Ruth 2:1-23

Ruth 2:1-23
Narrative Lectionary


Now NaomiI had a kinsmanII on her husband’sIII side,

Notes on verse 1a

I “Naomi” = Noomi. From no’am (pleasantness, favor, delight, suitableness, grace); from naem (to be pleasant, beautiful, sweet, or agreeable in a literal or figurative sense). This is Naomi or Noomi, whose name means “pleasant” or “my delight” or “sweet.” See
II “kinsman” = yada. This is to know, acknowledge, advise, answer, be aware, be acquainted with. Properly, this is to figure something out by seeing. It includes ideas of observation, recognition, and care about something. It can be used causatively for instruction, designation, and punishment.
III “husband’s” = ish. Perhaps from enosh (human, humankind, mortal); from anash (to be weak, sick, or frail). This is man, husband, another, or humankind.

a prominentIV richV manVI of the familyVII

Notes on verse 1b

IV “prominent” = gibbor. From gabar (to be strong or mighty; to prevail or be insolent). This is strong, mighty, or powerful. This can imply a warrior, hero, or tyrant.
V “rich” = chayil. From chul (to be firm, strong, prosperous; to endure). This is strength, wealth, ability, activity. It can refer to soldier or a company of soldiers as well as goods. It is a force of people, means, or goods. It can speak of valor, virtue, or strength.
VI “man” = ish. Same as “husband’s” in v1. See note III above.
VII “family” = mishpachah. From the same as shiphcah (maid, maidservant); root means to spread out. This is one’s circle of relatives – clan, family, kindred.

of ElimelechVIII whose nameIX was Boaz.X 

Notes on verse 1c

VIII “Elimelech” = Elimelek. 6x in NT– all in Ruth. From el (God, a god) + melek (king, royal). This is Elimelech, a name meaning “God is king” or “God of the king.”
IX “name” = shem. May be from sum (to put, place, set). This is name, fame, renown. A name was thought to indicate something essential about a person – something about their individuality. So, this word can also mean honor, authority, or character.
X “Boaz” = Boaz. Perhaps from azaz (to be strong in a literal or figurative sense, overcome, be impudent). This is Boaz, a personal name as well as what one of the pillars at the Temple was called. It means “quickness” or “in strength” or “by strength” or “in him…is strength.”  See

And RuthXI the MoabiteXII said to Naomi, “Let me goXIII, XIV

Notes on verse 2a

XI “Ruth” = Ruth. 12x in OT. From raah (to associate with someone, cultivate) OR from reuth (a female neighbor, a mate, friend, another); {from ra’ah (to tend a flock, pasture, or graze; to rule or to associate with someone; figuratively, ruler or teacher)} OR from raah (to see, show, stare, think, view; to see in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ruth, a name meaning “friendship” or “friend” or “associate” or “vision” or “view” or “beauty.” See
XII “Moabite” = Moabi. 16x in OT. From Moab (Moab or Moabite; meaning “from her faither” or “seed of a father” or “desirable land”); perhaps from ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Moabite or Moab. See
XIII “go” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XIV {untranslated} = na. This particle is used for requests or for urging. It can be we pray, now, I ask you, oh. This is the same “na” in “hosanna.”

to the fieldXV and gleanXVI among the ears of grainXVII behindXVIII someone

Notes on verse 2b

XV “field” = sadeh. This is literally field, ground, soil, or land. It can be used to mean wild like a wild animal.
XVI “glean” = laqat. This is to pick up, glean, gather.
XVII “ears of grain” = shibbol. 19x in OT. From the same as shobel (the train of a skirt that flows after a woman). This is an ear of grain or corn, a branch, a stream or flood. It was also a word the Gileadites used to test the fugitives in Judges 12:6.
XVIII “behind” = achar. From achar (to remain behind, linger, continue, be behind, or delay; can also imply procrastination). This is after or the last part, following.

