1 Peter 2:1-9, 19-25

1 Peter 2:1-9, 19-25
Narrative Lectionary


RidI yourselves, therefore, of allII maliceIII and all guile,IV

Notes on verse 1a

I “rid” = apotithemi. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + tithemi (to put, place, set, fix, establish in a literal or figurative sense; properly, this is placing something in a passive or horizontal position). This is to put aside, put away, renounce.
II “all” = pas. This is all or every.
III “malice” = kakia. 11x in NT. From kakos (bad, evil, harm, ill; this is evil that is part of someone’s core character – intrinsic, rotted, worthless, depraved, causing harm; it is deep inner malice that comes from a rotten character). This is wickedness, evil, trouble, misfortune, inner malice, badness. It is inherent evil, depravity, causing harm.
IV “guile” = dolos. 11x in NT. From dello (probably to decoy). This is literally bait, but used figuratively for treachery, stealth, guile, or deceit.

insincerity,V envy,VI and all slander.VII 

Notes on verse 1b

V “insincerity” = hupokrisis. 6x in NT. From hupokrinomai  (to answer, pretend, respond as an actor on stage; figuratively, to lie) {from hupo (by, under, about) + krino (to judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue; judging whether in court or in a private setting; properly, mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty; can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging)}. This is answer, play-acting, or hypocrisy. It is one who acts beneath a mask, i.e. lies or is a hypocrite.
VI “envy” = phthonos. 9x in NT. Perhaps from phtheiro (to destroy, corrupt, ruin, deteriorate, wither; also used of moral corruption); from phthio (perish, waste away). This is jealousy, spite, or ill-will. It can also be feeling glad when misfortune befalls another (akin to Schadenfreude).
VII “slander” = katalalia. 2x in NT. From katalalos (talking against, slanderer, slanderous, defamer); {from kata (down, against, throughout, among) + laleo (to talk, say, preach); {from lalos (talkative)}}. This is literally speaking evil. So, it could be slander, evil talk, or backbiting.

Like newbornVIII infants,IX longX for the pure,XI

Notes on verse 2a

VIII “newborn” = artigennetos. 1x in NT. From arti (now, at this moment); {from airo (raise, take up, lift, remove)} + gennao (to beget, give birth to, bring forth; properly, procreation by the father, but used of the mother by extension; figuratively, can mean to regenerate); {from genna (descent, birth); from genos (family, offspring, kin – in a literal or figurative sense); from ginomai (to come into being, to happen, become, be born; to emerge from one state or condition to another; this is coming into being with the sense of movement or growth)}. This is literally newly born. Can also be used figuratively for a new convert.
IX “infants” = brephos. 8x in NT. This is used of a fetus (as when the child leapt in Elizabeth’s womb on seeing Mary in Luke 1:41) or a newborn (as the child found in the manger in Luke 2:12). It is a young child or an infant in a literal or figurative sense.
X “long” = epipotheo. 9x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + potheo (to yearn). This is to long for, greatly desire, or strain towards. It can also imply doting or a desire to possess something or someone, whether legitimately or wrongfully.
XI “pure” = adolos. Related to “guile” in v1. 1x in NT. From a (not, without) + dolos (see note IV above). This is not caught in a trap, without trickery or guile, no deceitful. Figuratively, guileless, genuine, unadulterated, or pure.

spiritualXII milk, so that by it you may growXIII into salvationXIV— 

Notes on verse 2b

XII “spiritual” = logikos. 2x in NT. From logos (word, statement, speech, analogy; a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying; a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words; by implication, a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive; can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ); from lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is reasonable or rational. It can refer to a word or mean thoughtful. Figuratively, this is logical or spiritual as contrasted with literal. Logic, here, seen as divine reason.
XIII “grow” = auxano. From auksano (to grow or enlarge, whether literal or figurative). This is growing whether in size or mature or greatness or some other metric.
XIV “salvation” = soteria. From soter (a savior, deliverer); from sozo (to save, heal, preserve, or rescue; taking someone from danger to safety; delivering or protecting literally or figuratively); from sos (safe, rescued, well). This is deliverance, salvation, preservation, welfare, prosperity, safety.

