1 Kings 19:1-15a

1 Kings 19:1-15a
Ordinary C30


AhabI toldII JezebelIII all that ElijahIV had done,V and how he had killedVI all the prophetsVII with the sword.VIII 

Notes on verse 1

I “Ahab” = Achab. From ach (brother, kindred, another, other, like) + ab (father, ancestor, grandfather; father in a literal or figurative sense). This is Ahab, a name meaning “father’s brother” or “father’s friend.”
II “told” = nagad. This is to declare, make conspicuous, stand in front, manifest, predict, explain.
III “Jezebel” = Izebel. Perhaps from iy (not, island); {probably related to ay (where, how, whether); perhaps from ayin (where)} + Zebul (Zebul; a name meaning “dwelling”); {from zebul (height, dwelling, elevation, place); from zabal (to dwell, inclose, reside)}. This is Jezebel, a name which may mean “not honored by cohabitation” or “un-husbanded” or “without cohabitation” or “unmarried” or “chaste.”  See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Jezebel.html
IV “Elijah” = Eliyyah. From el (God, god) + Yah (the shortened form of the name of the God of Israel; God, Lord); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; God, Lord; the self-existent or eternal one); from havah (to become) or hayah (to be, become, happen)}. This is Elijah, meaning “The Lord is God.”
V “done” = asah. This is to make, do, act, appoint, become in many senses.
VI “killed” = harag. This is to strike with deadly intent so it can be kill, destroy, murder, or put to death.
VII “prophets” = nabi. This is prophet, prophecy, speaker, or someone inspired.
VIII “sword” = chereb. From charab (to attack, slay). This is any sharp instrument like a sword, dagger, axe, or mattock.

2 Then Jezebel sentIX a messengerX to Elijah, saying, “So may the godsXI do to me, and moreXII also,

Notes on verse 2a

IX “sent” = shalach. This is to send out, away, send for, forsake. It can also mean to divorce or set a slave free.
X “messenger” = malak. This is a messenger, an angel, or a deputy of some kind. Can be used for human messengers literally or for prophets, priests, or teachers as messengers of God. Also used for supernatural messengers i.e. angels.
XI “gods” = elohim. Related to “Elijah” in v1. See note IV above.
XII “more” = yasaph. This is to add, increase, continue, exceed.

if I do not makeXIII your lifeXIV like the life of oneXV of them by this timeXVI tomorrow.”XVII 

Notes on verse 2b

XIII “make” = sum. This is to put or place in a literal or figurative sense. It can be appoint, care, change, make, and may other things.
XIV “life” = nephesh. Related to naphash (to refresh or be refreshed). This is soul, self, person, emotion. It is a breathing creature. Can also refer to appetites and desires.
XV “one” = echad. Perhaps from achad (to unify, continue on a path; figuratively, to gather one’s thoughts). This is the number one, first, united. It can also be alone, altogether, a certain, a few.
XVI “time” = et. Probably from anah (to answer, sing, announce); from ad (forever, all, old); from adah (to pass on, advance, decorate oneself). This is a period or season. It can also mean whenever or continually.
XVII “tomorrow” = machar. Perhaps from achar (to be behind, delay, be late, procrastinate, continue). This is tomorrow or later. It is some kind of deferred time, so it could also mean indefinitely or refer to the time to come.

3 Then he was afraid;XVIII he got upXIX and fledXX for his life, and cameXXI to Beer-sheba,XXII

Notes on verse 3a

XVIII “was afraid” = raah. This is to see in a literal or figurative sense so stare, advise, think, view.
XIX “got up” = qum. To arise, stand, accomplish, establish, abide. This is rising as in rising against, getting up after being sick or asleep, arising from one state to another, becoming powerful, or rising for action. It can also be standing in a figurative sense.
XX “fled” = halak. This is go, come, walk. It is walk literally and figuratively and includes people and animals. It can be used figuratively for one’s moral life – how we walk according to God’s way or against it. It can also refer to the walk of life as in the course one’s life takes, the choices we make, etc.
XXI “came” = bo. This is to enter, come in, advance, fulfill, bring offerings, enter to worship, attack. It can also have a sexual connotation.
XXII “Beer-sheba” = Beerah shaba. From beer (a well or pit); {from baar (to make plain; to dig; can also mean to engrave or figuratively to explain)} + perhaps from shaba (to swear, curse, vow, make a covenant; properly, to be complete; this is to seven oneself – as in affirming something so strongly it is as though it were said seven times) {perhaps from sheba (seven – the number of perfection/sacred fullness)}. This is Beersheba – meaning either “well of seven” or “well of an oath.”

which belongs to Judah;XXIII he leftXXIV his servantXXV there.