in whose sightXIX I may findXX favor.”XXI

She said to her, “Go, my daughter.”XXII 

Notes on verse 2c

XIX “sight” = ayin. This is eye in a literal or figurative sense so eye, appearance, favor, or a fountain (the eye of the landscape).
XX “find” = matsa. This is to find, catch or acquire. It can also mean to come forth or appear. Figuratively, this can mean to meet or be together with.
XXI “favor” = chen. From chanan (beseech, show favor, be gracious; properly, to bend in kindness to someone with less status). This is grace, favor, kindness, beauty, precious.
XXII “daughter” = bat. From ben (son literal or figurative; also, grandson, subject, nation); from banah (to build or obtain children). This is daughter in a literal or figurative sense.

So she went. She cameXXIII and gleaned in the field behind the reapers.XXIV As it happened,XXV she cameXXVI to the partXXVII of the field belonging to Boaz, who was of the family of Elimelech. 

Notes on verse 3

XXIII “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXIV “reapers” = qatsar. This is to cut down, be short, reap, curtail. It is used especially for harvesting grass or grain. Figuratively, it can mean to be discouraged or grieve.
XXV “happened” = qarah. This is to encounter, usually unintentionally. It can also mean to happen or to lay wood for a floor or roof.
XXVI “came” = miqreh. Related to “happened” in v3. 10x in OT. From qarah (see note XXV above). This is chance, fate, accident.
XXVII “part” = chelqah. From cheleq (portion, catch, division, reward, share, smooth tongue, flattery, associate); from chalaq (to be smooth in a figurative sense; can refer to the stones that were part of casting lots – hence, apportion, share, distribute; figuratively, it can also mean to flatter). This is smoothness. Figuratively it can mean a tract of land or other allotment or flattery.

Just thenXXVIII Boaz cameXXIX from Bethlehem.XXX He said to the reapers, “The LordXXXI be with you.”

Notes on verse 4a

XXVIII “just then” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XXIX “came” = bo. Same as “came” in v3. See note XXVI above.
XXX “Bethlehem” = Beth lechem. Related to “daughter” in v2. From bayit (house, court, family, palace, temple); {probably from banah (see note XXII above)} + lechem (bread, food, loaf; food for people or for animals); {from lacham (to eat, feed on; figuratively, to battle as a kind of consumption/destruction)}. This is Bethlehem, meaning “house of bread.”
XXXI “Lord” = YHVH. From havah (to be, become) or hayah (to come to pass, become, be). This is the name of the God of Israel, the self-existent and eternal one, the tetragrammaton. This pronunciation has been lost to time so “Lord” is generally used in its place.

They answered, “The Lord blessXXXII you.” 

Then Boaz said to his young manXXXIII who was in chargeXXXIV of the reapers, “To whom does this young womanXXXV belong?” 

Notes on verses 4b-5

XXXII “bless” = barak. This is to kneel, to bless. It is blessing God as part of worship and adoration or blessing humans to help them. It can be used as a euphemism to say curse God.
XXXIII “young man” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.
XXXIV “was in charge” = natsab. This is to station, appoint, establish, take a stand.
XXXV “young woman” = naarah. Related to “young man” in v5. From naar (see note XXXIII above). This is a girl or young lady ranging anywhere in age from infancy to adolescence.

The young man who was in charge of the reapers answered,XXXVI “She is the young Moabite woman who came backXXXVII with Naomi from the countryXXXVIII of Moab.XXXIX 

Notes on verse 6

XXXVI “answered” = anah. This is answer, respond, announce, sing, shout, or testify. It means to pay attention, which implies responding and, by extension, starting to talk. Used in a specific sense for singing, shouting, testifying, etc.
XXXVII “came back” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”
XXXVIII “country” = sadeh. Same as “field” in v2. See note XV above.
XXXIX “Moab” = Moab. Related to “Moabite” in v2. See note XII above.

