1 Peter 1:17-23

1 Peter 1:17-23
Eastertide A22


17 If you invokeA as Father the one who judgesB all people impartiallyC according to their deeds, liveD in reverent fearE during the timeF of your exile.G 

Notes on verse 17

A “invoke” = epikaleo. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is to call on, appeal to, worship, invoke for help.
B “judges” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
C “impartially” = aprosopolemptos. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + prosopon (face, surface, or front; can imply presence more generally); {from pros (at, towards, with) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}} + lambano (active acceptance/taking of what is available or what has been offered; emphasizes the choice and action of the individual). This is impartially, without preference or favor to particular persons.
D “live” = anastrepho. 9x in NT. From ana (up, again, back, among, anew) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn back, return, or over turn. It can also imply busying oneself and so to remain, dwell, behave, or live somewhere.
E “fear” = phobos. From phebomai (to flee, withdraw, be put to flight). This is panic flight, fear, fear being caused, terror, alarm, that which causes fear, reverence, respect.
F “time” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
G “exile” = paroikia. 4x in NT. From paroikos (dwelling near, a temporary resident, sojourner, alien; a foreigner who does not have the same rights as a citizen); {from para (by, beside, in the presence of) + oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple)}. This is sojourning, living in a foreign country.

18 You knowH that you were ransomedI from the futileJ waysK inherited from your ancestors,L not with perishable thingsM like silverN or gold,O 

Notes on verse 18

H “know” = eido. This is to know, consider perceive, appreciate, behold, or remember. It means seeing with one’s eyes, but also figuratively, it means perceiving – seeing that becomes understanding. So, by implication, this means knowing or being aware.
I “ransomed” = lutroo. 3x in NT. From luo (to loose, release, untie; figuratively, to break, destroy, or annul; releasing what had been withheld). This is to redeem, liberate, release because ransom was paid in full. Figuratively, it is returning something or someone to their rightful owner.
J “futile” = mataios. 6x in NT. From the same as maten (in vain, aimlessly, pointless, fruitless); from mate (a folly) or from massaomai (to chew, gnaw); {from masso (to kneed, squeeze). This is vain, useless, worthless, unproductive, or purposeless. It can also figuratively mean fleeting or refer to idols.
K “ways” = anastrophe. Related to “live” in v17. 13x in NT. From anastrepho (see note D above). This is behavior, life, change of behavior or belief, or conversation.
L “inherited from…ancestors” = patroparadotos. Related to “Father” in v17. 1x in NT. From pater (father, elder, ancestor; father in a literal or figurative sense) + paradidomi (literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray; implies a personal involvement.); {from para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense)}. This inherited – literally something handed over by ancestors. It can also refer to traditions or traditional ways.
M “perishable things” = phthartos. 6x in NT. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is perishable or corruptible – what disintegrates
N “silver” = argurion. From arguros (silver, whether the metal itself or things made from silver); from argos (shining). This is silver, which implies money – shekel, drachma, etc.
O “gold” = chrusion. 12x in NT. 12x in NT. From chrusos (gold or something made of gold; symbolic of purchasing power); perhaps from chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is gold or something made of gold. Emphasizes that which gold can obtain.

19 but with the preciousP bloodQ of Christ,R like that of a lambS without defectT or blemish.U 

Notes on verse 19

P “precious” = timios. 13x in NT. From time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {From tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is valued, precious, respected, or dear. It is something that holds value.
Q “blood” = haima. This is blood in a literal sense as bloodshed. Figuratively, it can also be used to refer to wine or to kinship (being related).
R “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
S “lamb” = amnos. 4x in NT. This is lamb, used figuratively for innocence or in reference to its sacrificial use. Usually, it refers to a lamb that is one year old.
T “without defect” = amomos. 9x in NT. 9x in NT. From a (not) + momos (literally a spot; figuratively blame, disgrace, flaw, censure); {perhaps from memphomai (to blame, be disgraceful; be rejected due to doing bad things); from mempteos (rejected because one has been condemned)}. This is literally without blemish. Figuratively it can mean blameless or without fault i.e. without sin. This word might also be related to a plant from India called amomum, which was used in ointment. It may be akin to black cardamom. See https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E1%BC%84%CE%BC%CF%89%CE%BC%CE%BF%CE%BD#Ancient_Greek
U “blemish” = aspilos. 4x in NT. From a (not, without) + spiloo (this is to stain or defile; figuratively, it can refer to spiritually defile or pollute, a defect or disgrace). This is spotless, undefiled, or pure. Figuratively, it is morally pure.

20 He was destinedV , W before the foundationX of the world,Y but was revealedZ at the endAA of the agesBB for your sake. 