Notes on verse 3b

XXIII “Judah” = Yehudah. Probably from yadah (to throw one’s hands into the air in a gesture of praise); from yad (hand). This is Judah, meaning “praised.”
XXIV “left” = yanach. Perhaps from the same as nuach (to rest, calm, camp, free, place, remain, satisfy, settle, station, or wait; implies settling down in a literal or figurative sense). This is to lay down, let alone, pacify, cast down, or deposit. It can also mean to allow something or someone to stay.
XXV “servant” = naar. May be from na’ar (to shake, toss up and down, tumble around). This is a child or a servant. It is a child in their active years so they could be aged anywhere from infancy to adolescence.

4 But he himself wentXXVI a day’sXXVII journeyXXVIII into the wilderness,XXIX and came and sat downXXX under a solitaryXXXI broom tree.XXXII

Notes on verse 4a

XXVI “went” = halak. Same as “fled” in v3. See note XX above.
XXVII “day’s” = yom. Root may mean being hot. This is the day in a literal or figurative sense. It can also mean birth, age, daylight, continually or other references to time.
XXVIII “journey” = derek. From darak (to tread, march, to walk. Can also mean affixing a string to a box since one needs to step on it to bend it in the process; so also an archer). This is a road as a thing that is walked on. Can be used figuratively for the path that one’s life takes or how one chooses to live one’s life.
XXIX “wilderness” = midbar. From dabar (to speak, command, declare). This is mouth or speech. It can also be desert or wilderness. Additionally, it can be used for a pasture to which one drives cattle.
XXX “sat down” = yashab. This is to sit and so to remain and so to dwell. It is sitting for any reason – as a judge, in order to ambush, or just sitting quietly. Causatively, this can mean settling or marrying. This can also mean continue, endure, or establish.
XXXI “solitary” = echad. Same as “one” in v2. See note XV above.
XXXII “broom tree” = rethem. 4x in OT. From ratham (to attach, yoke, bind). This is a broom plant or tree, or a juniper. It is perhaps retama raetam.

He askedXXXIII that heXXXIV might die:XXXV “It is enough;XXXVI now, O Lord,XXXVII take awayXXXVIII my life, for I am no betterXXXIX than my ancestors.”XL 

Notes on verse 4b

XXXIII “asked” = shaal. This is to ask, inquire, beg, borrow, desire, request. It can also mean to demand.
XXXIV “he” = nephesh. Same as “life” in v2. See note XIV above.
XXXV “die” = mut. This is to die in a literal or figurative sense. It can also refer to being a dead body.
XXXVI “enough” = rab. From rabab (increasing in any aspect whether quantity, authority, size, quality, greatness, etc.). This is abundance, many, elder, exceedingly, great. It refers to abundance of amount, rank, or status.
XXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Elijah” in v1. See note IV above.
XXXVIII “take away” = laqach. This is to take, accept, carry away, receive. It can also have the sense of take a wife or take in marriage.
XXXIX “better” = tob. From tob (to be pleasing, to be good). This is good, beautiful, pleasant, agreeable, bountiful, at ease. This word is used for goodness as a concept, a good thing, a good person. This can refer to prosperity and welfare as well as joy, kindness, sweetness, and graciousness. So, this is ethically good, but also enjoyably good.
XL “ancestors” = ab. Related to “Ahab” in v1. See note I above.

Then he lay downXLI under theXLII broom tree and fell asleep.XLIII SuddenlyXLIV an angelXLV touchedXLVI him and said to him, “Get up and eat.”XLVII 

Notes on verse 5

XLI “lay down” = shakab. This is to lie down, lodge. It is lying for sleep, sex, or other reasons.
XLII “the” = echad. Same as “one” in v2. See note XV above.
XLIII “fell asleep” = yashen. This is to be languid or go slack. By implication it can mean to sleep, become old or stale, or die.
XLIV “suddenly” = hinneh. From hen (lo! Behold! If, though; an expression of surprise). This is to draw attention, show suddenness or surprise, or to emphasize the importance of the coming statement. See! Lo! Behold!
XLV “angel” = malak. Same as “messenger” in v2. See note X above.
XLVI “touched” = naga. This is touch, reach, arrive, come near, strike. This is touching for any reason including sexual or violent.
XLVII “eat” = akal. This is to eat, devour, burn up, or otherwise consume. It can be eating in a literal or figurative sense.

