1 Corinthians 1:10-18

1 Corinthians 1:10-18
Third Sunday after Epiphany A


10 Now I appealA to you, brothersB and sisters, by the nameC

Notes on verse 10a

A “appeal” = parakaleo. From para (beside, by, in the presence of) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud) {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call to, summon, invite, request, or beg. It can also be exhort or admonish. Also, this can be encourage, comfort, or console. This word has legal overtones and is used of one’s advocate in a courtroom. It is the root of the name of the Holy Spirit “paraclete” is our advocate and comforter.
B “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
C “name” = onoma. May be from ginosko (know, recognize, learn from firsthand experience). This is a name, authority, cause, character, fame, reputation. The name was thought to include something of the essence of the person so it was not thought to be separate from the person.

of our LordD JesusE Christ,F

Notes on verse 10b

D “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
E “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
F “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

that all of you be in agreementG and that there beH no divisionsI among you

Notes on verse 10c

G “be in agreement” = ho + autos + lego + pas. Literally, “that the same think you all speak.” Lego is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally. Pas is all or every.
H “be” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
I “divisions” = schisma. 8x in NT. From schizo (to split, divide, tear, sever; split in a literal or figurative sense). This is a split or a tear. Figuratively, it can refer to a schism, division, or dissension. This is where the word “schism” comes from and also “schizophrenia” (literally “split mind”).

but that you be knitJ together in the same mindK and the same purpose.L 

Notes on verse 10d

J “knit” = katartizo. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, throughout, among) + artizo (get ready, prepare); {from artios (perfect, complete, ready, adequate, fitted); from arti (now, in the moment); from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)}. This is to prepare, complete, perfect for final use. This is restoring something to a good condition, whether for the first time or one more. It is to repair in a literal or figurative sense.
K “mind” = nous. Related to “name” in v10. From noos (mind) OR from the same as ginosko (see note C above). This is mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect. It can refer to God’s mind or human minds – thoughts, feelings, will, or reflective thinking.
L “purpose” = gnome. Related to “name” and “mind” in v10. 9x in NT. From ginosko (see note C above). This is a purpose, opinion, judgment, advice, consent.

11 For it has been made clearM to me by Chloe’sN people that there are quarrelsO among you, my brothers and sisters.  12 What I meanP is that each of you says, “IQ belong toR Paul,”S

Notes on verses 11-12a

M “made clear” = deloo. 7x in NT. From delos (clear, evident, unmistakable, self-evident). This is making something evident, revealing declaring, showing. Often, making clear through words.
N “Chloe’s” = Chloe. 1x in NT. From chloe (young green shoot). Chloe means verdant or tender, young plant life. It was also a name used for the Greek goddess Demeter.
O “quarrels” = eris. 9x in NT. This is strife, quarreling, wrangling. Figuratively, it is debate or one who likes to dispute.
P “mean” = lego. Same as “that the same thing you all speak” in v10. See note G above.
Q {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
R “belong to” = eimi. Same as “be” in v10. See note H above.
S “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.

or “I belong to Apollos,”T or “I belong to Cephas,”U or “I belong to Christ.” 13 Has Christ been divided?V Was Paul crucifiedW for you? Or were you baptizedX in the name of Paul? 

Notes on verses 12b-13

T “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from the same as apollonia (Apollonia, a Macedonian city); from Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Apollo
U “Cephas” = Kephas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic kepha (stone or rock). This is Cephas, the Aramaic translation of Peter’s name.
V “divided” = merizo. 14x in NT. From meros (part, share, portion figurative or literal); from meiromai (to get your share, receive one’s allotment). This is to divide, distribute, assign, apportion – separate into parts, bestow, share.
W “crucified” = stauroo. From stauros (upright stake, cross; literally the horizontal beam of a Roman cross, generally carried by the one convicted to die); from the same as histemi (to stand, cause to stand). This can be to attach someone to a cross or fencing with stakes. In a figurative sense, it could be to destroy, mortify, or subdue passions/selfishness.
X “baptized” = baptizo. From bapto (to dip or dye; to entirely cover with liquid, to stain). This is to submerge, wash, or immerse. Used specially for baptism.

