1 Corinthians 3

1 Corinthians 3


And so, brothersI and sisters, I couldII not speakIII to you as spiritual peopleIV

Notes on verse 1a

I “brothers” = adelphos. From a (with, community, fellowship) + delphus (womb). This is a brother in a literal or figurative sense. It is also used of another member of the Church.
II “could” = dunamai. This is to be able, or something that is possible. It can also be empowered or being powerful. The Greek word for “miracle” (dunamis) comes from this root.
III “speak” = laleo. From lalos (talkative). This is to talk, say, or preach.
IV “spiritual people” = pneumatikos. From pneuma (wind, breath, or ghost; a breeze or blast of air, a breath; figuratively, a spirit, the human soul or the part of us that is rational; also angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit); from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is spiritual, spiritual people, or spiritual things – that which is ethereal or divine or religious.

but rather as fleshly,V as infantsVI in Christ.VII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “fleshly” = sarkinos. 4x in NT. From sarx (the body, human nature, being related; not always evil in scripture as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body; generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith; can mean meat from an animal, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit; can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty, physical or moral); may be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). This is fleshly, physical, soft. It can also be carnal.
VI “infants” = nepios. 15x in NT– used in 1 Corinthians 13 (“when I was a child…”). This may be from ne (not) + epos (word; by extension, to speak) {from epo (to answer, bring word, command). This is an infant, child, minor, or immature person. It can also be used figuratively for someone who is childish or unlearned.
VII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.

I fedVIII you with milk,IX not solid food,X for you were not readyXI for solid food. Even now you are still not ready, for you areXII still fleshly.XIII

Notes on verses 2-3a

VIII “fed” = potizo. 15x in NT. From potos (drink or for drinking) OR from pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is to give to drink, water, furnish, irrigate, or feed.
IX “milk” = gala. 5x in NT. This is milk – it can be literal or figurative. The Greek word for galaxy comes from this word, i.e. “milky way.”
X “solid food” = broma. 17x in NT. From bibrosko (to eat); related to bora (food); perhaps from bosko (to feed or pasture a flock; figuratively, to nourish spiritually). This is any kind of food in a literal or figurative sense.
XI “were…ready” = dunamai. Same as “could” in v1. See note II above.
XII “are” = eimi. This is to be, exist.
XIII “fleshly” = sarkikos. Related to “fleshly” in v1. 7x in NT. From sarx (see note V above). This is bodily, material, animal.

For as long as there is jealousyXIV and quarrelingXV among you, are you not fleshlyXVI and behaving according to humanXVII inclinations?XVIII 

Notes on verse 3b

XIV “jealousy” = zelos. 16x in NT– 6x in a positive sense (zeal for God) & 10x in a negative sense (jealousy/strife). Perhaps from zeo (to boil, be hot, ferment, bubble, boil, or glow; used figuratively for being fervent or earnest). This is eagerness or zeal on the one hand or rivalry and jealousy on the other. The verb is meant to echo the sound of boiling water and so it depicts burning emotion that bubbles over. So, burning anger or burning love.
XV “quarreling” = eris. 9x in NT. This is strife, quarreling, wrangling. Figuratively, it is debate or one who likes to dispute.
XVI “fleshly” = sarkikos. Same as “fleshly” in v3. See note XIII above.
XVII “human” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
XVIII “inclinations” = peripateo. From peri (about, concerning, around, encompassing) + pateo (to read, trample on; to trample literally or figuratively); {from patos (trodden) OR from paio (to strike, smite, sting; a hit like a single blow)}. This is to walk. Going from Hebrew figurative language, to walk referred to how you conducted your life, how you chose to live. This word is most literally walking around. Figuratively, it is living, behaving, following, how you occupy yourself. This is where “peripatetic” comes from.

For when one says,XIX “IXX belong toXXI Paul,”XXII and another,XXIII “I belong to Apollos,”XXIV are you not all too human?