if indeed you have tastedXV that the LordXVI is good.XVII ComeXVIII to him, a livingXIX stone,XX

Notes on verses 3-4a

XV “tasted” = geuomai. 15x in NT. This is to taste, which implies eating. It can be used figuratively to mean experience, whether positively or negatively.
XVI “Lord” = Kurios. From kuros (authority, supremacy). This is a respectful address meaning master or sir. It refers to one who has control or power greater than one’s own. So, it was also applied to God and Jesus as Master or Lord.
XVII “good” = chrestos. 7x in NT. From chraomai (to use, make use of, give what is needed, act in a specific way, request). This is useful, good, well-fitted, benevolent, kind, gracious. It was also a name given to slaves in the ancient world.
XVIII “come” = proserchomai. From pros (for, at, towards) + erchomai (to come, go). This is to approach, draw near, come up to. It is also used figuratively to mean worship.
XIX “living” = zao. This is to live literally or figuratively. It is used for life including the vitality of humans, plants, and animals – it is life physical and spiritual and life everlasting.
XX “stone” = lithos. This is stone in a literal or figurative sense.

thoughXXI rejectedXXII by mortalsXXIII

Notes on verse 4b

XXI {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
XXII “rejected” = apodokimazo. 9x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + dokimazo (to test, examine, prove; to approve after subjecting to a test to determine if it is real or acceptable; to test in a literal or figurative sense); {from dokimos (what passes the test, approved, acceptable, genuine, verified); from dechomai (to warmly receive, be ready for what is offered, take, accept, or welcome; to receive in a literal or figurative sense) or dokeo (to have an opinion, seem, appear, suppose; a personal judgment; to think); {from dokos (opinion)}}. This is rejected or disqualified following a test. It is rejected after rigorous investigation and so seen as useless or unworthy.
XXIII “mortals” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face); {from optanomai (to appear, be seen); perhaps from horao (become, seem, appear)}. This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.

yet chosenXXIV and preciousXXV in God’sXXVI sight, and 

Notes on verse 4c

XXIV “chosen” = eklektos. From eklego (to choose, select, elect); {from ek (from, from out of) + lego (to speak, tell, mention)}. This is to select or choose. It is making a personal choice – a favorite.
XXV “precious” = entimos. 5x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + time (worth or something’s perceived value; literally, price, but figuratively, the honor or value one sees in someone or something else; also esteem or dignity; also precious or valuables); {from tino (to pay, be punished, pay a penalty or fine because of a crime); from tio (to pay respect, value)}. This is held in honor so valued, precious, distinguished, or dear.
XXVI “God’s” = Theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

like living stones let yourselves be builtXXVII into a spiritualXXVIII house,XXIX

Notes on verse 5a

XXVII “built” = oikodomeo. From oikos (house – the building, the household, the family, descendants; the temple) + domeo (to build). This is to build a house or be a house builder. Figuratively, it can mean to edify or encourage, be strong or embolden.
XXVIII “spiritual” = pneumatikos. From pneuma (wind, breath, or ghost; a breeze or blast of air, a breath; figuratively, a spirit, the human soul or the part of us that is rational; also angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit); from pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is spiritual, spiritual people, or spiritual things – that which is ethereal or divine or religious.
XXIX “house” = oikos. Related to “built” in v5. See note XXVII above.