Notes on verse 20

V “destined” = proginosko. 5x in NT. From pro (before, first, in front of, earlier) + ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience). This is to know ahead of time, foresee, or ordain.
W {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
X “foundation” = katabole. 11x in NT. From kataballo (to cast down, lay prostate, set a foundation); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + ballo (to throw, cast, place, put, drop)}. This is a foundation or a plan for one – setting the foundation according to the plans. Figuratively, it can be the beginning of something, sowing, or conception.
Y “world” = kosmos. Perhaps from the base of komizo (to carry, convey, recover); from komeo (to take care of). This is order, the world, the universe, including its inhabitants. Literally, this is something that is ordered so it can refer to all creation. It can also refer to decoration in the sense that something is better ordered and, thus, made more beautiful. This is where “cosmos” and “cosmetics” come from.
Z “revealed” = phaneroo. From phaneros (visible, apparent, clear, shining); from phos (light, a source of light, fire, or radiance; light with specific reference to what it reveals; luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative); from phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is to make visible or clear, to make known. Properly, it is to illumine and so to make apparent or bring into open view.
AA “end” = eschatos. Related to eschaton (end, last); perhaps from echo (to have, possess, hold). This is last, end, extreme, final. It is often used to discuss the end times, prophecies of the future, and the afterlife. The branch of theology focusing on all these topics is called “eschatology.”
BB “ages” = chronos. Same as “time” in v17. See note F above.

21 Through him you have come to trustCC in God,DD who raisedEE him from the dead and gave him glory,FF so that your faithGG and hopeHH are set on God.

Notes on verse 21

CC “trust” = pistos. From peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true. It is a fullness of faith. This is the same root as the word “faith” in Greek.
DD “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
EE “raised” = egeiro. This is to awake, raise up or lift up. It can be to get up from sitting or lying down, to get up from sleeping, to rise from a disease or from death. Figuratively, it can be rising from inactivity or from ruins.
FF “glory” = doxa. From dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); from dokos (opinion). This is literally something that evokes a good opinion – something that connects to our understanding of intrinsic worth. The ultimate expression of this is, of course, God and God’s manifestation. So, this is opinion, honor, and dignity, but also praise, glory, renown, and worship.
GG “faith” = pistis. Related to “trust” in v21. From peitho (see note CC above). This is less about knowing, believing, and repeating a list of doctrines then it is about trusting God. Faith means listening to God and seeking to live a holy life even (and especially) when we don’t understand how everything works or fits together. Faith is about being faithful (trusting and doing) rather than being all knowing.
HH “hope” = elpis. From elpo (to anticipate, welcome, expect; usually to anticipate positively). This is expectation, hope, trust, confidence faith. The expectation can be abstract or concrete.

22 Now that you have purifiedII your soulsJJ by your obedienceKK to the truthLL so that you have genuineMM mutual love,NN

Notes on verse 22a

II “purified” = hagnizo. 7x in NT. From hagnos (free from ceremonial defilement, holy, sacred; originally, in a condition prepared for worship; pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; chaste; properly, pure to the core, undefiled from sin; fig innocent, modest, perfect); from the same as hagios (sacred, holy; set apart by or for God; different, other; most holy, saint; sacred physically, morally blameless, ceremonially, consecrated). This word is to purify, cleanse from defilement, make clean, sanctify. So, it is to cleanse ceremonially, concretely, or morally.
JJ “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, human soul, self, person, individual. This is the seat of affections and well – someone’s distinct identity or individual personality. This word doesn’t refer to the immortal soul (pneuma), but to someone’s essence – what makes them unique. This is not life itself, which is shared by plants and animals (zao).
KK “obedience” = hupakoe. 15x in NT. From hupoakouo (to listen, attend to, hearken to, obey, answer; properly, to obey what is heard; to hear as a subordinate i.e. to listen attentively; by impl. to heed or conform to a command or authority); {from hupo (by, under, about; properly under, often meaning under authority of someone working directly as a subordinate) + akouo (to hear, listen, comprehend by hearing, understand)}. This word is obedience, submissiveness, compliance. It is obeying what is heard, responding to someone speaking, responding attentively and with action.
LL “truth” = aletheia. From alethes (true to fact, unconcealed, worthy of credit, truthful); literally a (not) + lanthano (unnoticed, concealed).
MM “genuine” = anupokritos. 6x in NT. From a (not) + hupokrinomai (to answer, reply, answer on a stage, pretend, act the part; to decide or speak or act under a false part; fig to dissemble or pretend); {from hupo (by, under, about; properly under, often meaning under authority of someone working directly as a subordinate) + krino (to judge, decide; judge in a law court or privately; decide, think something good; to separate, distinguish; come to a choice by making a judgment; to choose by separating; determine innocence and guilt, right and wrong)}. This word is unhypocritical, unfeigned, without hypocrisy, sincere, genuine. Properly, not a phony – sincerity in action with no ulterior motive. Literally, this word is without hypocrisy.
NN “mutual love” = philadelphia. 6x in NT. From philadelphos (loving one’s brother; love between family members; brotherly, fraternal); {from philos (beloved, dear, friendly, friend, associate; someone dearly loved or prized in a personal, intimate way; a trusted confident held in a close bond of personal affection; love based on experience; fond, dear, friendly) + adelphos (bother, brethren, member of the Christian community; a brother lit or fig, near or remote) {from a (shared) + delphus (womb)}. This word is the love of brothers or fellow believers, brotherly kindness.