6 He looked,XLVIII andXLIX there at his headL was a cakeLI baked on hot stones,LII

Notes on verse 6a

XLVIII “looked” = nabat. This is to behold, look at intently, consider, or scan. It can mean to have respect or regard someone favorably.
XLIX {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “suddenly” in v5. See note XLIV above.
L “head” = meraashoth. 8x in OT. From rosh (head, captain, or chief; excellent or the forefront; first in position or in statue or in time). This is a place for one’s place so it could be a pillow, head rest, or other head piece.
LI “cake” = uggah. 7x in OT. Perhaps from ug (to gyrate, bake; baking a round cake). This is a bread cake that is round, cooked on the hearth.
LII “hot stones” = retseph. 1x in OT. Related to ritspah (coal, hot stone, pavement). This is a coal of a hot stone that one used in cooking.

and a jarLIII of water.LIV He ate and drank,LV and lay down again.LVI 

Notes on verse 6b

LIII “jar” = tsappachath. 7x in OT. This is jar, cruse, or saucer.
LIV “water” = mayim. This is water, waters, or waterway in a general sense. Figuratively, it can also mean juice, urine, or semen.
LV “drank” = shathah. This is to drink literally or figuratively. It could also be a drinker.
LVI “again” = shub. To turn back, return, turn away – literally or figuratively. Doesn’t necessarily imply going back to where you started from. This is also the root verb for the Hebrew word for repentance “teshubah.”

The angel of the Lord cameLVII a secondLVIII time, touched him, and said, “Get up and eat, otherwise the journey will be too muchLIX for you.” 

8 He got up, and ate and drank; then he went in the strengthLX of that foodLXI fortyLXII days and forty nightsLXIII

Notes on verses 7-8a

LVII “came” = shub. Same as “again” in v6. See note LVI above.
LVIII “second” = sheni. From shanah (to fold, repeat, double, alter, or disguise). This is double, again, another, second.
LIX “too much” = rab. Same as “enough” in v4. See note XXXVI above.
LX “strength” = koach. Root may mean to be firm. This is power, strength, force. It can be literal or figurative, positive or negative. It can also mean capacity or means – what something produces. Additionally, it could refer to some kind of small reptile.
LXI “food” = akilah. Related to “eat” in v5. 1x in OT. From akal (see note XLVII above). This is something that can be eaten – a meal or food.
LXII “forty” = arbaim. From the same as arba (four); from raba (to make square or be four-sided); perhaps from raba (to lie down flat; can be to lie for mating). This is forty.
LXIII “nights” = layil. Properly, this refers to light twisting away. It is used for night or midnight. Figuratively, this can mean adversity.

to HorebLXIV the mountLXV of God. At that place he came to a cave,LXVI and spent the nightLXVII there.

ThenLXVIII the wordLXIX of the LordLXX came to him, saying, “What are you doing here, Elijah?” 

Notes on verses 8b-9

LXIV “Horeb” = Choreb. 17x in OT. From chareb (to devastate, desolate, or be waste). Horeb means waste or desolate.
LXV “mount” = har. From harar (hill or mountain). This is mountain, hill, hilly region.
LXVI “cave” = mearah. Perhaps from ur (to be made naked, exposed, or bare). This is a cave, cavern, den, or hole.
LXVII “spent the night” = luwn. This is to stay somewhere, usually for the night. It can mean abide, dwell, or endure. By implication, it can mean staying somewhere permanently. Taken in a negative sense, this would mean obstinance, particularly verbal. So, it can also mean murmur, grudge, or complaining.
LXVIII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “suddenly” in v5. See note XLIV above.
LXIX “word” = dabar. Related to “wilderness” in v4. From dabar (see note XXIX above). This is speech, a word, a matter, an affair, charge, command, message, promise, purpose, report, request. It is a word, which implies things that are spoken of in a wide sense.
LXX “Lord” = YHVH. Related to “Elijah” in v1 & “Lord” in v4. It has the same meaning as “Lord” in v4, but with a different vowel pointing. See note IV above.

10 He answered, “I have been very zealousLXXI for the Lord, the God of hosts;LXXII for the IsraelitesLXXIII have forsakenLXXIV your covenant,LXXV