to be a holyXXX priesthood,XXXI to offerXXXII spiritualXXXIII sacrificesXXXIV

Notes on verse 5b

XXX “holy” = hagios. From hagnos (holy, sacred, pure ethically, ritually, or ceremonially; prepared for worship, chaste, unadulterated, pure to the core; undefiled by sin; figurative for innocent, modest, perfect). God is totally different from humanity and thus set apart. That which is consecrated to worship God (elements of worship) or to serve God (as the saints) are holy because they are now set apart for God’s purposes. Holy because important to God. This is sacred physically, pure. It can be morally blameless or ceremonially consecrated.
XXXI “priesthood” = hierateuma. 2x in NT – both in 1 Peter 2. From hierateuo (to minister as a priest); from hiereus (a priest literal or figurative – of any faith); from hieros (sacred, something sacred, temple, holy, set apart; something consecrated to God or a god). This is priesthood, in practice or as a position.
XXXII “offer” = anaphero. 10x in NT. From ana (up, back, among, again, anew) + phero (to bear, bring, lead, make known publicly; to carry in a literal or figurative sense). This is to carry or lead up as to a goal or particular destination. It can also be used for offering a sacrifice.
XXXIII “spiritual” = pneumatikos. Same as “spiritual” in v5. See note XXVIII above.
XXXIV “sacrifices” = thusia. From thuo (to breathe violently, seethe, rage; properly, to rush as breathing heavy; so smoke as in offering an animal sacrifice by fire; by extension, killing or slaying in general). This is a sacrifice or offering. It can refer to the act of sacrifice or the thig being sacrificed. Also, this is sacrifice in a literal or figurative sense.

acceptableXXXV to God through JesusXXXVI Christ.XXXVII 

For it standsXXXVIII in scripture:XXXIX

Notes on verses 5c-6a

XXXV “acceptable” = euprosdektos. Perhaps related to “rejected” in v4. 5x in NT. From eu (good, well, well done, rightly) + prosdechomai (to welcome, await, accept; to receive personally; to expect with confidence or patience); {from pros (at, to, toward, with) + dechomai (see note XXII above)}. This is welcome, pleasing, approved, or favorable.
XXXVI “Jesus” = Iesous. From Hebrew Yehoshua (Joshua, the Lord is salvation); {from YHVH (proper name of the God of Israel; the self-existent and eternal one); {from havah (to become) or from hayah (to come to pass, become, be)} + yasha (to deliver, defend, help, preserve, rescue; properly, to be open, wide or free, which implies being safe. So, in a causative sense, this is to free someone)}. This is Jesus or Joshua in Greek – the Lord saves or the Lord is salvation.
XXXVII “Christ” = Christos. From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
XXXVIII “stands” = periecho. 2x in NT. From peri (all-around, encompassing, excess) + echo (to have, hold, possess). This is to surround, encompass, contain, or seize.
XXXIX “scripture” = graphe. From grapho (to write). This is literally writing, a document. In the New Testament, this is always used for scripture.

“See,XL I am layingXLI in ZionXLII a stone,
    a cornerstoneXLIII chosen and precious,
and whoever believesXLIV in him will not be put to shame.”XLV

Notes on verse 6b

XL “see” = idou. From eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate). This is see! Lo! Behold! Look! Used to express surprise and or draw attention to the statement.
XLI “laying” = tithemi. Related to “rid” in v1. See note I above.
XLII “Zion” = Sion. 7x in NT. From Hebrew tsiyyon (Zion – a mountain in Jerusalem as well as another name for Jerusalem itself or the people); related to tsyiyyun (signpost, monument); from tsavah (to charge someone, to command, order); from the same as tsiyyah (dryness drought); from a root meaning parched as desert, dry land. This is Zion – the mountain in Jerusalem, the city, or its people. Also used figuratively to refer to the church.
XLIII “cornerstone” = akrogoniaios. 2x in NT. From akron (end, tip, uttermost); {from ake (point, edge)} + gonia (angle, corner; figuratively, a secret place); {from gonu (knee, foot)}. This is corner or cornerstone.
XLIV “believes” = pisteuo. From pistis (faith, faithfulness, belief, trust, confidence; to be persuaded or come to trust); from peitho (to have confidence, urge, be persuaded, agree, assure, believe, have confidence, trust). This is to believe, entrust, have faith it, affirm, have confidence in. This is less to do with a series of beliefs or doctrines that one believes and more to do with faithfulness, loyalty, and fidelity. It is trusting and then acting based on that trust.
XLV “put to shame” = kataischuno. 13x in NT. From kata (down, against, according to, among) + aischunomai (to dishonor, put to shame, shrink, disfigure); {from aischos (shame, disgrace, disfigurement)}. This is literally to shame down, which is to say disgrace or implying make someone blush. It can be frustrate, dishonor, confound or shame.