She said, ‘Please,XL let me glean and gatherXLI among the sheavesXLII behind the reapers.’

So she came,XLIII and she has been on her feetXLIV

Notes on verse 7a

XL “please” = na. Same as {untranslated} in v2. See note XIV above.
XLI “gather” = asaph. This is to gather, assemble, or bring. It can also mean to take away, destroy, or remove.
XLII “sheaves” = omer. 14x in OT. From amar (to bind sheaves, heap; discipline as piling on blows). This is a shear or an omer – a dry measuring unit.
XLIII “came” = bo. Same as “came” in v3. See note XXVI above.
XLIV “been on…feet” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.

from early this morningXLV until nowXLVI without restingXLVII even for a moment.”XLVIII

Notes on verse 7b

XLV “morning” = boqer. From baqar (to seek, plow, break forth, admire, care for). This refers to the break of day. So it is dawn, early, morning, or morrow.
XLVI “now” = attah. Related to “answered” in v6. Perhaps from et (a period or season; whenever or continually); probably from anah (see note XXXVI above) or from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is now, from now on.
XLVII “resting” = yashab + bayit. Yashab is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish. Bayit is related to “daughter” in v2 & “Bethlehem” in v4. Probably from banah (see note XXII above). This is house, court, family, palace, temple.
XLVIII “moment” = me’at. From ma’at (being or becoming small, decrease, diminish, pare off). This is a little or few, lightly little while, very small matter.

Then Boaz said to Ruth, “Now listen,XLIX my daughter, do not go to glean in anotherL field or leaveLI this one, but keep closeLII to my young women. 

Notes on verse 8

XLIX “listen” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
L “another” = acher. Related to “behind” in v2. From achar (see note XVIII above). This is following, next, strange, other.
LI “leave” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.
LII “keep close” = dabaq. This is to follow closely or abide fast, to cling or be joined together. Figuratively, it can mean to catch something by chasing after it, to overtake, or to stick. A man clings to his wife in Genesis 2:24, Shechem was deeply attracted to Dinah in Genesis 34:3, Ruth clung to Naomi in Ruth 1:14, Solomon clung to his foreign wives and concubines in 1 Kings 11:2. It is also used of a tongue sticking to the mouth, pursuing or overtaking as in battle, and also clinging to God.

Keep your eyesLIII on the field that is being reaped and followLIV behind them. I have orderedLV the young men notLVI to botherLVII you.

Notes on verse 9a

LIII “eyes” = ayin. Same as “sight” in v2. See note XIX above.
LIV “follow” = halak. Same as “go” in v2. See note XIII above.
LV “ordered” = tsavah. This is to charge, command, order, appoint, or enjoin. This is the root that the Hebrew word for “commandment” comes from (mitsvah).
LVI “not” = bilti. From balah (to grow old, wear out, consume, waste, enjoy, fail, decay). This is nothing, not, lest, or except. From its root, it means “a failure of” – used for negative particles.
LVII “bother” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.

If you get thirsty,LVIII go to the vesselsLIX and drinkLX from what the young men have drawn.” 

Notes on verse 9b

LVIII “get thirsty” = tsame. 10x in OT. This is to thirst in a literal or figurative sense.
LIX “vessels” = keli. From kalah (to end, be finished, complete, prepare, consume, spent, or completely destroyed). This is something that was prepared – any implement, utensil, article, vessel, weapon, or instrument. Also includes jewels, weapons, bags, carriages, and furniture.
LX “drink” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.

