1 Peter 2:19-25

1 Peter 2:19-25
Fourth Sunday of Easter A


19 For it is a creditA to you if, being awareB of God,C you endureD painE while sufferingF unjustly.G

Notes on verse 19

A “credit” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
B “aware” = suneidesis. From suneidon (to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of); {from sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (to know, remember, perceive – to see and so understand)}. This is properly to know together. The conscience, found in all, is a moral and spiritual capacity granted by God so that we can understand together what is good and right.
C “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.
D “endure” = hupophero. 3x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to endure or suffer – to bear up under. It could be carried as the current or a river. It could also be carried away from danger.
E “pain” = lupe. 16x in NT. This is pain, whether physical or mental. It includes grief, sorrow, distress, or a heavy heart.
F “suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
G “unjustly” = adikos. 1x in NT. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, or treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); {may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}}. This is unjustly or undeservedly.

20 If you endureH when you are beatenI for doing wrong,J what creditK is that? But if you endure when you do rightL and suffer for it, you have God’s approval.M 

Notes on verse 20

H “endure” = hupomeno. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
I “beaten” = kolaphizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
J “doing wrong” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
K “credit” = kleos. 1x in NT. From kleo (to celebrate) OR from kaleo (to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud); {related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on)}. This is fame, glory, report, credit, or praise.
L “do right” = agathopoieo. 10x in NT. From agathopoios (a do-gooder or virtuous person; someone who does intrinsically good things); {from agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause)}. This is to do good or to do right.
M “approval” = charis. Same as “credit” in v19. See note A above.

21 For to this you have been called,N because ChristO also suffered for you, leavingP you an example,Q so that you should followR in his steps.S

Notes on verse 21

N “called” = kaleo. Perhaps related to “credit” in v20. See note K above.
O “Christ” = christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
P “leaving” = hupolimpano. 1x in NT. From hupoleipo (to leave remaining); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is to bequeath or leave behind.
Q “example” = hupogrammos. 1x in NT. From hupographo (to sketch or draw an outline); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + grapho (to write or describe)}. This is an example or pattern = it is a writing that is copied or imitated.
R “follow” = epakoloutheo. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow after, accompany, imitate, or pursue. It can also denote a studious follower or disciple who is devoted and behaves in a way that is morally consistent with the teachings of the leader.
S “steps” = ichnos. 3x in NT. Perhaps from ikneomai (to arrive). This is a track or footstep. Figuratively, it is giving an example for others.

22 “He committed no sin,T
    and no deceitU was foundV in his mouth.”

Notes on verse 22

T “sin” = hamartia. Related to “doing wrong” in v20. From hamartano (see note J above). Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
U “deceit” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.
V “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.

23 When he was abused,W he did not return abuse;X when he suffered, he did not threaten;Y but he entrusted himself toZ the one who judgesAA justly.BB 

Notes on verse 23

W “abused” = loidoreo. 4x in NT. From loidoros (abusive, reproach, reviler; harming someone else’s reputation with abusive words); perhaps from loidos (mischief). This is to abuse or revile – insulting someone to their face in a demoralizing or humiliating way.
X “return abuse” = antiloidoreo. Related to “abused” in v23. 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + loidoreo (see note W above). To give abuse for abuse, to reproach, denigrate, make abusive insults.
Y “threaten” = apeile. 2x in NT. Perhaps from apeileo (to threaten, warn). This is to threaten or menace. It implies forbidding.
Z “entrusted himself to” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
AA “judges” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.
BB “justly” = dikaios. Related to “unjustly” in v19. 5x in NT. From dike (see note G above). This is righteously, uprightly, or equitably.

24 He himself boreCC our sins in his bodyDD on the cross,EE so that, free fromFF sins, we might live for righteousness;GG by his woundsHH you have been healed.II 

Notes on verse 24

CC “bore” = anaphero. Related to “endure” in v19. 10x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + phero (see note D above). This is to lead or carry up, to offer as a sacrifice. It is bringing something to its destination or goal. It is to take up in a literal or figurative sense.
DD “body” = soma. Perhaps from sozo (to save, heal, rescue); from sos (safe, well, rescued). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
EE “cross” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
FF “free from” = apoginomai. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth). This is being away from, removed, or absent. Figuratively, this can mean to renounce or to die.
GG “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Related to “unjustly” in v19 & “justly” in v23. From dikaios (correct, righteous – implies innocent; this is that which conforms to God’s notion of justice, uprightness); from dike (see note G above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
HH “wounds” = molops. 1x in NT. Perhaps from molos (hard work, turmoil, spot, defilement) + ops (the face). THis is a wound or bruise that follows being scourged. It could also be a mole or a black eye.
II “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.

25 For you were going astrayJJ like sheep,KK but now you have returnedLL to the shepherdMM and guardianNN of your souls.OO

Notes on verse 25

JJ “going astray” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming fr truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
KK “sheep” = probaton. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (a step, pace, foot); {from baino (to walk, to go)}}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
LL “returned” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.
MM “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler. 
NN “guardian” = episkopos. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully)}. This is an overseer, supervisor, guardian, or ruler. It is a civic title and also one used in the church – a bishop.
OO “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

Image credit: “Mother and Child” by johnmuk.

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