This honor,XLVI then, is for you who believe, but for those who do not believe,XLVII

“The stone that the buildersXLVIII rejected
    has becomeXLIX the very headL of the corner,”LI

Notes on verse 7

XLVI “honor” = time. Related to “precious” in v4. See note XXV above.
XLVII “not believe” = apisteo. Related to “believes” in v6. 8x in NT. From apistos (unbelieving, incredulous, faithless; someone who rejects faith); {from a (not, without) + pistos (faithful, trustworthy, reliable, sure, or true; a fullness of faith); {from peitho (see note XLIV above)}}. This is to intentionally disbelieve, prove false. It can be one who has never believed or a believer who goes astray.
XLVIII “builders” = oikodomeo. Same as “built” in v5. See note XXVII above.
XLIX “become” = ginomai. Related to “newborn” in v2. See note VIII above.
L “head” = kephale. This is head or chief. It can be a literal head or, figuratively, a ruler or lord. It can also refer to a corner stone. This is where the word “cephalic” comes from.
LI “corner” = gonia. Related to “cornerstone” in v6. 9x in NT. See note XLIII above.


“A stone that makes them stumbleLII
    and a rockLIII that makes them fall.”LIV

Notes on verse 8a

LII “stumble” = proskomma. 6x in NT. From proskopto (to kick against, stumble, strike, beat on, surge against like water does, or take offense; to trip up in a literal or figurative sense); {from pros (at, towards, for) + kopto (to cut, strike, cut off; beating the chest to lament and so to mourn)}. This is stumbling, obstacle, or something that causes one to stumble. It can also figuratively be a moral embarrassment or something that leads one to fall from faithfulness.
LIII “rock” = petra. 15x in NT. This is large rock that is connected and or projecting like a rock, ledge, or cliff. It can also be cave or stony ground.
LIV “fall” = skandalon. 15x in NT. Perhaps from kampto (to bend or bow). This is a stumbling block, offense, hindrance, or scandal. Properly, this is the part of the trap that triggers it shut on the victim. So, as a snare, it is anything that causes error or offense, something that makes one stumble or traps someone. This is where the word “scandal” comes from.

They stumbleLV because they disobeyLVI the word,LVII as they were destined to do.LVIII

But you are a chosen people,LIX a royalLX priesthood, a holy nation,LXI

Notes on verses 8b-9a

LV “stumble” = proskopto. Related to “stumble” in v8. 8x in NT. See note LII above.
LVI “disobey” = apeitheo. Related to “believes” in v6 & “not believe” in v7. 14x in NT. From apeithes (unbelieving, disobedient, spiritually rebellious); {from a (not, without) + peitho (see note XLIV above)}. This is to disobey or rebel. It refers to those who refuse to be convinced of something – willful disbelief.
LVII “word” = logos. Related to “spiritual” in v1 & “chosen” in v4. See note XII above.
LVIII “destined to do” = tithemi. Same as “laying” in v6. See note XLI above.
LIX “people” = genos. Related to “newborn” in v2 & “become” in v7. See note VIII above.
LX “royal” = basileios. 2x in NT. From basileus (king, emperor, sovereign); probably from basis (step, hence foot; a pace); from baino (to walk, to go). This is royal, palace, kingly, regal.
LXI “nation” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.

God’s ownLXII people,LXIII in order that you may proclaimLXIV the excellenceLXV of him

Notes on verse 9b

LXII “own” = peripoiesis. 5x in NT. From peripoieo (to acquire, earn, preserve, make one’s own); {from peri (about, concerning, all around, encompassing) + poieo (to make, do, construct, cause)}. This is acquisition, possession, preservation.
LXIII “people” = laos. This is the people or crowd – often used for the chosen people. This is where the word “laity” comes from.
LXIV “proclaim” = exaggello. 2x in NT. From ek (from, from out of) + aggello (to announce, report) {from aggelos (angel, messenger – supernatural or human envoy of God); probably from ago (lead, bring, drive, carry, guide, go)}. This is to proclaim fully and publicly, to publish or celebrate.
LXV “excellence” = arete. Perhaps related to “newborn” in v2. 5x in NT. Perhaps from the same as arrhen (male or man); from arsen (male or man) or from airo (see note VIII above). Properly, this is manliness. It is used to refer to virtue, valor, excellence, uprightness, gracious acts, or praise. It could be intrinsic or ascribed.