Notes on verse 4

XIX “says” = lego. This is to speak, say, name, call, command. It is generally to convey verbally.
XX {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXI “belong to” = eimi. Same as “are” in v3. See note XII above.
XXII “Paul” = Paulos. From Latin Paulus (small, little). This is Paul or Paulos, meaning little.
XXIII “another” = heteros. This is other, another, different, strange. It is another of a different kind in contrast to the Greek word allos, which is another of the same kind. This could be a different quality, type, or group.
XXIV “Apollos” = Apollos. 10x in NT. Probably from Apollonios (belonging to Apollo); from the same as apollonia (Apollonia, a Macedonian city); from Apollon (the Greek god Apollo, who was god of “light, music, medicine, poetry, prophecy, dance, manly beauty”); possibly from Pre-Greek (to drive away) OR from Greek apollumi (to destroy) OR apolouon (washing) OR apoluon (delivering) OR haploun (simple) OR aeiballon (always shooting) OR a (not) + polus (parts). This is Apollos. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Apollo

What then is Apollos? What is Paul? ServantsXXV through whom you came to believe,XXVI as the LordXXVII

Notes on verse 5a

XXV “servants” = diakonos. Perhaps from dia (through, across to the other side, thoroughly) + konis (dust) OR from dioko (to chase after, put to flight; by implication, to persecute or to purse like a hunter after its prey; this can be earnestly pursue or zealously persecute) {related to dio (put to flight)}. This is a servant, minister, waiter, or attendant. It is used for a person who performs a service, including religious service. This is the root of the word “deacon.”
XXVI “believe” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
XXVII “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.

assignedXXVIII to each.XXIX I planted,XXX Apollos watered,XXXI

Notes on verses 5b-6a

XXVIII “assigned” = didomi. To give, offer, place, bestow, deliver. This is give in a literal or figurative sense.
XXIX “each” = hekastos. Perhaps from hekas (separate). This is each one, any, every. It is every individual as a distinct entity as opposed to those counted as a group in small sets.
XXX “planted” = phuteuo. 11x in NT. From phuton (a plant) OR from the base of phuo (to grow, produce, spring up; perhaps from the sense of puff or blow – to swell up; hence, to germinate; to grow literally or figuratively). This is plant or implant. Figuratively, this word is used for Christian teaching.
XXXI “watered” = potizo. Same as “fed” in v2. See note VIII above.

but GodXXXII gave the growth.XXXIII So neither the one who plantsXXXIV nor the one who waters is anything, but only God who gives the growth. The one who plants and the one who waters haveXXXV oneXXXVI purpose,

Notes on verses 6b-8a

XXXII “God” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
XXXIII “gave the growth” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
XXXIV “plants” = phuteuo. Same as “planted” in v6. See note XXX above.
XXXV “have” = eimi. Same as “are” in v3. See note XII above.
XXXVI “one” = heis. This is one, a person, only, some.

and eachXXXVII will receiveXXXVIII wagesXXXIX according to their ownXL labor.XLI 

Notes on verse 8b

XXXVII {untranslated} = idios. This is something that belongs to you or that is personal, private, apart. It indicates a stronger sense of possession than a simple possessive pronoun. This is where “idiot” comes from (denoting someone who hasn’t had formal training or education and so they rely on their own understanding).
XXXVIII “receive” = lambano. It does not refer to passive receiving of something, but active acceptance or taking of something whether it is offered or simply nearby. It focuses on individual decision and action.
XXXIX “wages” = misthos. This is wages, pay, or salary. It can also be reward, recompense, or punishment. It is pay for services rendered in a literal or figurative way, either good or bad.
XL “own” = idios. Same as {untranslated} in v8. See note XXXVII above.
XLI “labor” = kopos. 18x in NT. From kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn). This is trouble, toil, or labor. This is working to the point of exhaustion or weariness. At base, this refers to a blow that lands so swiftly that one is seriously weakened. Figuratively, this is being greatly tired or working to the point of being without strength.

For we are God’s coworkers, working together;XLII you are God’s field,XLIII God’s building.XLIV

Notes on verse 9

XLII “working together” = sunergos. 13x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + the base of ergon (work, task, deed, labor, effort) {from ergo (to work, accomplish, do)}. This is co-worker, associate, helper, co-laborer or one’s companion during labor.
XLIII “field” = georgion. Related to “working together” in v9. 1x in NT. From georgos (wine-dresser, farmer, someone who works the land); {from ge (earth, land, soil, region, country, the inhabitants of an area) + ergon (see note XLII above)}. This is a tilled field, cultivation, or a farm.
XLIV “building” = oikodome. 18x in NT. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + doma (house, housetop; often used to refer to the roof) {from demo (to build a house)}. This is the act of building, structure, architecture, a building, upbuilding. It is a building that is used as a home. Figuratively, this refers to spiritual progress – becoming a person who is a better home in which God can reside.

