5

O “been” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.
P “united” = sumphutos. 1x in NT. From sumphuo (to grow together); {from sun (with, together with) + phuo (to produce, spring up, grow, germinate; perhaps originally meaning puff or blow)}. This is united, planted close by, growing together.
Q “like” = homoioma. 6x in NT. From homoioo (to compare, liken, resemble, become similar); from homoios (similar to, resembling, like); from the same as homou (together); from homos (the same). This is resembling, likeness, form, or appearance.
R “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
S “resurrection” = anastasis. From anistemi (to raise up, rise, appear; to stand up literally or figuratively. Can also mean to resurrect); from ana (upwards, up, again, back, anew) + histemi (to make to stand, place, set up, establish, appoint, stand by, stand still, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally standing up or standing again. It is used figuratively for recovering a spiritual truth. It can be raising up, rising, or resurrection.

We knowT that our oldU selfV was crucified withW him

Notes on verse 6a

T “know” = ginosko. Related to “not know” in v3. See note A above.
U “old” = palaios. 19x in NT. From palai (former, of old); probably from palin (back, again, further). This is old, ancient, or worn out.
V “self” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
W “crucified with” = sustauroo. Related to “resurrection” in v5. 5x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + stauroo (to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes; figuratively, be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness); {from stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (see note S above)}. This is to crucify one together with another.

so that the bodyX of sinY might be destroyed,Z so we might no longer be enslavedAA to sin. 

Notes on verse 6b

X “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
Y “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
Z “destroyed” = katargeo. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + argeo (to delay, linger, be at rest, be idle, do nothing); {from argos (inactive, idle, lazy, thoughtless, useless, unemployed, unprofitable) {from a (not) + ergon (word, task, action, employment)}}. This is making something inactive or bringing it to nothing. So, it could mean making something inoperative or powerless, annulling, or severing. It can also mean to make something ineffective or invalid.
AA “enslaved” = douleuo. From doulos (a servant or for a slave, enslaved; someone who belongs to someone else, but could be voluntary to pay off debt or involuntary – captured in war and enslaved; a metaphor for serving Christ); perhaps from deo (to tie, bind, fasten, impel, compel; to declare something against the law or prohibited). This is to be a slave, serve, do service, obey, be devoted.

For whoever has diedBB is freedCC from sin. But if we died with Christ, we believeDD that we will also live withEE him. 

Notes on verses 7-8

BB “died” = apothnesko. Related to “death” in v3. From apo (from, away from) + thnesko (see note E above). This is to die off. It is death with an emphasis on the way that death separates. It can also mean to wither or decay.
CC “is freed” = dikaioo. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); From dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is to be righteous, plead the cause of, justify, acquit. Properly, it is being approved, particularly carrying the weight of a legal judgment. It is upright, render just, or innocent.
DD “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
EE “live with” = suzao. Related to “life” in v4. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + zao (see note N above). This is to live with, co-survive. It can be literal or figurative.

We knowFF that Christ, being raised from the dead, will never die again; death no longer has dominion overGG him. 10 The death he died, he died to sin once for all,HH but the life he lives,II he lives to God.JJ 

Notes on verses 9-10

FF “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
GG “has dominion over” = kurieuo. 7x in NT. From kurios (a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord); from kuros (authority, supremacy). This is to be lord of, rule, lord over.
HH “once for all” = ephapax. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, what is fitting) + hapax (once, once for all); {from a (with – signifying fellowship) + pag-} or {from hapas (all; every part working together as a unit); from hama (at once, together with) + pas (all, every, every kind of) or from a (with) + pas (all, every)}. This is once for all, at once, one time.
II “lives” = zao. Related to “life” in v4 & “live with” in v9. See note N above.
JJ “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

11 So you also must considerKK yourselvesLL deadMM to sin and aliveNN to God in Christ Jesus.

Notes on verse 11

KK “consider” = logizomai. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is this is to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense.
LL {untranslated} = eimi. Same as “be” in v5. See note R above.
MM {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
NN “alive” = zao. Same as “lives” in v10. See note II above.

Image credit: “The Land of Waterfalls” in Iceland by Sathish J, 2016.

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