who calledLXVI you out of darknessLXVII into his marvelousLXVIII light.LXIX

Notes on verse 9c

LXVI “called” = kaleo. Related to keleuo (to command, order, direct); from kelomai (to urge on). This is to call by name, invite, to name, bid, summon, call aloud.
LXVII “darkness” = skotos. Perhaps from the base of skia (shadow, thick darkness, outline; figurative for a spiritual situation that is good or bad). This is darkness literal or figurative – as moral or spiritual darkness, sin and what comes from it. This can also mean obscurity.
LXVIII “marvelous” = thaumazo. From thauma (a wonder or marvel; used abstractly for wonderment or amazement; something that evokes emotional astonishment); may be from theaomai (to behold, look upon, see, contemplate, visit); from thaomai (to gaze at a spectacle; to look at or contemplate as a spectator; to interpret something in efforts to grasp its significance). This is to marvel, wonder, or admire. To be amazed out of one’s senses or be awestruck. Being astonished and starting to contemplate what was beheld. This root is where the word “theatre” comes from.
LXIX “light” = phos. From phao (to shine or make visible, especially with rays of light); from the same as phaino (to bring light, cause to appear, shine, become visible or clear). This is light, a source of light, fire, or radiance. This is light with specific reference to what it reveals. It is luminousness whether natural or artificial, abstract or concrete, literal or figurative.

19 For it is a commendable thingLXX if, being awareLXXI of God, a person enduresLXXII

Notes on verse 19a

LXX “commendable thing” = charis. From chairo (to rejoice, be glad; used to say hello; properly, delighting in the grace of God or experiencing God’s favor); from char– (to extend favor, lean towards, be inclined to be favorable towards). This is grace, kindness, favor, gratitude, thanks. It is the sense of being inclined to or favorable towards – leaning towards someone to share some good or benefit. This can be literal, figurative, or spiritual. It is grace as abstract concept, manner, or action.
LXXI “aware” = suneidesis. Related to “see” in v6. From suneidon (to see together and so know, realize, consider, be conscious of); {from sun (with, together with) + eidon (shape, appearance, kind; something observable; form in a literal or figurative sense); from eido (see note XL above)}. This is properly to know together. The conscience, found in all, is a moral and spiritual capacity granted by God so that we can understand together what is good and right.
LXXII “endures” = hupophero. Related to “offer” in v5. 3x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + phero (see note XXXII above). This is to endure or suffer – to bear up under. It could be carried as the current or a river. It could also be carried away from danger.

painLXXIII while sufferingLXXIV unjustly.LXXV 

Notes on verse 19b

LXXIII “pain” = lupe. 16x in NT. This is pain, whether physical or mental. It includes grief, sorrow, distress, or a heavy heart.
LXXIV “suffering” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
LXXV “unjustly” = adikos. 1x in NT. From adikos (unjust, unrighteous, wicked, or treacherous); {from a (not, without) + dike (the principle of justice; that which is right in a way that is very clear; a decision or the execution of that decision; originally, this word was for custom or usage; evolved to include the process of law, judicial hearing, execution of sentence, penalty, and even vengeance; more commonly, it refers to what is right); {may be from deiknumi (to show, point out, exhibit; figurative for teach, demonstrate, make known)}}. This is unjustly or undeservedly.

20 If you endureLXXVI when you are beatenLXXVII for doing wrong,LXXVIII what creditLXXIX is that? But if you endure when you do goodLXXX and suffer for it, this is a commendable thing before God. 