loveOO one another deeplyPP fromQQ the heart.RR 

Notes on verse 22b

OO “love” = agape. This is love coming from reason or esteem. It is preference. Loving socially or morally. Also, divine love.
PP “deeply” = ektenos. 2x in NT. From ektenes (stretched, constant, strenuous, fervent; fig for zealous, earnest, intent, zealous; fig at maximum potential); from ekteino (to extend, stretch out, stretch forth, cast forth like an anchor, lay hands on, reach); {from ek (from, from out of, from the interior outwards) + teino (to stretch)}. This is intently, fervently, earnestly, strenuously, Properly, full-stretched, extended out to necessary or full potential; completely taut with no slack.
QQ {untranslated}= katharos. This word is clean, pure, unstained, guiltless, innocent, upright. It is pure literally, ceremonially, or spiritually. Without being mixed with something unclean or undesirable. It is separated from what is bad and thus clean.
RR “heart” = kardia. This is literally the heart. Figuratively it is mind, character, inner self, will, intention, thoughts, feelings, or center. It is our affective center and our capacity to make moral choices. Heart is only used figuratively in the OT and NT.

23 You have been born anew,SS not of perishableTT but of imperishableUU seed,VV

Notes on verse 23a

SS “born anew” = anagennao. 2x in NT. From ana (upwards, up, again, back, among, between, to, anew, back) + gennao (to beget, bring forth, give birth to, produce offspring, conceive; properly of the father, but by extension of the mother; fig to regenerate); {from genna (descent, birth) OR a variation of genos (family, offspring, race, nation, kind, kin abstract or concrete, lit or fig, individual or collective; generation, stock, offspring); {from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, to become, be born, come about; to emerge – transition from one point, realm, or condition into another)}}. This is to beget into a new life, beget again. Properly to be born again or born from above. In both uses in the NT, spiritual regeneration is meant. This word is no used in classical or Septuagintal Greek.
TT “perishable” = phthartos. 6x in NT – 2x for a perishable body, 1x for mortal, 1x for a perishable wreath, 1x for perishable things like silver or gold, and 1x for a perishable seed. From phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, spoil, ruin, defile; properly, waste away, deteriorate; fig to cause or experience moral deterioration or break down; properly, to shrivel or wither i.e. to spoil by any process or generally to ruin; especially fig by moral influences, deprave); from phthio (perish, waste away; to pine). This word is perishable or corruptible. It is what easily perishes, disintegrates, or corrupts.
UU “imperishable” = aphthartos. Related to “perishable” in v23. 8x in NT – 2x for immortal God, 1x for imperishable glory of righteousness in heaven, 1x for imperishable wreath, 1x for dead raised imperishable, 1x for imperishable inheritance in heaven, 1x for us being born of an imperishable seed, and 1x for lasting beauty of a gentle and quiet spirit for wives. This is from a (not) + phtheiro. This is imperishable, incorruptible, and immortal. Undecaying in its essence or in the sense of something that continues.
VV “seed” = spora. 1x in NT. From speiro (to sow a seed, spread, scatter; to sow lit or fig); perhaps from spao (to draw as a sword, to pull, draw out). This is seed, a sowing – which implies a seed or parentage.

through the livingWW and enduringXX wordYY of God.ZZ

Notes on verse 23b

WW “living” = zao. To live, be alive, lifetime, lively. To live literally or figuratively. Life as shared by humans, animals, and plants.
XX “enduring” = meno. To stay, abide, remain, wait, wait for. To stay in a given place, state, relation, expectancy. To continue, dwell, endure, or be present.
YY “word” = logos. From lego (to speak to a conclusion, mean, mention, tell). This is a word, statement speech, Christ as the Word, or divine utterance. This is word embodying an idea or expressing a thought. It could be a saying or a person sharing a message. It could be reasoning spelled out verbally or a topic in general.
ZZ “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European to do, to put, to place (different root from deus in Latin, which comes from a Proto-Indo-European root that means sky or heaven). This is God or a god.

Image credit: Mosaic from the Church of the Savior on Blood in St. Petersburg, Russia.

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