10 Then she fellLXI prostrate,LXII with her faceLXIII to the ground,LXIV

Notes on verse 10a

LXI “fell” = naphal. This is to fall, whether by accident, to fall prostrate, or to fall in violent death. Figuratively, it can refer to personal ruin or calamity, a city falling, an attack or a falling away. It can also be a deep sleep or wasting away.
LXII “prostrate” = shachah. This is to bow down, make a humble entreaty, to do homage to royalty or to God.
LXIII “face” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXIV “ground” = erets. Root may mean to be firm. This is earth, ground, field land, or country.

and said to him, “WhyLXV have I found favor in your sight, that you should take noticeLXVI of me, when I am a foreigner?”LXVII 

Notes on verse 10b

LXV “why” = maddua. Related to “kinsman” in v1. From mah (what, how long) + yada (see note II above). This is why or how.
LXVI “take notice” = nakar. This is to recognize, examine, take notice, show, scrutinize. It is looking at something in a fixed way, showing perhaps respect or reverence. Alternately, it can show gazing with suspicion. Also, it can mean being strange towards someone or something and rejecting or ignoring it.
LXVII “foreigner” = nokri. Related to “take notice” in v10. From neker (strange; to act foreign or strange; to disguise; can also be misfortune or unexpected calamity); from nakar (see note LXVI above). This is foreign, alien, stranger, extraordinary, adulteress. It is strange in many different senses – foreign, not being one’s relative, different, wonderful, relating to adultery.

11 But Boaz answered her, “AllLXVIII that you have doneLXIX for your mother-in-lawLXX since the deathLXXI of your husband has been fully toldLXXII me,

Notes on verse 11a

LXVIII “all” = kol. From kalal (to complete). This is all or every.
LXIX “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
LXX “mother-in-law” = chamoth. 11x in OT. From cham (father-in-law); perhaps from the same as chomah (a wall – a wall as used for protection). This is mother-in-law – in particular, a woman’s mother-in-law.
LXXI “death” = mavet. From muth (to die in a literal or figurative sense). This can be death, deadliness, the dead, or the place where the dead go. It can be used figuratively for pestilence or ruin.
LXXII “fully told” = nagad + nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”

how you leftLXXIII your fatherLXXIV and motherLXXV and your nativeLXXVI landLXXVII

Notes on verse 11b

LXXIII “left” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
LXXIV “father” = ab. Related to “Moabite” in v2 & “Moab” in v6. See note XII above.
LXXV “mother” = em. This is a mother as binding a family together or a breeding female animal. It could be mother in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXVI “native” = moledet. From yalad (to bear, bring forth, beget, calve, act as midwife, show lineage). This is kindred, offspring, birthplace, lineage, native country, or family.
LXXVII “land” = erets. Same as “ground” in v10. See note LXIV above.

and cameLXXVIII to a peopleLXXIX that you did not knowLXXX before.LXXXI 

Notes on verse 11c

LXXVIII “came” = halak. Same as “go” in v2. See note XIII above.
LXXIX “people” = am. From amam (to darken, hide, associate; creating shadows by huddling together). This is people or nation. It can be used specifically for a tribe, collectively of troops or armies, or figuratively to refer to a flock of animals.
LXXX “know” = yada. Same as “kinsman” in v1. See note II above.
LXXXI “before” = temol + shilshom. Temol may be from ethmol (formerly, before, yesterday, time); {from et (with, among, beside, including, toward, near); from anah (to meet, happen, approach)} + mul (front, opposite, toward); {from mul (to cut short, circumcise, blunt, destroy)}. This is ago, recently, yesterday, past. Shilshom is from shalash (to make triplicate, do a third time); from the same as shalosh (three, fork, three times). This is three days ago, before, yesterday in the past.

12 May the Lord rewardLXXXII you for your deeds,LXXXIII and may you haveLXXXIV a fullLXXXV rewardLXXXVI from the Lord,

Notes on verse 12a

LXXXII “reward” = shalam. This is to be complete or sound – to have safety mentally, physically, or extending to one’s estate. So, if these things are safe and complete, the implication is that one would be friendly; and, if being friendly, one would make amends and that friendship would be reciprocated. This is the root verb that “shalom” comes from, the Hebrew word for peace.
LXXXIII “deeds” = poal. From paal (to do, make, work, or accomplish; generally refers to regularly repeated or systematic action – to practice). This is an action or deed, conduct. It is the act of working or the work itself. It can also be wages or maker.
LXXXIV “have” = hayah. Related to “Lord” in v4. See note XXXI above.
LXXXV “full” = shalem. Related to “reward” in v12. From shalam (see note LXXXII above). This is safe, blameless, perfect, at peace, whole, friendly. It is complete in a literal or a figurative sense.
LXXXVI “reward” = maskoret. 4x in OT – 3x in Genesis & 1x in Ruth. From sakar (to hire, reward, earn). This is wages or reward.