10 According to the graceXLV of God givenXLVI to me, like a wiseXLVII

Notes on verse 10a

XLV “grace” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
XLVI “given” = didomi. Same as “assigned” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
XLVII “wise” = sophos. Related to saphes (clear). This is wise, clever, skilled, learned, cultivated. This is wisdom as expressed through a practical skill or ability as opposed to thoughtfulness, or intelligence.

master builderXLVIII I laidXLIX a foundation,L

Notes on verse 10b

XLVIII “master builder” = architekton. 1x in NT. From archo (to rule, begin, have first rank or have political power) + tekton (craftsman; particularly one who works with wood); {from the base of timoria (penalty, punishment, vengeance); from timoreo (to punish, protect honor); {perhaps from time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}} + the base of tikto (to produce, bring forth, beget)}. This is an architect or master builder. It is one who has charge of the building process from the beginning to end.
XLIX “laid” = tithemi. Related to “foundation” in v10. See note L below.
L “foundation” = themelios. 16x in NT. From tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is related to a foundation, building substructure. It is a foundation in a literal or figurative sense.

and someone elseLI is buildingLII on it. Let each builder choose with careLIII how to build onLIV it. 

Notes on verse 10c

LI “someone else” = allos. This is other, another. Specifically, it is another of a similar kind or type. There is a different word in Greek that speaks of another as a different kind (heteros).
LII “building” = epoikodomeo. Related to “building” in v9. 7x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + oikodomeo (to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden); {from oikos (see note XLIV above) + domeo (to build)}. This is to build or build on. It is building done on top of a foundation done according to specifications. Figuratively, it can be to raise someone.
LIII “chose with care” = blepo. This is literally to see – it is primarily used in the physical sense. However, figuratively it can be seeing, which includes attention and so to watchfulness, being observant, perceiving, and acting on the visual information. It can also mean beware.
LIV “build on” = epoikodomeo. Same as “building” in v10. See note LII above.

11 For no one canLV lay any foundation other thanLVI the one that has been laid;LVII that foundation is JesusLVIII Christ. 

Notes on verse 11

LV “can” = dunamai. Same as “could” in v1. See note II above.
LVI “other than” = allos. Same as “someone else” in v10. See note LI above.
LVII “laid” = keimai. This is to lie, recline, be set, appointed, destined. It is to lie down literally or figuratively.
LVIII “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.

12 Now if anyone buildsLIX on the foundation with gold,LX silver,LXI preciousLXII stones,LXIII

Notes on verse 12a

LIX “builds” = epoikodomeo. Same as “building” in v10. See note LII above.
LX “gold” = chrusos. 10x in NT. Perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. It is symbolic of purchasing power.
LXI “silver” = arguros. 5x in NT. From argos (shining). This is silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver.
LXII “precious” = timios. 13x in NT. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.
LXIII “stones” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.

wood,LXIV hay,LXV strawLXVI— 13 the workLXVII of each builder will becomeLXVIII

Notes on verses 12b-13a

LXIV “wood” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
LXV “hay” = chortos. 15x in NT. This is food, grass, hay, wheat. It can also be a place of feeding, garden, court, or pasture.
LXVI “straw” = kalame. 1x in NT. Perhaps from kalamos (a reed, whether the plant itself or a stem that is like the reed; a staff, pen, measuring rod). This is stubble or straw.
LXVII “work” = ergon. Related to “working together” and “field” in v9. See note XLII above.
LXVIII “become” = ginomai. This is to come into being, to happen, become, be born. It can be to emerge from one state or condition to another or is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth.