Notes on verse 10a

LXXI “been very zealous” = qanah + qanah. From qinah (zeal, jealousy). This is to be zealous or to provoke to jealousy. The word is repeated twice – the first time as an Infinitive Absolute. The Infinitive Absolute serves to emphasize the sentiment of the word. It is rather like Foghorn Leghorn’s speech pattern, “I said, I said.”
LXXII “hosts” = tsaba. From tsaba (to wage war, serve, assemble, fight, perform, muster, wait on). This is a large group of persons (used figuratively for a group of things). It implies a campaign literally as with army, war, warfare, battle, company, soldiers. Can also be used figuratively for hardship or for worship.
LXXIII “Israelites” = ben + Yisrael. Literally, “children of Israel.” Ben is from banah (to build or obtain children). This is son, age, child. It is son in a literal or figurative sense. Yisrael is related to “Elijah” in v1 & “gods” in v2. From sarah (to persist, exert oneself, contend, persevere, wrestle, prevail) + el (see note IV above). This is Israel, meaning God strives or one who strives  with God; new name for Jacob and for his offspring. This refers to the people and to the land.
LXXIV “forsaken” = azab. To loosen, relinquish, permit, forsake, fail, leave destitute.
LXXV “covenant” = berit. Perhaps from barah (to eat, choose, make clear); perhaps from bar (grain, wheat); from bara (to select, purify, cleanse, test, brighten, polish). This is a compact, covenant, alliance, treaty, or league.

thrown downLXXVI your altars,LXXVII and killed your prophets with the sword. I aloneLXXVIII am left,LXXIX and they are seekingLXXX my life, to take it away.”

Notes on verse 10b

LXXVI “thrown down” = haras. This is to break down, throw down, ruin, overthrow, or destroy. It is breaking down in pieces.
LXXVII “altars” = mizbeach. From zabach (to kill, slay, offer; slaughtering an animal to offer as a sacrifice). This is an altar.
LXXVIII “alone” = bad. From badad (to divide or be separated; alone, solitary, lonely, isolated, straggler). This is apart, alone, separation, body part, tree branch, except. It can also be a city’s chief.
LXXIX “am left” = yathar. This is to jut over, remain behind, preserve, to excel. It can be to leave or to be in abundance.
LXXX “seeking” = baqash. This is to seek, ask, desire, or request. It can be any kind of searching. It can also mean to worship or pray – implies a striving for.

11 He said, “Go outLXXXI and standLXXXII on the mountainLXXXIII beforeLXXXIV the Lord,LXXXV forLXXXVI the LordLXXXVII is about to pass by.”LXXXVIII

Notes on verse 11a

LXXXI “go out” = yatsa. This is to go or come out, bring forth, appear. It is to go out in a literal or figurative sense.
LXXXII “stand” = amad. This is to stand up in a literal or figurative sense. So it can be establish, continue, endure, take a stand, act, be a servant, stand still, remain, stand against an enemy.
LXXXIII “mountain” = har. Same as “mount” in v8. See note LXV above.
LXXXIV “before” = paneh. From panah (to turn, face, appear). This is face in a literal or figurative sense. It could be face, presence, anger, respect. It can also be used of God to indicate divine favor or presence.
LXXXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
LXXXVI {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “suddenly” in v5. See note XLIV above.
LXXXVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
LXXXVIII “pass by” = abar. This is to pass over or cross over. It is used for transitions, whether literal or figurative. It can also mean to escape, alienate, or fail. This is the root verb from which “Hebrew” is drawn.

Now there was a greatLXXXIX wind,XC so strongXCI that it was splittingXCII mountains

Notes on verse 11b

LXXXIX “great” = gadol. From gadal (to grow up, become great, become wealthy – to advance. The root meaning may be to twist in the sense of the process of growing). This is great, high, bigger, noble, old, marvelous. It can also refer to someone who is powerful or distinguished.
XC “wind” = ruach. This is breath, wind, air, cool, spirit. This is wind, which resembles the breath and so this can be used figuratively for life itself or being frail/mortal/impermanent. It can refer to the air of the sky or the spirit.
XCI “strong” = chazaq. From chazaq (to strengthen, seize, be courageous, repair, bind, heal, conquer, harden). This is strong, hard, powerful, loud, bold, violent, impudent. It is usually strong in a negative sense.
XCII “splitting” = paraq. 10x in OT. This is to tear apart, break off, drag away, or crunch. Figuratively, it can mean to deliver.

and breaking rocksXCIII in piecesXCIV beforeXCV the Lord,XCVI but the LordXCVII was not in the wind; and afterXCVIII the wind an earthquake,XCIX but the LordC was not in the earthquake; 

Notes on verse 11c

XCIII “rocks” = sela. Root may mean being lofty. This is a rock, cliff, crag, mountain. It could be used figuratively for obstinance or to show God as a refuge. It can also more generally mean fortress or stronghold.
XCIV “breaking…in pieces” = shabar. This is break, collapse, destroy, break in pieces, tear. It is bursting in a literal or figurative sense.
XCV “before” = paneh. Same as “before” in v11. See note LXXXIV above.
XCVI “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
XCVII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
XCVIII “after” = achar. Related to “tomorrow” in v2. From achar (see note XVII above). This is after or the last part, following.
XCIX “earthquake” = raash. 17x in OT. From raash (to quake, shake, tremble, shake from fear; leap like a locust). This is quaking, shaking, rattling, or rumbling. It can also be commotion, tumult, earthquake, or confused sounds.
C “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.

