1 Peter 4:1-8

1 Peter 4:1-8
Holy Saturday ABC


1 Since therefore ChristA sufferedB in the flesh,C armD yourselves also with the same intentionE (for whoever has suffered in the flesh has finishedF with sin),G 

Notes on verse 1

A “Christ” = christos.From chrio (consecrate by anointing with oil; often done for prophets, priests, or kings). Literally, the anointed one, Christ. The Greek word for Messiah.
B “suffered” = pascho. Akin to penthos (mourning, sorrow). This is to be acted on for good or ill. It is often used for negative treatment. Properly, it means feeling strong emotions – especially suffering. It can also be the ability to feel suffering.
C “flesh” = sarx. May be from saroo (to sweep, cleanse by sweeping); from sairo (to brush off). This is flesh, the body, human nature, materiality, kindred. Flesh is not always evil in scripture (as when it refers to Jesus taking on a human body). However, it is generally used in a negative way for actions made selfishly and not through faith. This can mean animal flesh, i.e. meat, or refer to body in contrast to soul/spirit. Flesh can be a way of talking about how things or people are related or talking about human frailty (physical or moral).
D “arm” = hoplizo.1x in NT.  From hoplon (a tool or implement; armor or weapons in a literal or figurative sense); perhaps from hepo (to be busy). This is to equip, arm, or make ready.
E “intention” = ennoia. 2x in NT. From en (in, on, at, by, with) + nous (mind, understanding, reasoning faculty, intellect, capacity to reflect); {from noos (mind); probably from the base as ginosko (to know, recognize, realize, perceive, learn; gaining knowledge through personal experience)}.This is something a person thinks about, consideration, intention, purpose, a settled opinion or attitude, or moral understanding.
F “finished” = pauo. 15x in NT. To stop, refrain, pause, restrain, quit, or come to an end.
G “sin” = hamartia. From hamartano (to miss the mark, do wrong, make a mistake, sin); {from a (not) + meros (a part or share)}. Literally, this means not having one’s share or portion – like not receiving inheritance or what was allotted to you. This word means missing the mark so it is used for guilt, fault, and acts of sin.

2 so as to liveH for the rest of your earthlyI lifeJ no longer by humanK desiresL but by the willM of God.N 

Notes on verse 2

H “live” = bioo. 1x in NT. From bios (life, livelihood, wealth, one’s manner of life). This is to live, spend the time of one’s life.
I “earthly” = sarx. Same as “flesh” in v1. See note C above.
J “life” = chronos. Time in the chronological sense, quantitative time or a duration of time.
K “human” = anthropos. Probably from aner (man, male, husband) + ops (eye, face). This is human, humankind. Used for all genders.
L “desires” = epithumia. From epithmueo (long for, set one’s heart on, yearn, desire); {from epi (on, upon, at, what is fitting) + thumos (passion, wrath; actions emerging from passion or impulse) {from thuo (to rush along, breathe violently, offer sacrifice)}}. This is desire, a longing built on passionate emotion or urges. This can be a positive or a negative passion (lust or eagerness).
M “will” = thelema. From thelo (to desire, wise, will, intend). This is the act of will, choice, purpose, or decree.
N “God” = theos. From Proto-Indo-European origins, meaning do, put, place. This is God or a god in general.

3 You have already spent enough timeO in doingP what the GentilesQ likeR to do,

Notes on verse 3a

O “time” = chronos. Same as “life” in v2. See note J above.
P “doing” = katergazomai. From kata (down, against, throughout, among, daily) + ergazomai (to work, labor); {from ergon (word, task, action, employment)}. This is working something until it is completed, working fully, accomplishing, producing, achieving, performing.
Q “Gentiles” = ethnos. Probably from etho (a custom or culture). This is people who are united by having similar customs or culture. Generally, it is used to refer to Gentiles. This is a tribe, race, nation, or Gentiles in general. This is where the term “ethnicity” comes from.
R “like” = boulema. 3x in NT. From boulomai (to wish, desire, intend; to plan with great determination). This is a purpose, plan, will, counsel, or intention.

livingS in licentiousness,T passions,U drunkenness,V revels,W carousing,X and lawlessY idolatry.Z 

Notes on verse 3b

S “living” = poreuomai. From poros (ford, passageway). This is to go, travel, journey, or die. It refers to transporting things from one place to another and focuses on the personal significance of the destination.
T “licentiousness” = aselgeia. 10x in NT. From aselges (brutal) OR from a (not) + selges (temperate). This is wantonness, shocking behavior, wanton violence, acting in an unrestrained and capricious way.
U “passions” = epithumia. Same as “desires” in v2. See note L above.
V “drunkenness” = oinophlugia. 1x in NT. From oinos (wine in a literal or figurative sense) + the same as phularos (foolish talk, babbling; properly, what bubbles over like a boiling pot; a tatteler); {from phluo (to babble or boil over)}. This is wine overflowing so drunkenness or debauchery.
W “revels” = komos. 3x in NT. From kome (a village as contrasted with a city that has a wall); perhaps from keimai (to lie, recline, be placed, lie outstretched, be appointed). This was originally a festival in a village that involved drinking, carousing, and letting loose.
X “carousing” = potos. 1x in NT. From pino (to drink literally or figuratively). This is a drinking party or banquet.
Y “lawless” = athemitos. 2x in NT. From a (not) + themitos (righteous) or themis (custom, acceptable behavior, statute); {from tithemi (to place, lay, set, establish)}. This is illegal, criminal, behavior contrary to custom.
Z “idolatry” = eidololatria. 4x in NT. From eidolon (image, idol, worship or an idol); {from eidos (form, shape, sight, appearance); from eido (to be aware, see, know, remember, appreciate)} + latreia (service, divine worship, ministering to God); {from latreuo (giving good, technical service because qualified or equipped to do so; to serve, minister, worship, or give homage); from latris (a hired servant; someone who is qualified to perform a technical task)}. This is worship of an image or idol in a literal or figurative sense. This is where the word “idolatry” comes from.