the GodLXXXVII of Israel,LXXXVIII underLXXXIX whose wingsXC you have comeXCI for refuge!”XCII 

Notes on verse 12b

LXXXVII “God” = Elohim. Related to “Elimelech” in v1. See note VIII above.
LXXXVIII “Israel” = Yisrael. Related to “Elimelech” in v1 & “God” in v12. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note VIII above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LXXXIX “under” = tachat. This is underneath, below, the bottom, instead of.
XC “wings” = kanaph. This is wing, edge, corner, extremity. It can also be a flap or fold of a garment or the pinnacle of a building.
XCI “come” = bo. Same as “came” in v3. See note XXVI above.
XCII “refuge” = chasah. This is to take refuge or flee for protection. Figuratively, it means to hope or trust in someone or something.

13 Then she said, “May I continue to find favor in your sight, my lord,XCIII for you have comfortedXCIV me and spokenXCV kindlyXCVI

Notes on verse 13a

XCIII “lord” = adon. From a root that means ruling or being sovereign. This is lord, master, or owner.
XCIV “comforted” = nacham. Properly, this is a strong breath or a sigh. This can be to be sorry, to pity, console. Comfort, or repent. But, one can also comfort oneself with less righteous thoughts, so this can also mean to avenge oneself.
XCV “spoken” = dabar. This is generally to speak, answer, declare, or command. It might mean to arrange and so to speak in a figurative sense as arranging words.
XCVI “kindly” = leb. Literally, “to the heart of.” May be related to labab (to encourage; properly, to be encased as with fat; used in a good sense, this means to transport someone with love; used in a bad sense, it can mean to dull one’s senses). This is the heart, courage, one’s inner self, the mind, or the will. Heart is only used in a figurative sense in the Old and New Testaments.

to your servant,XCVII even though I amXCVIII not oneXCIX of your servants.”

Notes on verse 13b

XCVII “servant” = shiphchah. Related to “family” in v1. See note VII above.
XCVIII “am” = hayah. Same as “have” in v12. See note LXXXIV above.
XCIX “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.

14 At mealtimeC Boaz said to her, “ComeCI here and eatCII

Notes on verse 14a

C “mealtime” = eth + okel. Eth is probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually. Okel is from akal (to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume; eating in a literal or figurative sense). This is food, supply of provisions, the act of eating, or the time when one eats.
CI “come” = nagash. This is to draw, bring, or come near. It is approaching for any reason – as an attack on an enemy, in order to worship, to make an argument. It can also be used as a euphemism for sex.
CII “eat” = akal. Relate to “mealtime” in v14. See note C above.

some of this breadCIII and dipCIV your morselCV in the sour wine.”CVI

Notes on verse 14b

CIII “bread” = lechem. Related to “Bethlehem” in v4. See note XXX above.
CIV “dip” = tabal. 16x in OT. This is to dip or immerse. It is used to describe religious rites, as part of murderous schemes (e.g. Joseph’s brothers dipping his coat in goat’s blood), for everyday purposes, and also of miracles (e.g. Naaman immersing himself in the Jordan).
CV “morsel” = path. 15x in OT. From pathath (to crumble, open, break). This is a piece, morsel, or fragment.
CVI “sour wine” = chomets. 6x in OT. From chamets (to be or taste sour, fermented, harsh; also dyed or of a dazzling color). This is vinegar.