visible,LXIX for the dayLXX will discloseLXXI it,

Notes on verse 13b

LXIX “visible” = phaneros. 18x in NT. From phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is visible, apparent, clear, shining.
LXX “day” = hemera. Perhaps from hemai (to sit). This is day, time, or daybreak.
LXXI “disclose” = deloo. 7x in NT. From delos (clear, evident, unmistakable, self-evident). This is making something evident, revealing declaring, showing. Often, making clear through words.

because it will be revealedLXXII with fire,LXXIII and the fire will testLXXIV what sort of work each has done.LXXV 

Notes on verse 13c

LXXII “revealed” = apokalupto. From apo (from, away from) + kalupto (to cover, hide, conceal; figuratively, to keep hidden or secret) {related to kalube (hut, cabin)}. This is properly to uncover so it means revealing something that was hidden or obstructed. It particularly refers to revealing the essence of something. This is to make plain or manifest. This is the root verb that “apocalypse” comes from.
LXXIII “fire” = pur. This is fire, lightning, heat from the sun. Figuratively, it can refer to strife or trials.
LXXIV “test” = dokimazo. From dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}. This is to test, examine, prove. It is to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable. It is to test in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXV “done” = eimi. Same as “are” in v3. See note XII above.

14 If the work that someone has builtLXXVI on the foundation survives,LXXVII the builder will receive a wage. 15 If the work is burned up,LXXVIII the builder will suffer loss;LXXIX the builder will be saved,LXXX but only as through fire.

Notes on verses 14-15

LXXVI “built” = epoikodomeo. Same as “building” in v10. See note LII above.
LXXVII “survives” = meno. This is to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide, endure. It can mean to literally stay in a place or to remain in a condition or to continue with hope and expectation.
LXXVIII “burned up” = katakaio. 12x in NT. From kata (down, against, among) + kaio (to burn, light, kindle). This is to burn up – entirely consume.
LXXIX “suffer loss” = zemioo. 6x in NT. From zemia (damage, loss, failed deal; business matter ending in fine or penalty or loss); probably related to damazo (to tame or subdue). This is to damage, cause a loss, punish, forfeit, be damaged or cast away.
LXXX “saved” = sozo. From sos (safe, rescued, well). This is to save, heal, preserve, or rescue. Properly, this is taking someone from danger to safety. It can be delivering or protecting literally or figuratively. This is the root that “savior” and “salvation” come from in Greek.

16 Do you not knowLXXXI that you are God’s templeLXXXII and that God’s SpiritLXXXIII dwellsLXXXIV in you? 

Notes on verse 16

LXXXI “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
LXXXII “temple” = naos. From naio (to dwell, inhabit). This is a place for God (or a god) to live – a sanctuary, shrine, or temple. It is a place for God or a god to manifest. For the Jewish Temple, it is used of the Temple itself and the two inner chambers.
LXXXIII “Spirit” = Pneuma. Related to “spiritual people” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXXIV “dwells” = oikeo. Related to “building” in v9 & “building” in v10. 9x in NT. From oikos (see note XLIV above). Properly, this means making a home or living at home. So, this is dwell or indwell, remain, reside, or cohabit.

17 If anyone destroysLXXXV God’s temple, God will destroy that person. For God’s temple is holy,LXXXVI and you are that temple.

18 Do not deceiveLXXXVII yourselves.

Notes on verses 17-18a

LXXXV “destroys” = phtheiro. 9x in NT. From phthio (perish, waste away). This is to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither. It is also used of moral corruption
LXXXVI “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
LXXXVII “deceive” = exapatao. 6x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + apatao (to deceive, seduce, cheat, delude; focuses on the method used to lure astray); {from apate (deception, cheating, treachery, fraud)}. This is to deceive of beguile. It focuses on the final effects of the deception.

If you thinkLXXXVIII that you are wise in this age,LXXXIX you should become foolsXC so that you may become wise. 

Notes on verse 18b

LXXXVIII “think” = dokeo. Related to “test” in v13. See note LXXIV above.
LXXXIX “age” = aion. From the same as aei (ever, always, unceasingly, perpetually; on every occasion). This is an age, cycle of time, course, continued duration. It is also used to describe the eternal or forever. This is the word used to discuss the present age or the messianic age.
XC “fools” = moros. 12x in NT. This is foolish, dull, stupid. It is something lacking an edge so figuratively it refers to someone who has a loose grasp of reality or whose understanding is dull. It is someone who acts as though they have not brain.