4 They are surprisedAA that you no longer joinBB them in the same excessesCC of dissipation,DD and so they blaspheme.EE But they will have to give an accountingFF to him who stands ready to judgeGG the living and the dead. 

Notes on verses 4-5

AA “surprised” = xenizo. 10x in NT. From xenos (foreign or foreigner, an alien or guest; also something new, novel, or strange). This is to receive as a guest or act as a host – to give or receive lodging. It could also be surprise, bewilder, or entertain. Also, it can be to think something it strange.
BB “join” = suntrecho. 3x in NT. From sun (with, together with) + trecho (to run like an athlete in a race, to progress; to run in a literal or figurative sense; expresses strong desire to achieve a goal as soon as possible). This is to run with or rush headlong together in a literal or figurative sense.
CC “excesses” = anachusis. 1x in NT. From anacheo (to pour out); {from ana (up, back, among, anew) + cheo (to pour)}. This is overflow, outpouring, excess, license.
DD “dissipation” = asotia. 3x in NT. From a (not) + sozo (to save, heal, rescue from danger; make whole); {from sos (safe, rescued, well)}. This is what cannot be saved, wastefulness, excess, or profligacy. The excess itself as well as its consequences.
EE “blaspheme” = blasphemeo. From blasphemos (blasphemer, reviler, reviling; speaking slander or evil); {from perhaps blapto (to harm or to hinder) + pheme (saying, news, rumor, fame) {from phemi (to say, declare, speak comparatively through contrasts, bring to light); from phao (to shine)}}. This is to slander, malign, hurl abuse, speak against, blaspheme, or defame. It is speaking evil or abusive language – not acknowledging what is good or worth reverence/respect.
FF “accounting” = logos. From lego (to speak, tell, mention). This is word, statement, speech, analogy. It is a word that carries an idea or expresses a thought, a saying. It could refer to a person with a message or reasoning laid out in words. By implication, this could be a topic, line of reasoning, or a motive. It can be used for a divine utterance or as Word – Christ.
GG “judge” = krino. To judge, decide, think good, condemn, determine, pass judgment, stand trial, sue. This is judging whether it is done in court or in a private setting. Properly, it refers to mentally separating or distinguishing an issue – to come to a choice or decision, to judge positively or negatively in seeking what is right or wrong, who is innocent or guilty. It can imply trying, condemning, punishing, or avenging.

For this is the reason the gospel was proclaimedHH even to the dead, so that, though they had been judgedII in the flesh as everyone is judged, they might live in the spiritJJ as God does.

Notes on verse 6

HH “gospel was proclaimed” = euaggelizo. From eu (well, good, rightly) + aggelos (angel, messenger; a messenger from God bringing news – whether a prophet or an angel) {from aggellos (to bring tidings); probably from ago (to bring, lead, carry, guide)}. This is evangelize – literally to preach the good news. It can be those who hear the news, the news, or a way to say gospel.
II {untranslated} = men. This is truly, indeed, even, in fact. Often, it is not translated, but used to emphasize affirmation.
JJ “spirit” = pneuma. From pneo (to blow, breath, breathe hard). This is wind, breath, or ghost. A breeze or a blast or air, a breath. Figuratively used for a spirit, the human soul or part of us that is rational. It is also used supernaturally for angels, demons, God, and the Holy Spirit. This is where pneumonia comes from.

7 The endKK of all things is near;LL therefore be seriousMM and disciplineNN yourselves for the sake of your prayers. 8 Above all, maintain constantOO lovePP for one another, for love coversQQ a multitude of sins. 

Notes on verses 7-8

KK “end” = telos. From tel– (to reach a goal or aim); This is an end, aim, purpose, completion, goal, consummation, or tax. It is completing a stage of something and everything that results from that completion. It can be literal or figurative.
LL “is near” = eggizo. From eggus (nearby or near in time). This is extremely close by – approaching, at hand, immediately imminent.
MM “be serious” = sophroneo. Related to “dissipation” in v4. 6x in NT. From sophron (self-controlled, temperate, modest; doing what is prudent because it strikes the appropriate, personally specific balance); {from the same as sozo (see note DD above)} + phren (diaphragm, heart, intellect, understanding; figurative for personal opinion or inner mindset; thought regulating action; sympathy, feelings, cognition); {perhaps from phrao (to rein in or curb)}. This is sober-minded, sensible, temperate, sane. Figuratively, it means moderate.
NN “discipline” = nepho. 6x in NT. To be sober in a literal sense. Also to be cam or vigilant, not subject to illusion or the influence of selfish greed or other sins. This is one who uses clear judgment and has their wits about them.
OO “constant” = ektenes. 1x in NT. From ekteino (to stretch out, reach, put hands on); {from ek (from, from out of) + teino (to stretch)}. This is fully stretched out i.e. taut. Figuratively, this is constant, fervent, intent, zealous.
PP “love” = agape. This is love, goodwill, benevolence. It is God’s divine love or human love that mirrors God’s love.
QQ “covers” = kalupto. 8x in NT. This is to cover, veil, or hide. Figuratively, this is to keep something secret. This is part of the root of “apocalypse.”

Image Credit: Mural of the Ascension from Bristol, England, 2003.

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