So she satCVII besideCVIII the reapers, and he heaped upCIX for her some parchedCX grain. She ate until she was satisfied,CXI and she had some left over.CXII 

Notes on verse 14c

CVII “sat” = yashab. Same as “resting” in v7. See note XLVII above.
CVIII “beside” = tsad. Root may mean to sidle. This is a side or an arm. It can also be used to mean beside or, figuratively, an adversary.
CIX “heaped up” = tsabat. 1x in OT. This is to reach, grasp, serve.
CX “parched” = qali. 6x in OT. From qalah (to roast, toast or parch – to dry or scorch in part). This is parched or roasted – used to refer to grain.
CXI “satisfied” = saba. To be satisfied or full in a literal or figurative sense. Also, to have plenty of.
CXII “had some left over” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.

15 When she got upCXIII to glean, Boaz instructedCXIV his young men, “Let her glean even amongCXV the standing sheaves, and do not reproachCXVI her. 

Notes on verse 15

CXIII “got up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
CXIV “instructed” = tsavah. Same as “ordered” in v9. See note LV above.
CXV “among” = bayin. From bin (to discern, consider, attend to; distinguishing things in one’s mind or, more generally, to understand). This is among, between, interval.
CXVI “reproach” = kalam. This is bearing shame, bringing dishonor or disgrace, humiliate insult, taunt, embarrass, reproach. Properly, to wound in a figurative sense.

16 You must also pull outCXVII some handfuls for her from the bundlesCXVIII and leave them for her to glean, and do not rebukeCXIX her.”

Notes on verse 16

CXVII “pull out” = shalal + shalal. 16x in OT. This is to strip or draw out. It is often used specifically for plundering. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
CXVIII “bundles” = tsebathim. 1x in OT. This may come from a word meaning to grip. This is a bundle or handful.
CXIX “rebuke” = gaar. 14x in OT. This is to rebuke, corrupt, or chide.

17 So she gleaned in the field until evening.CXX Then she beat outCXXI what she had gleaned, and it was about an ephahCXXII of barley.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 17

CXX “evening” = ereb. This is night or dusk.
CXXI “beat out” = chabat. 5x in OT. This is to beat, beat out, thresh.
CXXII “ephah” = ephah. Perhaps from Egptian ipet (“a dry measure of volume equivalent to…about 19.2 litres”). This is an ephah – specifically, a measure for flour or grain. It can also be used ore generally to refer to a measure. See
CXXIII “barley” = seorah. From the same as sear (hair, hairy, rough); perhaps from sa’ar (to storm, scattered by a storm, blow away, rage, storm tossed; this is to toss in a literal or figurative sense). This is barley, perhaps as hairy.

18 She picked it upCXXIV and cameCXXV into the town,CXXVI and her mother-in-law sawCXXVII how much she had gleaned.

Notes on verse 18a

CXXIV “picked…up” = nasa. This is to lift in a broad sense, literally and figuratively. So it could be to carry, take, or arise. It could also be bring forth, advance, accept.
CXXV “came” = bo. Same as “came” in v3. See note XXVI above.
CXXVI “town” = iyr. From uwr (to awaken or wake oneself up). This can mean excitement in the sense of wakefulness or city. Properly, this is a place that is guarded. Guards kept schedules according to watches. This sense of the word would include cities as well as encampments or posts that were guarded.
CXXVII “saw” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.

Then she took outCXXVIII and gaveCXXIX her what was left overCXXX after she herself had been satisfied.CXXXI 

19 Her mother-in-law said to her, “Where did you glean today?CXXXII And where have you worked?CXXXIII Blessed be the man who took notice of you.”

So she told her mother-in-law with whom she had worked, saying, “The name of the man with whom I worked today is Boaz.” 