14 I thankY GodZ that I baptized none of you except CrispusAA and Gaius,BB 15 so that no one can say that you were baptized in my name. 

Notes on verses 14-15

Y “thank” = eucharisteo. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + charis (grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks; being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit; literal, figurative, or spiritual; grace as abstract concept, manner, or action); {from chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards)}. This is giving thanks, being thankful. It is a recognition that God’s grace is good and actively showing gratitude. It can also be used for saying grace before eating. This is where “eucharist” comes from.
Z “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
AA “Crispus” = Krispos. 2x in NT. From Latin Crispus (Crispus); from crispus (curly, tremulous); from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to turn, bend). This is Crispus, meaning curly. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Crispus
BB “Gaius” = Gaios. 5x in NT. Probably from Latin Gavius (Gavius); from the same as gaudere (to rejoice); from “Proto-Indo-European geh-w-” (to rejoice) OR from gaia (earth, land). This is Gaius or Caius. I may mean “of the land” or “made of earthly material” or “rejoice.”  See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Gaius#Latin & https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Gaius.html

16 I did baptize also the householdCC of Stephanas;DD beyond that, EE I do not knowFF whether I baptized anyone else.GG 

Notes on verse 16

CC “household” = oikos. This is house – the building, the household, the family, descendants, the temple.
DD “Stephanas” = Stephanas. 3x in NT. Perhaps from stephanos (something that surrounds i.e. a crown or garland; properly, the wreath or garland that the winner of athletic games would win; symbolized victory and honor from skill as contrasted with a royal crown, which is diadema in Greek); stepho (to twine, encircle). This is Stephanas, meaning crowned.
EE “beyond that” = loipon. 13x in NT. From loipos (the rest, remained, remnant, other, residue); from leipo (to leave behind, be lacking). This is what remains, from now on, finally.
FF “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
GG “else” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).

17 For Christ did not sendHH me to baptize but to proclaim the gospelII—and not with eloquentJJ

Notes on verse 17a

HH “send” = apostello. Related to “crucified” in v13. From apo (from, away from) + stello (to send, set, arrange, prepare, gather up); {probably from histemi (see note W above)}. This is to send forth, send away, dismiss, send as a messenger. It implies one that is sent for a particular mission or purpose rather than a quick errand. This is where “apostle” comes from.
II “proclaim the gospel” = euaggelizo. Related to “thank” in v14. From eu (see note Y above) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
JJ “eloquent” = logos. Related to {untranslated} in v10. From lego (see note G above). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.

wisdom,KK so that the crossLL of Christ might not be emptied of its power.MM

Notes on verse 17b

KK “wisdom” = sophia. From sophos (wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated); related to saphes (clear). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
LL “cross” = stauros. Related to “crucified” in v13 & “send” in v17. See note W above.
MM “emptied of…power” = kenoo. 5x in NT. From kenos (properly, something empty or void; hence, worthless, foolish, ineffective, morally void, pretentious, unreal, or false). This is properly to make something empty or void. It is something without recognition that is seen as having no value. Figuratively, this could be to neutralize, falsify, or cause something to be in vain.

18 For the messageNN about the cross is foolishnessOO to those whoPP

Notes on verse 18a

NN “message” = logos. Same as “eloquent” in v17. See note JJ above.
OO “foolishness” = moria. 5x in NT. From moros (dull, stupid, foolish, flat; literally, not having an edge; used figuratively for someone whose understanding is dull, is sluggish, acts in a brainless way, or does not fully have a grip on reality). This is foolishness, absurdity, or dullness. This is where the word “moron” comes from.
PP {untranslated} = men. Same as {untranslated} in v12. See note Q above.

are perishing,QQ but to us who are being savedRR it is the powerSS of God.

Notes on verse 18b

QQ “perishing” = apollumi. Related to “Apollos” in v12. See note T above.
RR “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.
SS “power” = dunamis. From dunamai (to be able, have power or ability). This is might, strength, physical power, efficacy, energy, and miraculous power. It is force literally or figuratively – the power of a miracle or the miracle itself.

Image credit: “Vision of the Cross” by Frederic Edwin Church, ca. 1847.

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