Titus 2:11-14

Titus 2:11-14
Christmas Eve ABC


11 For the graceA of GodB has appeared,C bringing salvationD to all,E 12 trainingF us to renounceG impietyH and worldly passions,I and in the present age to live lives that are self-controlled,J upright,K and godly,L

Notes on verses 11-12

A “grace” = charis. This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
B “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
C “appeared” = epiphaino. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, on the basis of) + phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear, to lighten; to show literally or figuratively) [from phos (light, source of light, radiance; particular emphasize on the results of the light – that which it illuminates; this is light that is natural or artificial. It is light as an abstract concept, too)]. This is to show forth, appear, shine one, become visible. To become visible or become known.
D “bringing salvation” = soterios. 5x in NT. From soter (savior, deliverer, preserver); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, rescue, heal; to protect or deliver literally or figuratively from danger to safety); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is salvation, saving, a defender. This is where soteriology comes from (doctrines of salvation).
E “all” = pas + anthropos. Literally, “all people.” Anthropos refers to all genders in Greek. It is where anthropology comes from.
F “training” = paideuo. 13x in NT. From pais (child, youth, slave, servant of God; a child who is still being taught or trained); may be from paio (to strike, smite or hit – a single blow). This is to train children, correct, discipline, chastise, punish, educate. This is the root of pedagogy. 
G “renounce” = arneomai. Perhaps from a (not) + rheo (command, say, speak of). This word is to deny, disavow, reject, contradict.
H “impiety” = asebeia. 6x in NT. From a (not) + sebomai (to worship, revere, adore; properly, hold in respect or high personal regard; reverence or awe shown by someone who is devout). This is ungodliness, impiety, irreverence, or wickedness. Properly, this is a lack of respect – not giving honor when it is warranted. It implies wickedness.
I “passions” = epithumia. From epi (on, upon, at) + thumos (passion, wrath, rage, indignation, fierceness; properly, this is actions motivated by passion or emotion) [from the same as thuella (whirlwind, storm); from thuo (to rage or seethe; to breathe hard, rush, blow, smoke. So, it implies making an animal sacrifice on the fire)]. This is properly passion arising from strong feelings or impulses whether positive or negative. It could be desire, lust, longing, or eagerness.
J “self-controlled” = sophronos. 1x in NT. Related to “bringing salvation” in v11.  From sophron (of sound mind, temperate, moderate, chaste; properly, safe because of moderated temperament; balanced) [from the same as sozo (see note D above)] + phren (mind, heart, thought, intellect, understanding; properly, the midriff or diaphragm; figuratively used for personal opinion – someone’s inner outlook or mindset; the inner perspective that guides someone’s behavior; by implication, sympathy, feelings; by extension the mind). This is having a sound mind, being prudent or sensible, acting with moderation.
K “upright” = dikaios. 5x in NT. From dikaios (correct, righteous; by implication, innocent; equitable character or action); from dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known). This is righteously, justly, uprightly, or equitably.
L “godly” = eusebos. 2x in NT. Related to “impiety” in v12. From eu (well, good, rightly) + sebomai (see note H). This is piously, religiously, godly. Inwardly pious, which is to say, devout. There was a great 4th century church historian named Eusebius.

13 while we waitM for the blessed hopeN and the manifestationO of the gloryP of our great God and Savior,Q JesusR Christ.S 14 He it is who gave himself for us that he might redeemT us from all iniquityU and purifyV for himself a peopleW of his ownX who are zealousY for goodZ deeds.

Notes on verses 13-14

M “wait” = prosdechomai. 14x in NT. From pros (at, toward, with) + dechomai (to receive, take, accept, welcome). This is to receive, await, expect, welcome. Properly, this is receiving someone in a warmly with reciprocity. It is active waiting. Used figuratively for endurance and implying hopeful waiting with confidence or patience.
N “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.
O “manifestation” = epiphaneia. 6x in NT. Related to “appeared” in v11. From epi (on, upon, to) + phaino (see note C above). This is an appearance, manifestation, glorious display, brightness. Literally, this is an epiphany (and where the word epiphany comes from). Used in a specific sense for Christ coming into the world at his birth as well as for his second coming.
P “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
Q “Savior” = soter. Related to “bringing salvation” in v11. From sozo (see note D above). This is savior, deliverer, preserver.
R “Jesus” = iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be) + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
S “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
T “redeem” = lutroo. 3x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, dissolve, untie; figurative for break, destroy, annul). This is to redeem or liberate; to set someone free by paying their ransom or the value held against their life/freedom. It is used figuratively for restoring something to its rightful owner (as when ancestral land was sold). This s ransom literally or figuratively.
U “iniquity” = anomia. 15x in NT. From a (not) + nomos (law; custom, usage; or Torah). This is literally lawlessness or without law. It is iniquity, disobedience, or sin. This is an act that ignores or violates God’s law and includes the aftermath of that action or inaction. 
V “purify” = katharizo. From katharos (clean, clear, pure, unstained; clean in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense; so, also guiltless, innocent or upright; something that is pure because it has been separated from the negative substance or aspect; spiritually clean because of God’s act of purifying). This is to cleanse, make clean, purify, purge, or declare to be clean. Like its roots, it includes cleansing in a literal, ritual, or spiritual sense. Being pure or purified is not something that is only available to the rare few or the innocent. Anyone can be purified.
W “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
X “own” = periousios. 1x in NT. From peri (about, concerning, around, comprehensive) + einai (was, being, is, to exist) [from eimi (to be)]. This is costly, treasured, specially chosen, select. It is special or one’s own.
Y “zealous” = zelotes. 8x in NT. From zeloo (jealous, eager for, covet earnestly; word is meant to mimic the sound of water boiling; so, to bubble over is figurative for burning with zeal, having a strong commitment to something and the passion that goes along with that; it also includes fiery feelings like jealous, envy, and zeal); from zelos (zeal, jealous, fury); probably from zeo (to boil, be hot or fervent, to set one’s heart on). This is zealous, or a zealot. Someone who is sincerely and earnestly devoted to something or someone – whose passion boils over. This is where zeal and zealous come from.
Z “good” = kalos. This is beautiful, good, noble, worthy. Whereas agathos refers to deeds that are intrinsically good (more good versus evil), kalos refers to deeds that are a sign of honorable character.

Image Credit: Hope Restored by Michael McFatridge (2010)

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