Notes on verse 20

LXXVI “endure” = hupomeno. 17x in NT. From hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + meno (to stay, remain, wait, await, continue, abide). This is properly to remain behind or remain under. It implies endurance, patience, steadfastness, enduring trials, and waiting in hope.
LXXVII “beaten” = kolaphizo. 5x in NT. From kolaphos (to hit with a fist); from the base of kolazo (to punish, particularly to punish slaves so that they are restricted or chastised); from kolos (docked). This is to punch – literally to hit with knuckles. It can also more generally mean violent mistreatment.
LXXVIII “doing wrong” = hamartano. From a (not) + meros (a part or share, portion); {from meiromai (to get one’s allotment or portion)}. This term also used of archers not hitting their targets. Literally, it means not getting your share or to miss the mark. Figuratively, it meant to do wrong or to sin.
LXXIX “credit” = kleos. Related to “called” in v9. 1x in NT. From kleo (to celebrate) OR from kaleo (see note LXVI above). This is fame, glory, report, credit, or praise.
LXXX “do good” = agatheopoieo. Related to “own” in v9. 10x in NT. From agathopoios (a do-gooder or virtuous person; someone who does intrinsically good things); {from agathos (good, a benefit, or a good thing; good by its very nature, inherently good) + poieo (see note LXII above)}. This is to do good or to do right.

21 For to this you have been called, because Christ also suffered for you, leavingLXXXI you an example,LXXXII so that you should followLXXXIII in his steps.LXXXIV

Notes on verse 21

LXXXI “leaving” = hupolimpano. 1x in NT. From hupoleipo (to leave remaining); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + leipo (to leave behind, remain, lack, abandon, fall behind while racing)}. This is to bequeath or leave behind.
LXXXII “example” = hupogrammos. Related to “scripture” in v6. 1x in NT. From hupographo (to sketch or draw an outline); {from hupo (by, under, about, subordinate to) + grapho (see note XXXIX above)}. This is an example or pattern = it is a writing that is copied or imitated.
LXXXIII “follow” = epakoloutheo. 4x in NT. From epi (on, upon, against, what is fitting) + akoloutheo (to accompany or follow someone, especially the way a disciple does); {from a (with, fellowship, union) + keleuthos (road, way)}. This is to follow after, accompany, imitate, or pursue. It can also denote a studious follower or disciple who is devoted and behaves in a way that is morally consistent with the teachings of the leader.
LXXXIV “steps” = ichnos. 3x in NT. Perhaps from ikneomai (to arrive). This is a track or footstep. Figuratively, it is giving an example for others.

22 “He committedLXXXV no sin,LXXXVI
    and no deceitLXXXVII was foundLXXXVIII in his mouth.”LXXXIX

Notes on verse 22

LXXXV “committed” = poieo. Related to “own” in v9 & “do good” in v20. See note LXII above.
LXXXVI “sin” = hamartia. Related to “doing wrong” in v20. From hamartano (see note LXXVIII above). Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.
LXXXVII “deceit” = dolos. Same as “guile” in v1. See note IV above.
LXXXVIII “found” = heurisko. This is to find, learn, or obtain. It is to discover something, which generally implies a period of searching for it. This is to find in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “heuristic” comes from.
LXXXIX “mouth” = stoma. Perhaps from tomoteros (sharp, keener); from temno (to cut). This is mouth, speech, language, the tip of a sword, an opening in the ground.

23 When he was abused,XC he did not return abuse;XCI when he suffered, he did not threaten,XCII

Notes on verse 23a

XC “abused” = loidoreo. 4x in NT. From loidoros (abusive, reproach, reviler; harming someone else’s reputation with abusive words); perhaps from loidos (mischief). This is to abuse or revile – insulting someone to their face in a demoralizing or humiliating way.
XCI “return abuse” = antiloidoreo. Related to “abused” in v23. 1x in NT. From anti (opposite, instead of, against) + loidoreo (see note XC above). To give abuse for abuse, to reproach, denigrate, make abusive insults.
XCII “threaten” = apeile. 2x in NT. Perhaps from apeileo (to threaten, warn). This is to threaten or menace. It implies forbidding.

but he entrustedXCIII himself to the one who judgesXCIV justly.XCV 

Notes on verse 23b

XCIII “entrusted” = paradidomi. From para (from beside, by) + didomi (give, offer, place, bestow, deliver; give in a literal or figurative sense). This is literally to hand over – hence to deliver, abandon, or betray. It implies a personal involvement.
XCIV “judges” = krino. Related to “insincerity” in v1. See note V above.
XCV “justly” = dikaios. Related to “unjustly” in v19. 5x in NT. From dikaios (correct, righteous, just, or a righteous person; implies innocent or conforming to God’s standard of justice); from dike (see note LXXV above). This is righteously, uprightly, or equitably. It can also refer to something being as it ought.