Notes on verses 18b-19

CXXVIII “took out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
CXXIX “gave” = natan. This is to give, put, set, offer. It is to give literally or figuratively.
CXXX “was left over” = yathar. Same as “had some left over” in v14. See note CXII above.
CXXXI “had been satisfied” = soba. Related to “satisfied” in v14. 8x in OT. From saba (see note CXI above). This is abundance, fullness, satisfaction. Properly, it is being sated – having enough food. Figuratively, it is fullness of joy.
CXXXII “today” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
CXXXIII “worked” = asah. Same as “done” in v11. See note LXIX above.

20 Then Naomi said to her daughter-in-law,CXXXIV “Blessed be he by the Lord, whose kindnessCXXXV has not forsakenCXXXVI the livingCXXXVII or the dead!”CXXXVIII

Notes on verse 20a

CXXXIV “daughter-in-law” = kallah. Related to “all” in v11. Perhaps related to kalal (see note LXVIII above). This is bride or daughter-in-law and the term is used before and after marriage.
CXXXV “kindness” = chesed. From chasad (being good, kind, merciful; may mean bowing one’s neck as is done in the presence of an equal for courtesy’s sake; so, if one in a superior position is treating you like an equal, that is what is captured here). This is favor, goodness, kindness, loving kindness, pity, reproach, or a good deed. When done by God to humanity, this is mercy/loving kindness. When done by humanity to God, it is piety.
CXXXVI “forsaken” = azab. Same as “left” in v11. See note LXXIII above.
CXXXVII “living” = chay. From chayah (to live or keep alive literally or figuratively). This is alive, living, lifetime. It can also be used to describe someone’s age. It can refer to animals, plants, water, or a company or congregation of people. It is life in a very broad sense.
CXXXVIII “dead” = mut. Related to “death” in v11. See note LXXI above.

Naomi also said to her, “The man is a relativeCXXXIX of ours, one of our nearest kin.”CXL 

21 Then Ruth the Moabite said, “He even said to me, ‘Stay closeCXLI by my young men until they have finishedCXLII all my harvest.’”CXLIII 

Notes on verses 20b-21

CXXXIX “relative” = qarob. From qarab (to come near, offer, make ready). This is near whether nearby, related, near in time, or allied.
CXL “is…nearest kin” = gaal. This is to redeem someone or something according to kinship laws. So, it could be acting on a relative’s behalf to buy back their property, to marry one’s brother’s widow, etc. This could be more briefly translated as to redeem, acts as kinsman, or purchase. As a noun, it could be deliverer or avenger.
CXLI “stay close” = dabaq. Same as “keep close” in v8. See note LII above.
CXLII “finished” = kalah. Related to “vessels” in v9. See note LIX above.
CXLIII “harvest” = qatsiyr. Related to “reapers” in v3. From qatsar (see note XXIV above). This is branch, harvest, one who harvests. Properly, this means severed, reaped. It is the crop being harvested, the time of harvest or the one who harvests. It can also be a bough.

22 Naomi said to Ruth, her daughter-in-law, “It is better,CXLIV my daughter, that you go outCXLV with his young women, otherwise someone might bother[CXLVI] you in another field.” 

23 So she stayed close to the young women of Boaz, gleaning until the endCXLVII of the barley and wheatCXLVIII harvests, and she livedCXLIX with her mother-in-law.

Notes on verses 22-23

CXLIV “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
CXLV “go out” = yatsa. Same as “took out” in v18. See note CXXVIII above.
CXLVI “bother” = paga. This is to meet or happen, whether unintentionally or of violence. It can also be plead, spare, reach, or intercede.
CXLVII “end” ­= kalah. Same as “finished” in v21. See note CXLII above.
CLXVIII “wheat” = chittah. Perhaps from chanat (to spice, ripen, embalm). This is wheat, referring to the plant or its product.
CXLIX “live” = yashab. Same as “resting” in v7. See note XLVII above.

Image credit: Study for “Ruth Gathering Wheat” by Edwin Long.

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