12 and after the earthquake a fire,CI but the LordCII was not in the fire; and after the fire a soundCIII of sheerCIV silence.CV 

Notes on verse 12

CI “fire” = esh. This is fire, burning, flaming, hot. It is fire in a literal or figurative sense.
CII “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CIII “sound” = qol. This is a sound, used often for human voices. Also used when God speaks or angels, animals or instruments. It can be a cry or a noise, thunder or earthquakes and so on.
CIV “sheer” = daq. 15x in OT. From daqaq (to crush, crumble, make dust, be very small). This is thin, crushed, small, very little.
CV “silence” = demamah. 3x in OT. From damam (to cease, be or become mute, silent, still, cut off, hold peace, be astonished, or die). This is silence, calm, quiet, whisper, or blowing.

13 WhenCVI Elijah heardCVII it, he wrappedCVIII his faceCIX in his mantleCX and went out and stood at the entranceCXI of the cave.

ThenCXII there came a voiceCXIII to him that said, “What are you doing here, Elijah?” 

Notes on verse 13

CVI {untranslated} = hayah. Related to “Elijah” in v1 & “Lord” in v4 & “Lord” in v10. See note IV above.
CVII “heard” = shama. This is to hear, call, consent, or consider. It implies listening intelligently, giving attention, and, because of these two factors, obedience and action are often implied.
CVIII “wrapped” = lut. 3x in OT. This is to wrap or envelop.
CIX “face” = paneh. Same as “before” in v11. See note LXXXIV above.
CX “mantle” = addereth. 12x in OT– this is the word used for the mantle that passes from Elijah to Elisha. From addir (majestic, excellent, mighty, powerful, or noble); from adar (wide, glorious, honorable, great, magnificent). This is something ample – glory, splendid, goodly. It could also refer to a cloak, robe, or garment.
CXI “entrance” = petach. From patach (to open wide in a literal or figurative sense, loosen, plow, carve). This is opening, door, gate, entrance.
CXII {untranslated} = hinneh. Same as “suddenly” in v5. See note XLIV above.
CXIII “voice” = qol. Same as “sound” in v12. See note CIII above.

14 He answered, “I have been very zealous for the Lord,CXIV the God of hosts; for the Israelites have forsaken your covenant, thrown down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword. I alone am left, and they are seeking my life, to take it away.” 

15 Then the LordCXV said to him, “Go, returnCXVI on your wayCXVII to the wilderness of Damascus;CXVIII

Notes on verses 14-15a

CXIV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CXV “Lord” = YHVH. Same as “Lord” in v4. See note XXXVII above.
CXVI “return” = shub. Same as “again” in v6. See note LVI above.
CXVII “way” = derek. Same as “journey” in v4. See note XXVIII above.
CXVIII “Damascus” = Dammeseq. From Old Aramaic dammasq (Damascus); perhaps related to d-r (dwelling) OR in Syriac darsuq (“a well-watered land”). This is Damascus. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus.

when you arrive,CXIX you shall anointCXX HazaelCXXI as kingCXXII over Aram.CXXIII 

Notes on verse 15b

CXIX “arrive” = bo. Same as “came” in v3. See note XXI above.
CXX “anoint” = mashach. This is smear, paint, spread, or paint. It can also be to rub with oil or, otherwise stated, to anoint. This implies a consecration. This root verb is where the word “messiah” comes from.
CXXI “Hazael” = Chazael. Related to “Elijah” in v1 & “gods” in v2 & “Israelites” in v10. From chazah () + el (see note IV above). This is Hazael or Chazael, meaning “God sees.”
CXXII “king” = melek. From malak (to be or become king or queen, to rise to the throne, to be crowned; by implication, to take counsel). This is king or royal.
CXXIII “Aram” = Aram. Perhaps from ‘armon (any fortified building – castle, citadel, palace) OR from rum (to be high, rise, exalt self, extol, be haughty; to rise literally or figuratively). This is Aram, Syria, Mesopotamia – meaning elevated or citadel. See https://www.abarim-publications.com/Meaning/Aram.html#.XqfDX8hKhPY

Image credit: “Earthquake, Wind, and Fire” by Jeff Anderson, Siku, and Richard Thomas of Edge Group – Lion Hudson.

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