24 He himself boreXCVI our sins in his bodyXCVII on the cross,XCVIII so that, having diedXCIX to sins,

Notes on verse 24a

XCVI “bore” = anaphero. Same as “offer” in v5. See note XXXII above.
XCVII “body” = soma. Related to “salvation” in v2. Perhaps from sozo (see note XIV above). This is body or flesh. It can be body in a literal or figurative sense (as the body of Christ). This is where the word “somatic” comes from.
XCVIII “cross” = xulon. This refers to things made of wood such as a tree trunk, club, staff, or cross. It can also refer to timber used as fuel for a fire.
XCIX “died” = apoginomai. Related to “newborn” in v2 & “become” in v7 & “people” in v9. 1x in NT. From apo (from, away from) + ginomai (see note VIII above). This is being away from, removed, or absent. Figuratively, this can mean to renounce or to die.

we might live for righteousness;C by his woundsCI you have been healed.CII 

Notes on verse 24b

C “righteousness” = dikaiosune. Related to “unjustly” in v19 & “justly” in v23. From dikaios (see note XCV above). This is judicial or divine approval of character or action. This is righteousness, justice, justness, divine righteousness.
CI “wounds” = molops. Related to “mortals” in v4. 1x in NT.  Perhaps from molos (hard work, turmoil, spot, defilement) + ops (see note XXIII above). This is a wound or bruise that follows being scourged. It could also be a mole or a black eye.
CII “healed” = iaomai. This is to heal, particularly from a physical illness, but it could also be a spiritual difficulty. This is to cure or make whole in a literal or figurative sense.

25 For you were going astrayCIII like sheep,CIV but now you have returnedCV

Notes on verse 25a

CIII “going astray” = planao. From plane (wandering – used figuratively for deceit, error, sin, fraudulence, or wandering from orthodoxy); from planos (wandering, misleading, a deceiver or imposter). This is to wander, lead astray, mislead, mistake, seduce, or deceive. Generally used to refer to sin – going off the right path or roaming from truth/virtue. This word shares a root with “planet” (as a heavenly body that wanders).
CIV “sheep” = probaton. Related to “royal” in v9. Probably from probaino (to go forward literally or to advance in years); {from pro (before, ahead, earlier than, above) + the same as basis (see note LX above)}. This is literally easily led and so a sheep or another grazing animal. Also use figuratively of people who are led easily.
CV “returned” = epistrepho. From epi (on, upon, among, what is fitting) + strepho (to turn, change, turn back, be converted; to turn around completely to take the opposite path or a completely different one); {from trope (turning, shifting, a revolution; figuratively, a variation); from trepo (to turn)}. This is to turn, return, or come again. It can also mean to revert. It is turning in a literal or figurative sense – also a moral turning.

to the shepherdCVI and guardianCVII of your souls.CVIII

Notes on verse 25b

CVI “shepherd” = poimen. 18x in NT. This is shepherd or pastor – one who protects. It is also used figuratively to mean ruler.
CVII “guardian” = episkopos. 5x in NT. From epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + skopos (a mark or goal like the marker at the end of a race; figuratively, other goals or destinations; also, a watch or sentry); {from skeptomai (to peer out, consider, gaze carefully)}. This is an overseer, supervisor, guardian, or ruler. It is a civic title and also one used in the church – a bishop. It is where the word “episcopal” comes from.
CVIII “souls” = psuche. From psucho (to breathe, blow). This is breath, the breath of life, the self, individual, soul. This is the word for that which makes a person unique – their identity, will, personality, affections. This isn’t the soul as the immortal part of us, but as our individuality. It is also not life as a general concept, but specific to people. This is where the words psyche and psychology come from.

Image credit: “Afghanite, pyrite, calcite sous UVL” – photo by Parent Géry, 2012.

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