19 For the wisdomXCI of this worldXCII is foolishnessXCIII with God.

Notes on verse 19a

XCI “wisdom” = sophia. Related to “skilled” in v10. From sophos (see note XLVII above). This is skill, wisdom, insight, intelligence, clarity. It is wisdom as applied through a practical skill or shrewdness. It is not thoughtfulness or the mere gaining of intelligence for its own sake. Sophia is wisdom in action for everyday living.
XCII “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
XCIII “foolishness” = moria. Related to “fools” in v18. 5x in NT. From moros (see note XC above). This is foolishness, absurdity, or dullness. This is where the word “moron” comes from.

For it is written,XCIV

“He catchesXCV the wise in their craftiness,”XCVI

Notes on verse 19b

XCIV “written” = grapho. This is to write or describe. It is where the word “graphic” comes from.
XCV “catches” = drassomai. 1x in NT. Perhaps similar to drakon (dragon, monster; can refer to Satan); perhaps from derkomai (to look). This is to catch, seize, or entrap.
XCVI “craftiness” = panourgia. Related to “working together” and “field” in v9 & “work” in v13. 5x in NT. From panourgos (crafty, skillful; one who would done whatever is needed to get their own way); {from pas (all, every, every kind of) + ergon (see note XLII above)}. This is craftiness, cunning, or trickery. It is doing anything and everything to make something evil or self-serving happen.

20 and again,

“The Lord knowsXCVII the thoughtsXCVIII of the wise,
    that they are futile.”XCIX

Notes on verse 20

XCVII “knows” = ginosko. This is to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn. It is knowledge gained through personal experience.
XCVIII “thoughts” = dialogismos. Related to “says” in v4. 14x in NT. From dialogizomai (to consider, have a back and forth debate with an uncertain conclusion; multiple confused minds reinforcing a faulty conclusion); {from dia (through, because of, across, thoroughly) + logizmai (to compute or reckon up, to count; figuratively, it is coming to a conclusion or decision using logic; taking an inventory in a literal or figurative sense); {from logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; here, word as an account or accounting; can also be a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (see note XIX above)}. This is reasoning, plotting, argument, discussion that reinforces faulty reasoning, debate.
XCIX “futile” = mataios. 6x in NT. From the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless. It can also figuratively mean fleeting or refer to idols.

21 So let no one boastC about people.CI For all thingsCII are yours, 22 whether Paul or Apollos or CephasCIII or the world or lifeCIV

Notes on verses 21-22a

C “boast” = kauchaomai. Perhaps from auxen (neck). This is literally holding one’s head high – to boast proudly or to glory, joy, exult, rejoice. It can be boasting in a positive or negative sense.
CI “people” = anthropos. Same as “human” in v3. See note XVII above.
CII “all things” = pas. Related to “craftiness” in v19. See note XCVI above.
CIII “Cephas” = Kephas. 9x in NT. From Aramaic kepha (stone or rock). This is Cephas, the Aramaic translation of Peter’s name.
CIV “life” = zoe. From zao (to live, be alive). This is life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.

or deathCV or the presentCVI or the futureCVII—allCVIII are yours, 23 and you are Christ’s, and Christ is God’s.

Notes on verses 22b-23

CV “death” = thanatos. From thnesko (to die, be dead). This is death, whether literal or spiritual. It can also refer to something that is fatal.
CVI “present” = enistemi. 7x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by with, among) + histemi (to stand, place, set up, establish, stand ready, stand firm, be steadfast). This is literally to place in or be at hand. Thus, it is to be present or the things that are present. It can also be something that is impending or instant.
CVII “future” = mello. Perhaps from melo (something that one is worried or concerned about, something one pays attention to or thinks about). Properly, this is ready, about to happen, to intend, delay, or linger. This is just on the point of acting.
CVIII “all” = pas. Same as “all things” in v21. Se note CII above.

Image credit: This is “Mural Messy Desk (Hong Kong), Łódź 14 Matejki Street crop.” Photo by Zorro2212, 2016.

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